Nuove acquisizioni in materia di Ippologia New findings in equine practice Druento , 31 ottobre 2008. Mitochondrial DNA variability in four Italian donkey breeds (Equus asinus). M.C. Cozzi 1 , P. Valiati 1 , R. Cherchi 2 , M.G. Strillacci 1 , Slideshow 113671 by Roberta
Looking for Equidae? Find out information about Equidae. A family of perissodactyl mammals in the superfamily Equoidea, including the horses, zebras, and donkeys. a family of the order Perissodactyla. Explanation of Equidae
A new species of nematode, Cylicodontophorus reineckei, was collected from Burchells zebra, Equus burchelli antiquorum H. Smith, 1841, in both the Etosha National and Kruger National Parks and from mountain zebra, Equus zebra hartmannae Matschie, 1898, in the Namib Naukluft Park in South West Afrfca/Namibia. These nematodes have an external leaf-crown with longer elements than those of the internal leaf-crown and a well-developed dorsal gutter. The very well-developed oesophageal funnel is both wider and deeper than the buccal capsule ...
This zebra is named for Jules Grevy, a French president who received one from the king of Ethiopia as a gift in the 1880s. It is the largest of the wild equids. It is set apart from horses and asses, its two closest relatives, by its stripes and untamable wild nature.. Grevys zebras are often seen on the open plains with other grazing animals, such as wildebeest, ostrich and antelopes. They can sprint 40 mph.. Grevys zebras have long, narrow heads with large, round ears to give them a mule-like appearance. Their ears can be rotated to determine the location of sound. Grevys zebras have good eyesight with binocular vision in the front and can probably see in color.. Their sense of taste is also keen and can detect slight changes in the quality of their food. They spend about 60 percent of the day grazing and up to 80 percent when food becomes scarce.. The zebra stallions live alone within large territories of up to four square miles, in which they claim exclusive mating rights. They mark their ...
Bartlam-Brooks, H.L.A., Beck, P.S.A., Bohrer, G. and Harris, S. 2013. In search of greener pastures: Using satellite images to predict the effects of environmental change on zebra migration. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 118: 1427-1437.. Bartlam-Brooks, H.L.A., Bonyongo, M.C. and Harris, S. 2011. Will reconnecting ecosystems allow long-distance mammal migrations to resume? A case study of a zebra Equus burchelli migration in Botswana. Oryx 45: 210-216.. Bell, R. 1971. A grazing ecosystem in the Serengeti. Scientific American 225: 86-93.. Bennett, D.K. 1980. Stripes do not a zebra make. A cladistic analysis of Equus. Systematic Zoology 29: 272-287.. Ben-Shahar, R. and Coe, M.J. 1992. The relationships between soil factors, grass nutrients and the foraging behaviour of wildebeest and zebra. Oecologia 90: 422-428.. Berry, H.H. and Louw, G.N. 1982. Nutritional balance between grassland productivity and large herbivore demand in the Etosha National Park. Madoqua 13: ...
Cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) is an abnormal IgE-mediated reaction to cow milk proteins. Donkeys milk could be considered suitable for feeding young children affected by severe IgEmediated CMPA because its nutritional properties and composition are very close to human milk. Since donkeys milk is available during a limited range of months during the year, it may be useful to find better storage conditions for this product. This study investigated the effects of the lyophilization treatment on donkeys milk nutritional characteristics, and the results were compared with those obtained on fresh and frozen milk. Nutritional properties of lyophilized donkeys milk remained basically unchanged compared with fresh milk. Two different probiotic strains were added to lyophilized donkeys milk, and their viability was evaluated after milk reconstitution. The results obtained confirmed the possibility of producing a probiotic infant formula with beneficial properties using donkeys milk as raw material ...
