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IL-33 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases (7, 32). IL-33 induces IL-6 and IL-8 release in lung epithelial cells and macrophages, and increases lung endothelial permeability (7, 9). The biological effects of IL-33 are through interactions with its receptor ST2L. Therefore, understanding the regulation of cell surface expression of ST2L is important for limiting lung inflammation and injury. Ligand-induced receptor internalization and downregulation are crucial steps to control the magnitude and duration of extracellular signals in eukaryotes. Our previous studies demonstrated that ST2L is ubiquitinated and degraded in response to IL-33 in a GSK3β activation-dependent manner (5). In this study, we extend our understanding of ST2L downregulation by demonstrating a role for GSK3β in the regulation of ST2L receptor internalization. The current study indicates that FAK-activated GSK3β modulates ST2L ...
Brajendra K. Tripathi, View ORCID ProfileTiera Grant, Xiaolan Qian, Ming Zhou, Philipp Mertins, Dunrui Wang, Alex G. Papageorge, View ORCID ProfileSergey G. Tarasov, View ORCID ProfileKent W. Hunter, Steven A. Carr, View ORCID ProfileDouglas R. Lowy ...
Rabbit polyclonal BCKDH kinase antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to…
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Elevated levels of the sIL-6R have been associated with the pathology of several disease states. This implies that production of the sIL-6R is increased as part of the inflammatory response. However, little is known regarding the factors that might regulate sIL-6R generation. In this study, physiological concentrations of native CRP and biologically relevant CRP-derived peptides were found to stimulate sIL-6R production by human neutrophils. Release of this soluble receptor was rapidly induced after CRP treatment and occurred via shedding of the cognate IL-6R from the cell surface. C-reactive protein represents the first known endogenous activator of this process. The observation that release of sIL-6R is only partially prevented by the hydroxamic acid-based metalloprotease inhibitor TAPI is of particular interest, since IL-6R shedding in response to phorbol esters and ionomycin has been shown to be prevented by this agent ((12), (20)). Thus, in neutrophils, shedding of the IL-6R presumably ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human protein kinase C zeta antibody|/strong| recognizes the protein kinase C (PKC) zeta type also known as PKC2.|br||br|Protein kinase C zeta is a member of the PKC family of serin…
p42/microtubule-associated protein kinase (p42mapk) is activated by tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation, and its regulatory phosphorylation is likely to be important in signalling pathways involved in growth control, secretion, and differentiation. Here we show that treatment of quiescent 3T3 cells with diverse agonists results in the appearance of an activity capable of causing the in vitro phosphorylation of p42mapk on the regulatory tyrosine and to a lesser extent on the regulatory threonine, resulting in enzymatic activation of the p42mapk. This p42mapk-activating activity is capable of phosphorylating a kinase-defective p42mapk mutant, thus confirming its activity as a kinase. ...
Dive into the research topics of AMP-activated protein kinase activators can inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells by multiple mechanisms. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in inactivation of GHR-dependent signaling pathway is also imperative for understanding GH physiology. This is clearly illustrated in the case of hepatic GHR-JAK2-STAT5b activation where signal duration regulates gender differences in liver gene expression.38 Studies in primary hepatocytes and several cell lines have shown that GH-induced JAK2-STAT5b activation is transient, with maximal activation achieved within the first 30min of stimulation, followed by a period of inactivation. This period is characterized by an inability to achieve maximal JAK2-STAT5 activation by GH in the following 3-4h, unless GH is withdrawn from the media.39 As mentioned above, the male pattern of pituitary GH secretion in rats is episodic with peaks every 3-4h and no measurable trough levels. Consequently, intracellular activation of STAT5b is also episodic and periods with low GH circulating levels are required to achieve maximal activation of STAT5b. Female rats, ...
Absence of adequate regulation is a prerequisite for pathophysiological developments, like hypersensitivity reactions and cancer. Thus, comprehension of physiological reactions requires knowledge about their regulation. In previous years, we were able to work out the central role which is played by the inositol-5-phosphatase, SHIP1, in regulating appropriate mast cell (MC) responses. If SHIP1 is missing, MCs severely hyper-react in response to diverse stimuli, like allergens, growth factors, and bacterial constituents. So far, this cellular behavior was explained mainly by SHIP1s catalytic function. However, in addition to its catalytic domain SHIP1 possesses various structural possibilities to interact with other proteins (i. e. an adaptor function). To understand how SHIP1 is controlling the physiological activation of MCs and why SHIP1 deficiency is resulting in hyperreactivity of MCs, we will, in this proposed project, thoroughly analyze the structural characteristics of SHIP1 and correlate ...
