Rabbit anti human prorenin IgG fraction, high titer - Polyclonal antibody (host rabbit) to human renin. Affinity purified by immobilized human prorenin.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the only APCs capable of initiating adaptive immune responses. The initiation of immune responses requires that DCs 1) internalize
A proenzyme (or zymogen) is an inactivate form of an enzyme (enzyme precursor) which requires a biochemical change in order to become active ...
References for Abcams Recombinant human Prorenin protein (ab93266). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Catalytic subunit of the PI3K complex that mediates formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; different complex forms are believed to play a role in multiple membrane trafficking pathways: PI3KC3-C1 is involved in initiation of autophagosomes and PI3KC3-C2 in maturation of autophagosomes and endocytosis. Involved in regulation of degradative endocytic trafficking and required for the abcission step in cytokinesis, probably in the context of PI3KC3-C2. Involved in the transport of lysosomal enzyme precursors to lysosomes. Required for transport from early to late endosomes (By similarity).
Kallikreins;Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental;Insulin;Hyperinsulinism;Kidney;Insulin, Isophane;Trypsin Inhibitors;Soybean Proteins;Enzyme Activation;Enzyme Precursors;Rats, Sprague-Dawley;Models, ...
Syk-dependent actin dynamics regulate endocytic trafficking and processing of antigens internalized through the B-cell receptor.: Antigen binding to the B-cell
progelatinase: MW 72 kDa; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 binds to stabilization site, thereby preventing autocatalytic activation & degradation but not gelatinolysis by the enzyme-inhibitor complex
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Buy PRO-MMP-9 purified protein-NP_004985.2 (MBS230188) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Purified Proteins. Application: ELISA (EIA), Functional Assays (FN)
A cell line that secretes substantial quantities of recombinant human prorenin was prepared by transfecting Chinese hamster ovary cells with a gene encoding preprorenin. The prorenin was purified to homogeneity and was found to have a single amino terminus, reflecting cleavage after a typical 23 amino acid signal sequence. The purified inactive prorenin was not a substrate for active renin and was not capable of self-activation. Prorenin could be converted to renin by addition of exogenous protease, and deglycosylation of the prorenin did not alter the sensitivity to protease activation. The enzymatic activity of deglycosylated renin was kinetically identical to that of the native protein. Multimilligram quantities of recombinant human renin and prorenin were purified, providing suitable material for studies directed toward greater understanding of the function of these proteins and for structural studies such as x-ray diffraction for use in design of renin inhibitors. ...
Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Precursors; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Tea; 11028-71-0 / Concanavalin A; 86-01-1 / Guanosine Triphosphate; 8R1V1STN48 / Catechin; BQM438CTEL / epigallocatechin gallate; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / progelatinase; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase ...
VPS34 plays a role in the transport of lysosomal enzyme precursors to lysosomes, and in endocytosis and vesicular trafficking, and has been strongly implicated as a regulator of autophagy, forming a multi-protein complex with the proautophagic tumor suppressors Beclin1Atg6, Bif-1, and UVRAG, in the initiation of autophagosome formation. Whether you are a seasoned Internet pro, or just starting printer server mac with your first website, our professional staff is here to assist you every step of the way. It looks like the kac driver of the monthly premium is the amount of the frame allowance offered by the plan. You should be able to have printer server mac certificate re-keyed for its new location. Do not post personal information. 0002). So, you will have 10 of the available hard drive space, 10 of the available RAM, 10 of the processor capability, etc. Foreign Currency Effects. Note that Vps16A mutant cells are marked by GFP in (A) and (B), whereas car or dor mutant cells can be recognized by ...
Taking as the starting point a recently suggested reaction scheme for zymogen activation involving intra- and intermolecular routes and the enzyme-zymogen complex, we carry out a complete analysis of the relative contribution of both routes in the process. This analysis suggests the definition of new dimensionless parameters allowing the elaboration, from the values of the rate constants and initial conditions, of the time course of the contribution of the two routes. The procedure mentioned above related to a concrete reaction scheme is extrapolated to any other model of autocatalytic zymogen activation involving intra- and intermolecular routes. Finally, we discuss the contribution of both of the activating routes in pepsinogen activation into pepsin using the values of the kinetic parameters given in the literature ...