Risk Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths among Indigenous Donkeys Equus asinus in Northeastern Nigeria. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The effect of age and sex on serum proteins in the Pega donkey (Equus asinus) | A.M. Girardi, C.Z.P. Toledo, P.C. Silva, L.C. Marques | Agricultural Journals
Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cows milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkeys milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkeys milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkeys milk on human nutrition. Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. The donkeys milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1) values, a high
The African wild ass (Equus africanus) is a species within the Equidae family that is thought to be that ancestor of the domestic donkey. This species resides in arid habitats in a range that includes the Horn of Africa, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Eritrea. This species hold four subspecies, including the Somali wild ass and the Nubian wild ass.. The African wild ass reaches an average body length of 6.6 feet, a height between 12.1 and 14.1 hands at the shoulders, and a weight between 510 and 610 pounds. Its fur is short and smooth and can vary from fawn to light grey in color, which fades into white on the legs and underbelly. All of the subspecies hold a thin, dark dorsal stripe. The Nubian wild ass holds a stripe along the shoulders and the Somali wild ass holds stripes on its lower legs, similar to those of zebras.. Because it lives in arid regions, the African wild ass is primarily active during the cooler hours of the morning and afternoon and rest in the shade of trees or rocks during the day. ...
Animal Daylight Equus Mammal: 20 assigned downloads, like Donkey Equus asinus asinus, Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria, Europe from stock-photos
Moelman, P. D. (2002). Equids. Zebras, Assess and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Chapter 4. Status and Action Plan for the Plains Zebra (Equus burchelli). Mace A. Hack, Rod East and Dan J Rubenstein. pp. 43-57 ...
The quagga was originally classified as a separate species, Equus quagga, in 1778. Over the next 50 years or so, many other zebras were described by naturalists and explorers. Because of the great variation in coat patterns (no two zebras are alike), taxonomists were left with a great number of described species, and no easy way to tell which of these were true species, which were subspecies, and which were simply natural variants. The quagga was the first extinct creature to have its DNA studied. Recent genetic research at the Smithsonian Institution has demonstrated that the quagga was in fact not a separate species at all, but diverged from the plains zebra, between 120,000 and 290,000 years ago, and suggests that it should be named Equus burchellii quagga. However, according to the rules of biological nomenclature, where there are two or more alternative names for a single species, the name first used takes priority. As the quagga was described about 30 years earlier than the Burchells ...
Der Hausesel (Equus asinus asinus) ist ein weltweit verbreitetes Haustier. - The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae or horse f.... Photo by Heidasch on Mostphotos.
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The name quagga is derived from the Khoikhoi word for zebra and is onomatopoeic, being said to resemble the quaggas call, variously transcribed as kwa-ha-ha,[5] kwahaah,[2] or oug-ga.[6] The name is still used colloquially for the plains zebra.[5] The quagga was originally classified as a distinct species, Equus quagga, in 1778 by Dutch naturalist Pieter Boddaert.[7] Traditionally, the quagga and the other plains and mountain zebras were placed in the subgenus Hippotigris.[8]. There has been much debate over the status of the quagga in relation to the plains zebra. It is poorly represented in the fossil record, and the identification of these fossils is uncertain, as they were collected at a time when the name quagga referred to all zebras.[5] Fossil skulls of Equus mauritanicus from Algeria have been claimed to show affinities with the quagga and the plains zebra, but they may be too badly damaged to allow definite conclusions to be drawn from them.[9] Quaggas have also been ...
Global Mycotoxin Reduction Strategies EFS13 - 13th European Fusarium Seminar dedicated to the Memory of Wally Marasas 10-14 may 2015 - Martina Franca (TA) - Italy
The study reported in this Research Communication was carried out to examine how parity and milking time affected donkey milk yield under a typical Ch
Stock video footage Plains Zebra (Equus quagga burchellii ) female with her tiny foal lactating. 00:00:10 4k. From $199. Royalty free. Download now on Pond5 |||
Photo/image Equus quagga borensis, Family: Equidae. Location Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safari, Djursland, Danmark. Photographer: JC Schou, Photoid 74578
Always known but forgotten for a while, donkey milk reappears as the star of cosmetics and promises great benefits and fantastic results. Donkey Milk (or assess Milk) is the closest mammal milk to human milk in biochemical composition. It contains Cassein, Albumin, Fat, Lactose, Salt and Water. Very rich in vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, D, C and E: Its very high vitamin C content it also slows down the ageing process), minerals and trace elements (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, zinc), biostimulines (immunoglobulins) and Glycerol alkyl. Thanks to its rich composition, it is an excellent moisturizer which is very effective as an anti-age treatment and essential fatty acids it contains anti-ageing, regenerative and healing properties.. ...