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Activation results during learning (Day 1).A: JULIDE results. At Day 1, the hippocampus (HP) and the parietal associative cortex (PTLp) are the most activated r
Protein kinase C regulates the activity of a diverse group of cellular proteins including membrane ion channel proteins. Although protein kinase C and its substrate protein have been identified in both membrane and cytosolic fractions in the heart, the physiological role of this kinase in the regulation of cardiac function remains unknown. We examined the physiological role of protein kinase C by stimulating its activity with 12-deoxyphorbol 13 isobutyrate 20 acetate (DPBA) in human trabeculae carneae. This resulted in decreased peak isometric twitch force and peak intracellular sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release as detected with aequorin. Furthermore, in the presence of DPBA, steady-state force-[Ca2+] relations were shifted to higher intracellular calcium concentrations, and the Hill coefficient was reduced, indicating a decrease in responsiveness of the myofilaments to calcium and a change in cooperativity among thin filament proteins, respectively. Thus, DPBA affects not only ...
Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) are stimulated by cell damaging agents as well as by physiological receptor agonists. In this study we show that human platelets contain the isoforms SAPK2a, SAPK2b, SAPK3 and SAPK4 as determined by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. All four kinases were activated in thrombin-stimulated platelets whereas only SAPK2a and SAPK2b were significantly stimulated by collagen. All four isoforms were able to phosphorylate wild-type human cPLA2in vitro, although to different extents, but not cPLA2 mutants that had Ser505 replaced by alanine. Phosphorylation at Ser505 was confirmed by phosphopeptide mapping using microbore HPLC. SAPK2a and 42-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase incorporated similar levels of phosphate into cPLA2 relative to the ability of each kinase to stimulate phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. SAPK2b and SAPK4 incorporated less phosphate, and cPLA2 was a poor substrate for SAPK3. The inhibitor of SAPK2a and SAPK2b, SB 202190, ...
Maudsley S., Pierce K.L., Zamah A.M., Miller W.E., Ahn S., Daaka Y., Lefkowitz R.J., Luttrell L.M.. Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate MAP kinases by stimulating tyrosine kinase signaling cascades. In some systems, GPCRs stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation by inducing the transactivation of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). The mechanisms underlying GPCR-induced RTK transactivation have not been clearly defined. Here we report that GPCR activation mimics growth factor-mediated stimulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with respect to many facets of RTK function. beta(2)-Adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) stimulation of COS-7 cells induces EGFR dimerization, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and EGFR internalization. Coincident with EGFR transactivation, isoproterenol exposure induces the formation of a multireceptor complex containing both the beta(2)AR and the transactivated EGFR. beta(2)AR-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and subsequent beta(2)AR stimulation of ...
One of the key mediators of the antiviral and antiproliferative actions of interferon is double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). PKR activity is also involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and signal transduction. We have recently identified PACT, a novel protein activator of PKR, as an important modulator of PKR activity in cells in the absence of viral infection. PACT heterodimerizes with PKR and activates it by direct protein-protein interactions. Endogenous PACT acts as an activator of PKR in response to diverse stress signals, such as serum starvation and peroxide or arsenite treatment, and is therefore a novel, stress-modulated physiological activator of PKR. In this study, we have characterized the functional domains of PACT that are required for PKR activation. Our results have shown that, unlike the N-terminal conserved domains 1 and 2, the third conserved domain of PACT is dispensable for its binding of double-stranded RNA and inter action with PKR. ...
The data reported herein show the capacity of NSC 651016 to act as an inhibitor of CXCL12-mediated angiogenesis in a variety of in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. Furthermore, these data suggest the potential application of NSC 651016 as an antiangiogenic therapy because it blocked endothelial cell migration, capillary-like tube formation, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, NSC 651016 may have wider applications in cancer therapy. CXCL12 has been implicated in the proliferation of astrocytes (14) by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 but not p38 or stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways (14) , therefore, CXCL12 may have a direct role in pathological glial cell proliferation such as reactive gliosis and brain tumor formation. Thus, blockade of CXCL12 function by NSC 651016 may have direct therapeutic benefits for certain brain cancers, one of the most refractory tumor types known. Additionally, CXCL12 participates in cancer cell metastasis by ...
Cytokines may contribute to beta-cell apoptosis in the early stages of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It has been reported recently that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK1/2 in neonatal rat islets. Since these kinases may partici …
p,This chapter presents a general approach for the application of spatial intensity distribution analysis (SpIDA) to the pharmacodynamic quantification of receptor tyrosine kinase homodimerization in response to direct ligand activation or transactivation by G-protein-coupled receptors. Intensity histograms are generated from single fluorescence microscopy images. These histograms are then fit with Poissonian distributions to obtain density maps and quantal brightness values of the labeled proteins underlying the images. This approach allows resolving monomer/oligomer protein mixtures within subcellular compartments using conventional confocal laser scanning microscopy. The application of quantitative pharmacological analysis to data obtained using SpIDA provides a universal method for comparing studies between cell lines and receptor systems. In contrast to methods based on resonance energy transfer, SpIDA is suitable not only for use in recombinant systems but also for the characterization of ...