Conner, G.E. (1989). „Isolation of procathepsin D from mature cathepsin D by pepstatin affinity chromatography. Autocatalytic proteolysis of the zymogen form of the enzyme". Biochem. J. 263: 601-604. PMID 2512908 ...
Assay Kits , MMP Assay Kits , Human MMP-7, Recombinant; Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP s) belong to a family of secreted or membrane-associated zinc endopeptidases capable of digesting extracellular matrix components. This recombinant human MMP-7, expressed as the pro-enzyme, becomes highly active when incubated with APMA. It can be used in FRET-based enzyme activity assay or served as positive control for Western blot, IP, and ELISA.
Heparanase is an endoglucuronidase that specifically degrades HS with the potential to release cytokines and growth factors from the ECM reservoir. This process facilitates the passage of cells through the ECM and basement membrane during tissue repair and vascular remodeling (22) . However, little is known about how the expression and function of heparanase is regulated under different physiological and pathological conditions. The heparanase protein is initially synthesized as a Mr 65,000 glycosylated pro-enzyme, which is subsequently cleaved by an unidentified protease to form an active heterodimeric protein consisting of noncovalently associated Mr 50,000 and 8,000 subunits (9 , 10) . Several studies have demonstrated that tumor cells exposed to hypoxia exhibit an increased ability to invade the ECM in vitro (15 , 23) , although a connection between hypoxia and heparanase-mediated invasion has not been reported.. As previously discussed, hypoxia has already been linked to metastatic invasion ...
In this study, we have shown that plasma levels of IL-18 are significantly elevated in patients with CTCL, thus extending the finding of a previously published small study to a large cohort of patients. Interestingly, there was no trend toward higher levels of IL-18 as the stage of CTCL increased. In parallel, caspase-1, which cleaves the biologically inactive precursor of IL-18 into a mature active protein, was also elevated in CTCL, and this elevation was again independent of stage. However, levels of IL-18 and caspase-1 were interdependent and tended to increase in parallel according to linear regression analysis. This observation is, to our knowledge, novel and has not been reported previously.. We next asked whether lesional skin might be the source of the elevated plasma levels of IL-18 and caspase-1. Quantitative PCR using mRNA taken from normal control skin revealed low but detectable levels of IL-18 and caspase-1 mRNA expression. This finding is consistent with previous studies showing ...
1DKI: Crystal structure of the zymogen form of the group A Streptococcus virulence factor SpeB: an integrin-binding cysteine protease.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase is insufficient for downstream signal transduction in B lymphocytes. AU - Hsueh, Robert C.. AU - Hammill, Adrienne M.. AU - Lee, Jamie A.. AU - Uhr, Jonathan W.. AU - Scheuermann, Richard H.. PY - 2002/12/6. Y1 - 2002/12/6. N2 - Background: Immature B lymphocytes and certain B cell lymphomas undergo apoptotic cell death following activation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal transduction pathway. Several biochemical changes occur in response to BCR engagement, including activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. Although Syk activation appears to be necessary for some downstream biochemical and cellular responses, the signaling events that precede Syk activation remain ill defined. In addition, the requirements for complete activation of the Syk-dependent signaling step remain to be elucidated. Results: A mutant form of Syk carrying a combination of a K395A substitution in the kinase domain and substitutions of three phenylalanines (3F) ...
Background The skeleton is the most common site of prostate cancer metastasis, which often results in osteoblastic lesions. type I receptor kinase or a pan TGF binding protein (BGERII) also decreased bone tumor growth and osteoblastic bone formation after seven weeks of treatment. Conclusions Our results for the first time indicate that blockade of TGF signaling in the PacMetUT1 model significantly inhibits osteoblastic bone formation and tumor incidence. Thus, TGF signaling pathway may be a viable target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer-induced bone metastasis. [10]. The expression of PTHrP in prostate cancer cells can also be induced by TGF, resulting in PTHrP-induced bone resorption [10, 11]. Contrary to this, TGF1 has also been shown to enhance the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), which inhibits osteoclasts, thereby regulating bone turnover [12, 13]. Thus, the UK-383367 UK-383367 part of TGF signaling in prostate malignancy caused bone tissue metastasis appears ill ...