Below is an ever updating list of articles, documents, and research weve compiled on Donkey Milk. Please dont take our word for it, do your own research. This list is just a little head start. Anti Inflammatory & Immunological Properties of Donkey Milk
Cleopatra was not the only one who enjoyed the benefits of the donkey milk baths; historic records show that donkey milk was often used as a treatment to revitalize the skin.
This one goes out to all of the ladies who ever occupied 24 Bagwell Avenue. GOOD TIMES! Holla!***. I had the pleasure of sharing Jennys Mothers house on Bagwell Avenue with Jenny, Amy P., Corrie C., and Michele T. during my Junior and Senior years at State. It goes without saying that, for this reason, I have a lot of Jenny stories!. Those of you who I have since met through Jenny may not believe this, but while living together, Jenny and I actually were not very good friends. Our personalities clashed and I often found myself in the middle of a heated argument about the BellSouth bill or moldy rice in the steamer with Jenny spitting fire in my face! We pretty much agreed to disagree and call the other a bitch before heading to our rooms, but we did love like sisters and have shared more GOOD TIMES than bad.. The day Jenny won the Truman Scholarship; the lights in the Bell Tower were changed from white to red in her honor. I remember walking down Hillsborough Street for the Bell Tower with ...
Donkeys or asses, Equus africanus asinus, are domesticated members of the Equidae or horse family. The wild ancestor of the donkey is the African Wild Ass, E. africanus. Asses were first domesticated around 3000 BC,[3] or 4000 BC, probably in Egypt or Mesopotamia,[4] and have spread around the world. They continue to fill important roles in many places today. While domesticated species are increasing in numbers, the African wild ass and another relative, the Onager, are endangered. As beasts of burden and companions, asses and donkeys have worked together with humans for millennia.. ...
Martina Organics. Martina Organics is a luxury boutique artisan skincare range using certified 100% organic, pure and natural ingredients made in New Zealand.. Selected from both New Zealand and more exotic locales like Morocco, Japan, Africa and Israel, our botanical oils harness the power of plants that have been used by civilizations for hundreds of years.. All Martina Organics products use the finest pure, fresh and healthy ingredients. Our active ingredients dont just feel delicious on the skin without all the nasty synthetics, preservatives or chemicals, they are proven to heal, revitalize, protect and condition your skin. To make it even more simple, the range is unisex. The unassuming glass bottle has minimal labeling which is easily peeled off so the bottle can be re-used for something else.. Martina Organics - Its the simplicity of nature; its what your skin craves. Its all the things you want in a skincare regime.. Background and Philosophy. Martina is the name that Marta Maria ...
Donkeys generally take good care of themselves by using the feed efficiently for maintaining their own body, but perform even better when we take good care of them and feed them well. Donkeys that are well fed are generally healthier, more productive and cost less to maintain. Donkeys tough digestive system is somewhat less prone to colic than that of horses, and is able to break down near-inedible vegetation, extracting moisture from food very efficiently. A donkey in a good body condition is less susceptible to injuries and skin damages than a skinny donkey. A donkey eats very little and is able to work long hours. In return you must feed the donkey so that (s)he maintains the same body weight even in periods of hard work or/and being pregnant. It can use low quality, high fibrous feed and likes to graze and browse. They use protein very efficient and can do with low protein fodder. Jennies in late gestation and lactating jennies need more energy and protein for the growth of the foetes and ...