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 forms a noncovalent complex with the precursor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (proMMP-2, progelatinase A) through interaction of the C-terminal domain of each molecule. We have isolated the proMMP-2-TIMP-2 complex from the medium of human uterine cervical fibroblasts and investigated the processes involved in its activation by 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA). The treatment of the complex with APMA-activated proMMP-2 by disrupting the Cys73-Zn2+ interaction of the zymogen. This is triggered by perturbation of the proMMP-2 molecule, but not by the reaction of the SH group of Cys73 with APMA. The activated proMMP-2 (proMMP-2*) formed a new complex with TIMP-2 by binding to the N-terminal inhibitory domain of the inhibitor without processing the propeptide. Thus the APMA-treated proMMP-2*-TIMP-2 complex exhibited no gelatinolytic activity. In the presence of a small amount of free MMP-2, however, proMMP-2* in the complex was converted into the 65 kDa MMP
Capital t lymphocytes are central to the induction and maintenance of the allergic inflammatory response with emphasis about the part of Compact disc4+ Capital t cells and their capability to make Th2 cytokines such while IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 (1). fresh asthma that BLT1-articulating effector memory space Compact disc8+ Capital t cells had been Vargatef a powerful resource of IL-13 and needed for the advancement of lung sensitive reactions (15). Furthermore, these Compact disc8+BLT1+ Capital t cells had been even more resistant to corticosteroids than Compact disc4+ Capital t cells and corticosteroids improved their service and effector function by upregulating BLT1 appearance through improved IL-2 receptor appearance (16). In asthmatics, the amounts of Compact disc8+BLT1+ Capital t cells had been improved in the cells and bronchoalveolar (BAL) liquid and amounts of Compact disc8+BLT1+ Capital t cells creating IL-13 related with reduced lung function (17,18). In serious asthmatics, assessment of ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Anticoagulants/pharmacology, Astacoidea/*physiology, Blood Proteins/drug effects/genetics/metabolism, Blotting; Northern, Catechol Oxidase/genetics/metabolism, Cell Adhesion Molecules/drug effects/genetics/metabolism, Cell Differentiation/drug effects/physiology, Cell Lineage, Comparative Study, Enzyme Precursors/genetics/metabolism, Flow Cytometry, Gene Expression, Hematopoiesis/*physiology, Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects/physiology, Hemocytes/cytology/drug effects/*physiology, Humans, In Situ Hybridization, Molecular Sequence Data, Neoplasm Proteins, Polysaccharides/pharmacology, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sequence Homology; Amino Acid, Transcription Factors/drug effects/genetics/metabolism, Transcription; Genetic, Up-Regulation ...
We studied the source of inactive renin in plasma by investigating the changes of active and inactive renin after bilateral nephrectomy in the rat. Active renin rapidly decreased after bilateral nephrectomy, with a half-life of approximately 15 minutes. Inactive renin, on the other hand, was 20.96 +/- 1.63 ng/ml/hr before nephrectomy and gradually increased to reach a peak at 20 hours after nephrectomy (193 +/- 62 ng/ml/hr). The molecular weight of active renin was approximately 40,000 and that of inactive renin was approximately 60,000 on a Sephacryl S-200 column. Inactive renin was separated from active renin by a Cibacron blue column, and the 0 time inactive renin eluted in the same fractions as the inactive renin from 20 hours after nephrectomy. The pH optimum of inactive renin in rat renin substrate was between 5.5 and 7.5, which differs from the optimal value of pepsin or cathepsin D. The increase of inactive renin in nephrectomized rats was not prevented by removal of the salivary glands, ...
Clone REA577 recognizes the pro-form of the mouse IL-1β antigen, a proinflammatory cytokine which is a member of the interleukin 1 family expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. IL-1β is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a different cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clone REA577 does not detect the active form of IL-1β. Additional information: Clone REA577 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Deutschland
Benes P., Vashishta A., Saraswat-Ohri S., Fusek M., Pospisilova S., Tichy B., Vetvicka V.: Effect of procathepsin D activation peptide on gene expression of breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett., 2005, E-pub Sep 13. IF 2,9382.
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Synonyms for autocatalytic in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for autocatalytic. 2 words related to autocatalysis: catalysis, contact action. What are synonyms for autocatalytic?
LOX-PP induction inhibits growth in soft agar, cell migration and tumor growth in vivo.A) A673/TR/empty, A673/TR/preLOX, A673/TR/LOX-PP and A673/TR/LOXenz cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - The activation pathway of procarboxypeptidase B from porcine pancreas: Participation of the active enzyme in the proteolytic processing. AU - Villegas, Virtudes. AU - Vendrell, Josep. AU - Avilés, Francesc X.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The activation process of porcine pancreatic procarboxypeptidase B (pro‐CPB) has been studied in detail by a number of complementary methodologies, and a description of the molecular events that lead to the generation of active carboxypeptidase B (CPB) has been deduced. The generated CPB participates in the degradation of its own activation segment by excising C‐terminal residues from fragments produced by tryptic proteolysis. The trimming action of CPB is, however, not essential for the release of a fully functional enzyme, in contrast to what was previously reported for porcine procarboxypeptidase A (pro‐CPA). In the model presented here, the activation process is solely dependent on the first tryptic cleavage, at the limit ...
... - This antibody only binds prorenin. It does not bind renin and blocks prorenin activation.
The Human Prorenin ELISA uses two highly specific antibodies to human prorenin receptor and can measure prorenin receptor protein in blood or urine
The Human Prorenin ELISA uses two highly specific antibodies to human prorenin receptor and can measure prorenin receptor protein in blood or urine
TY - JOUR. T1 - Active and Inactive Renin after SQ 14225 (Captopril) Administration. AU - Goto, Toshikazu. AU - Abe, Keishi. AU - Otsuka, Yoichi. AU - Itoh, Toru. AU - Imai, Yutaka. AU - Satoh, Makito. AU - Omata, Ken. AU - Yoshinaga, Kaoru. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - The changes of active and inactive renin in plasma after the oral administration of 25 mg or 50 mg of SQ 14225 (Captopril) were studied in 29 hypertensive patients. Inactive renin was calculated as plasma renin activity (PRA) after cold storage minus PRA before cold storage. The patients were divided into 2 groups, responders and non-responders, according to the response of active renin to Captopril. In 9 responders, the active renin increased markedly while the inactive renin decreased. On the other hand, in 20 non-responders, both renin activities increased only slightly. These results suggest that inactive renin may be converted in vivo to active renin by Captopril.. AB - The changes of active and inactive renin in ...
Journal of Signal Transduction is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles related to all aspects of signal transduction.
ProMMP1 has several activators including plasmin (Eeckhout & Vaes 1977, Werb et al. 1977, Santala et al. 1999), trypsin (Grant et al. 1987, Saunders et al. 2005), plasma kallikrein (Nagase et al. 1982, Saunders et al. 2005), chymase (Saarinen et al. 1994, Suzuki et al. 1995, Saunders et al. 2005), tryptase (Gruber et al. 1989, Suzuki et al. 1995, Saunders et al. 2005), neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G (Saunders et al. 2005) and trypsin-2 (Moilanen et al. 2003). Concanavalin A (ConA) was the first cellular treatment that yielded active MMPs in culture, inducing the cellular activation of MMP1 likely through MMP14 activity (Overall and Sodek 1990).Trypsin-like serine proteinases are believed to remove 34-36 residues from the N-terminus of the secreted pro-enzyme, equivalent to positions 53-55 of the UniProt cannonical sequence which includes a signal peptide. Removal of this region is sufficient to destabilize the Cys92-Zn2+ stabilizing bond (numbered according to the Uniprot canonical sequence, ...
Ren X, Cao C, Zhu L, Yoshida K, Kharbanda S, Weichselbaum R, Kufe D. Lyn tyrosine kinase inhibits nuclear export of the p53 tumor suppressor. . 2002 Nov-Dec; 1(6):703-8 ...