Keywords: nutrisystem; nutri system; nutrisystem com; nutrisystem.com; nutrisystems; nutri; nutra system; nutrasystem; nutrisystem diet; nutri systems.Is it Nutrisystem,Weight Watchers,Jenny Craig or other programs. Find out what diet Kirstie Alley,Anna Nicole Smith,Oprah Winfrey and Dan Marino are using. Do you want to lose weight?.. The average cost of the Nutrisystem is just $10 per day, but, you have to spend more than $15 for the Jenny Craig diet plan along with a membership fee of $50 and shipping cost.Jennycraig.com. For 30+ Years Jenny Craig Has Helped People Lose Weight.Best diet plans: Jenny Craig Vs Nutrisystem. Jenny Craig 3 Day Diet Day 1 Food Diary.Jenny Craig vs Nutrisystem Reviews of The Best Diets of 2012. Even 5 choose feeling lose 5 lip smacking eye review tortillas now: program first order picture lost days. Weight Loss Journal.I prefer a plant-based diet. I know its better to put meals together myself, but I need a jump-start with someone doing the work for me.Nutrisystem ...
The Zamorano-Leonés is a breed of large domestic donkey from the provinces of Zamora and León, in the autonomous community of Castilla y León, in north-western Spain. The name derives from those of the two provinces. Donkeys in the province of Zamora date back to at least the fifteenth century. The Zamorano donkey was exported to the New World, and was the first Spanish donkey to contribute to the evolution of the North American donkey. From the eighteenth century it appears also to have influenced the development of the French Baudet du Poitou breed. The Zamorano-Leonés received official recognition in 1940, but the genealogical herd book was not opened until 1998. As with other donkey breeds, the mechanisation of agriculture in the twentieth century led to a decline in numbers and a loss of genetic identity, until only a few breeders continued to raise pure-bred stock. From 1980 the breed was listed by the Ministerio de Agricultura, the Spanish ministry of agriculture, among those enjoying ...
The usual end to the summer last night: a spectacular thunderstorm. Lightning flashes every three seconds and torrential rain all night. It was like being in a ship in a storm here. Quite nice to put the gas fire on for the first time since March, and indeed a pullover! The rain continued into this…
In European Union legislation animals of the Equidae family are considered food-producing animals unless they are declared1 as not intended for slaughter for human consumption. Once declared as being not intended for slaughter, the status of the animal can never be changed again and the animal is excluded from entering the food chain forever.. In view of on-going discussions to consider all Equidae as companion animals - in other words to end the existing provision allowing horses to be considered as food producing animals - the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe is gravely concerned that such a development will carry great risk for the welfare of Equidae in Europe.. The removal of the option of slaughter for human consumption will create substantial euthanasia and disposal costs for owners at the end of the animals life and is likely to lead to animals being abandoned, neglected or being placed on international, long-distance transports to slaughter houses outside the EU. The termination ...
Although a complete devotee of donkeys, Jacks and Jennys alike, Mitchell came to them by chance. Thirty years ago a friend asked me to look after their donkey, a jenny, for three years while they accepted an overseas post. As part of the deal, I was allowed to have a foal from her. The jenny just wouldnt fall pregnant but in the end we finally had success with an Irish stud imported for the purpose, she explained.. Donkeys as Beasts of Burden. According to Mitchell, Donkeys live up to 40 years. They can be put in harness and used to cart firewood or other tasks around the farm. More recently theyve been used as ideal rest home animals with a particular compassion for those who are dying. They seem to know death is imminent and will nuzzle the patient. You see tears coming down the cheeks of old people who experience a donkeys compassion. We empty them out before we take them into the homes so there arent any messes to contend with.. How to Keep Donkeys Safe from Vandalism. Mitchell ...
Title:Anti-inflammatory and Anti-Allergic Properties of Donkey's and Goat's Milk. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Felicita Jirillo and Thea Magrone. Affiliation:University of Bari, Policlinico, Piazza G. Cesare, 11-70124, Bari, Italy.. Keywords:Allergy, cow, donkey, elderly, goat, microbiota, milk.. Abstract:Nowadays, donkeys and goats milk consumption has been reevaluated for its potential benefits to human health. For example, in infants with intolerance to cows milk, donkeys milk represents a good alternative due to its chemical characteristics similar to those of human milk. On the other hand, goats milk in virtue of its higher content in short chain, medium chain, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids than that of cows milk, is more digestible than the bovine counterpart. From an immunological point of view, donkeys milk is able to induce release of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines from normal human peripheral blood lymphomononuclear cells, thus maintaining a ...
Introduction - The normal eye microflora is composed of several species of fungi and bacteria. If the ocular defense barriers become weak, they can act as pathogens and cause infections. Therefore, characterization of conjunctival normal flora is essential in making diagnosis and treating eye infections. Bacterial and fungal flora of the normal eye has been reported for different mammals but few studies concerning donkeys are available. Aim - To evaluate the bacterial and fungal flora of healthy eyes of donkeys (Equus asinus) reared in three different Areas in Central Italy. Materials and methods - One hundred-fourteen mixed breed donkeys (93 females, 21 males) housed in Marche, Umbria and Lazio Region were included in the study and sampled on the ventral conjunctival fornix. Age ranged between 4 months and 16 years (mean: 7.3 years, SD ± 8.6). Animals were divided into three categories: foals: ≤ 1 year, n = 35; young: 1 , age ≤3 years, n = 9; and adult: ≥ 3 years, n = 70. Results and ...
Stock video footage Chapmans zebra (Equus quagga chapmanni) mouth. 00:00:46 4k. From $175. Royalty free. Download now on Pond5 |||
Steer buttermilk drop one pancake mix ICBINB days drop return connects just forced food month savings doubt 5 4 Nutrisystems, yummy.Similarities Between Jenny Craig vs Nutrisystem. Both these renowned weight loss plans offer pre-packaged and portion-controlled food. Its for that reason both diets prove to be ideal fo customer who dont have time cooking at home, or go shopping for groceries.I have tried Nutrisystem food before.and so has one of the administrators, and I also know people who have went on Jenny Craig. Here are some of the differences that I know of right off that may help you decide.Jenny Craigs food costs run about $14 per day, and there is an additional membership fee of at least $20 depending on the promotions offered and amount of weight to be lost.While Jenny Craig requires a signing up fee and offers regularly scheduled counseling sessions, Nutrisystem only involves the cost of the food and has free counselors available on request.. Jenny Craig vs Nutrisystem Reviews of ...
Equids are social animals, living in herds or bands. Horses, along with plains and mountain zebras, have permanent herds generally consisting of a single male and a band of females, with the remaining males forming small bachelor herds. The remaining species have temporary herds, lasting only a few months, which may be either single-sexed or mixed. In either case, there are clear hierarchies established among the individuals, usually with a dominant female controlling access to food and water resources and the lead male controlling mating opportunities.. Females, usually called mares in horses and zebras, or, in the case of asses and donkeys, jennys, usually bear a single foal, after a gestation period of approximately 11 months. Young equids are able to walk within an hour of birth, and are weaned after 4 to 13 months. (Animals living in the wild naturally wean foals at a later date than those under domestication.) Depending on species, living conditions and other factors, females in the wild ...
Worlds Most Expensive Cheese -Made from Donkey Milk! A cheese called pule will set you back £800... ...e farm in Zasavica, Serbia, where it is made from donkey milk .It is said to take 25 litres of fresh donkey milk to make a single kilogram of the cheese, which th... ...t with a deeper, richer taste.The farm also sells donkey milk... http://www.neatorama.com/neatolicious/2012/12/09/Worlds-Most-Expensive-Cheese-Made-from-Donkey-Milk/ ...
Donkey milk is antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and rich in vitamin C and lactic acid. How it can help with a bunch of skin issues, from eczema to acne.
Saletti, R., Muccilli, V., Cunsolo, V., Fontanini, D., Capocchi, A. and Foti, S. (2012), MS-based characterization of αs2-casein isoforms in donkeys milk. J. Mass Spectrom., 47: 1150-1159. doi: 10.1002/jms.3031 ...