The Wnt-5a protein has been implicated in breast cancer metastasis by affecting DDR1-dependent adhesion and motility of breast tumor cells (6, 8). The activation of DDR1 requires Wnt-5a-mediated stimulation of Src non-receptor tyrosine kinases (8), and a well-known downstream signaling target of Src kinases is the tyrosine kinase Syk (9). This is intriguing, because Syk expression is associated with an increased risk of metastatic spread in human breast carcinomas (11, 12). In the present study, we found a covariation between Syk and Wnt-5a protein expressions in mammary cell lines. It is hard to directly correlate the presence of Wnt-5a and Syk with the reported tumorigenic and metastatic potential of the presently used cell lines due to variations in the properties of a distinct cell lines between different laboratories and the use of different animals models. However, it is interesting to note that the two cell lines that exhibit no or a low expression of Wnt-5a and lack of Syk expression ...
Acrosin is the major protease of mammalian spermatozoa. It is a serine protease of trypsin-like cleavage specificity, it is synthesized in a zymogen form, proacrosin and stored in the acrosome.
The spleen tyrosine kinase Syk was mainly studied in immunoreceptor-activated signaling in hematopoietic cells. We first demonstrated that Syk is also present in mammary epithelial cells and that its expression is lost in malignant breast cancer cells. Using mouse xenograft models injected with Syk-transfected cells we and others established that Syk acts as a tumor and metastasis suppressor. Moreover, clinical studies reveal a correlation between reduced Syk expression and a decreased survival and increased metastasis risk in breast cancer and other carcinomas. The main objective of our investigations is to unravel the mechanisms of the anti-oncogenic activity of Syk. For this, identification of its substrates and signaling pathways is crucial. A quantitative phospho-proteomic approach allowed to identify novel potential Syk substrates involved in intercellular adhesion and epithelial polarity, both characteristics of cell differentiation that are lost during tumor invasion and ...
5. Oh H, Ozkirimli E, Shah K, Harrison ML, Geahlen RL. Generation of an analog-sensitive Syk tyrosine kinase for the study of signaling dynamics from the B cell antigen receptor. J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 16;282(46):33760-8. Epub 2007 Oct 3. PubMed PMID: 17913708 ...
My primary research interest consists in identification of novel genes as a possible therapeutic targets in lymphomas. Im currently working with the Affymetrix GeneChip to perform global transcript analysis and genome-wide DNA profiling. In particular, I am studying the role of Syk tyrosine kinase in lymphomas. At the present time Im involved in understanding differences in gene expression in clinical trials ...
GP2 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of glycoprotein 2 (zymogen granule membrane) (GP2), transcript variant 2
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT-1-MMP), MMP-2, and its inhibitor in nephrogenesis. AU - Kanwar, Yashpal S.. AU - Ota, Kosuke. AU - Yang, Qiwei. AU - Wada, Jun. AU - Kashihara, Naoki. AU - Tian, Yufeng. AU - Wallner, Elisabeth I.. PY - 1999/12. Y1 - 1999/12. N2 - Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, their integrin receptors, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the ECM- degrading enzymes, are believed to be involved in various biological processes, including embryogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the role of membrane type MMP, MT-1-MMP, an activator pro-MMP-2, in metanephric development. Also, its relationship with MMP-2 and its inhibitor, TIMP-2, was studied. Since mRNAs of MT-1-MMP and MMP-2 are respectively expressed in the ureteric bud epithelia and mesenchyme, they are ideally suited for juxtacrine/paracrine interactions during renal development. Northern blot analyses revealed a single ~4.5-kb mRNA transcript of MT-1-MMP, and its ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the matrix metalloproteinase promatrilysin in coculture of prostate carcinoma cell lines. AU - Stratton, M. S.. AU - Sirvent, H.. AU - Udayakumar, T. S.. AU - Nagle, R. B.. AU - Bowden, G. T.. PY - 2001/8/22. Y1 - 2001/8/22. N2 - BACKGROUND. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in tumor progression. Matrilysin (MMP-7) has been shown to be upregulated in prostatic carcinomas and can increase the invasive capacity of DU-145 cells. Because of the heterogenous nature of prostatic tumors, we examined promatrilysin expression in cocultures containing two different prostatic carcinoma cell lines, DU-145 and LNCaP. METHODS. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses, promatrilysin expression was measured in DU-145/LNCaP cocultures and conditioned media cross-cultures. The effects of blocking IL-6 on promatrilysin expression were examined by pretreating conditioned media with IL-6 neutralizing antibody. RESULTS. A significant induction of promatrilysin ...
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