Find out if the HOPE GIRL Ultra Moist Donkey Milk Cream is good for you! Read reviews, find its notable effects and ingredient list here! Learn more with Skincarisma
The NSCPA began investigating the donkey skin trade over five years ago when large numbers of unexplained donkey skins were found across multiple farms. The NSPCA is sure the skins were used to produce ejiao and that the rescued donkeys would have been killed for their hides. Meredith added: The manner in which donkey skins are obtained is gut-wrenching - starting from the way the animals are handled, transported, butchered and sometimes even skinned alive. Authorities from the SPCA found the donkeys, including several young foals, after intercepting a convoy of trucks heading from the Mooi River region in KwaZulu-Natal to the border with Lesotho - a country seeing an escalation in the illegal skin trade for the production of ejiao. The donkeys were suffering with severe infections as well as open wounds and some even had ears missing. Many of the animals were extremely thin with ribs showing through their hides. They were also infested with ticks. Officers from the South African Police ...
The Donkey Sanctuary is a UK based charity that funds and facilitates non-invasive research with the aim of improving donkey and mule health and welfare.
Because of a printing error on Maxinquaye, Martina Topley-Bird has often been referred to as Martine, an error the unpredictable, low-profile, and confusion-loving singer/songwriter didnt bother correcting. The woman Vibe referred to as the black Dietrich of Soul grew up in London and went to schools that were mostly white and middle class. Being the odd one out suited Martina just fine; in fact, it was an environment she thrived in. A chance meeting with Tricky led to a relationship, both romantic and musical. Martinas ethereal voice mixed well with Trickys gruff style, sounding like a siren calling listeners into a dark world. She played a large role on Trickys debut, Maxinquaye, along with the follow-ups Nearly God and Pre-Millennium Tension. The relationship eventually cooled down to platonic and Martina looked to strike out professionally on her own. She spent most of 2002 working on her debut, producing it herself with some help from Tricky and Alex McGowan. The appropriately named ...
As ruled by Opinion 2027 the scientific name of the Wild Horse can either be Equus ferus (as a species) or Equus ferus ferus (as a subspecies). It can not be Equus caballus ferus, as has erroneously been stated in Mammal Species of the World link: Equus caballus ferus (in error).. ...
I met Jenny Mannion back in 2008, when she started doing Reconnective Healing work, which I found to be very helpful. However, I was really blown away in 2010 when I had my Soul Profile reading with Jenny, when she became a Soul Realignment practitioner. After my first session, certain relationships that were toxic to me started ending, the business that I worked at for 5 years and felt stuck at sold, and my whole life seemed like it was shifting for the better, even though it felt rocky at times (as most transformations often do). I have had numerous sessions with Jenny over the years, and I must say that nothing compares to a session with her. Before jenny was doing the Soul Realignment work, I had gone to other practitioners, who not only did not know exactly what they were doing, but actually purposely left things in my Akashic Record that were detrimental to me, and on one occasion left me in a really bad state of hoplessness, this was designed so that I would keep coming back to them. In ...
Migrations of most animal taxa are declining as a result of anthropogenic pressures and land-use transformation. Here, we document and characterize a previously unknown multi-country migration of Burchells zebra Equus quagga that is the longest of all recorded large mammal migrations in Africa. Our data from eight adult female zebras collared on the border of Namibia and Botswana show that in December 2012 all individuals crossed the Chobe River and moved due south to Nxai Pan National Park in Botswana, where they spent a mean duration of 10 weeks before returning, less directly, to their dry season floodplain habitat. The same southward movements were also observed in December 2013. Nxai Pan appeared to have similar environmental conditions to several possible alternative wet season destinations that were closer to the dry season habitat on the Chobe River, and water availability, but not habitat or vegetation biomass, was associated with higher-use areas along the migratory pathway. These ...
D-Krefeld, Rhein, Niederrhein, Rheinland, Nordrhein-Westfalen, D-Krefeld-Bockum, Krefelder Zoo, Damara-Zebra, Equus quagga antiquorum, D-Krefeld, Rhine, Lower Rhine, Rhineland, North Rhine-Westphalia, D-Krefeld-Bockum, zoological garden Krefeld, Damara zebra, Equus quagga antiquorum *** Local Caption *** D-Krefeld, Rhine, Lower Rhine, Rhineland, North Rhine-Westphalia,...
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The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes1. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP)2, 3. Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43?kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalskis horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5?million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus4, 5. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2?Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the ...