Concepts regarding the controls and consequences of PKD1-Ser738/Ser742 (activation loop) phosphorylation are based largely on early studies that used an anti-PKD1-Ser(P)738/Ser(P)742 PSSA (from Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA) and showed that PMA increases PKD1 activation loop phosphorylation in many cell types via a mechanism that requires nPKC isoform activity (PKCδ, PKCε, PKCη, and/or PKCθ). In vitro kinase assays showing direct phosphorylation of the PKD1 activation loop by certain nPKC isoforms also have been published (Brändlin et al., 2002). However, there is recent evidence that the Cell Signaling Technology anti-PKD1-Ser(P)738/Ser(P)742 PSSA primarily recognizes PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser738 and that PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser742 can be tracked with a different PSSA (commercially available from Abcam Inc., Cambridge, MA). Experiments that use a combined approach with these two PSSAs expose differences in the controls and consequences of PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser738 and ...
Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 3 also known as Spread-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPRED3 gene. Spread-3 is a member of the Sprouty (see SPRY1/SPRED) family of proteins that regulate growth factor-induced activation of the MAP kinase cascade. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000188766 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037239 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: sprouty-related. Nonami A, Kato R, Taniguchi K, Yoshiga D, Taketomi T, Fukuyama S, Harada M, Sasaki A, Yoshimura A (December 2004). Spred-1 negatively regulates interleukin-3-mediated ERK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in hematopoietic cells. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (50): 52543-51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M405189200. PMID 15465815. Kato R, Nonami A, Taketomi T, Wakioka T, Kuroiwa A, Matsuda Y, Yoshimura A (March 2003). Molecular cloning of mammalian Spred-3 which suppresses tyrosine ...
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Glycerol kinase antibody [N1N3-2] (glycerol kinase) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-Glycerol kinase pAb (GTX107474) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Many stimuli mediate activation and nuclear translocation of ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) by phosphorylation on the TEY (Thr-Glu-Tyr) motif. This is necessary to initiate transcriptional programmes controlling cellular responses, but the mechanisms that govern ERK nuclear targeting are unclear. Single-cell imaging approaches have done much to increase our understanding of input-output relationships in the ERK cascade, but few studies have addressed how the range of ERK phosphorylation responses observed in cell populations influences subcellular localization. Using automated microscopy to explore ERK regulation in single adherent cells, we find that nuclear localization responses increase in proportion to stimulus level, but not the level of TEY phosphorylation. This phosphorylation-unattributable nuclear localization response occurs in the presence of tyrosine phosphatase and protein synthesis inhibitors. It is also seen with a catalytically inactive ERK2-GFP (green fluorescent ...
It has been suggested that S100A8 acts as an endogenous activator of the immune response (6). S100A8 expression is strongly upregulated in various inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, vasculitis, and cancer (5). NAFLD has been increasingly recognized as an inflammatory disease as well as a metabolic disease (4). However, the involvement of S100A8 in the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains unclear. In the current study, we demonstrated that S100A8 expression was remarkably increased in the livers of HFHCD-fed mice that developed steatohepatitis. We also demonstrated that S100A8 protein was significantly more expressed in the liver tissues of patients with NASH than in those of patients with NAFL. These results suggested that S100A8 was associated with the development of NAFLD. Furthermore, we demonstrated that S100A8 was primarily produced in the myeloid lineage cell population, CD11b+Gr-1high cells in the liver leukocytes of both ND- and HFHCD-fed ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Shinichi Meguro, Noriko Osaki, Koji Onizawa, Noriyuki Yajima, Tadashi Hase, Noboru Matsuo, Ichiro Tokimitsu].
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In pyroptosis experiments, nigericin can be used as a positive control to generate a robust caspase-1 activation response in a variety of cell lines.
To demon selleckchem strate irrespective of whether ET 1 stimulates ERK1 two, p38 MAPK, and JNK1 2 phosphorylation via a G protein coupled ETB re ceptor cascade, pretreatment with BQ 788, GPA2, or GPA2A attenuated ET 1 stimulated ERK1 2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1 two phosphorylation through the period of observation. These results demonstrated that G protein coupled ETB dependent activation of ERK1 2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1 2 by ET 1 is, at the least in part, needed for COX two expression in bEnd. 3 cells. NFB is required for ET 1 induced COX two expression ET 1 has been shown to modulate cellular functions via activation of NFB signaling in a variety of cell sorts. To examine no matter whether activation of NFB is essential for ET 1 induced COX 2 expression, as shown in Figure 5A and B, pretreatment with a selective NFB inhibitor Bay11 7082, which blocks activation of NFB signaling, attenuated ET 1 induced COX 2 protein and mRNA expression in bEnd. three cells. To figure out whether or not the involvement ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selectivity of connexin 43 channels is regulated through protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation. AU - Ek-Vitorin, Jose F.. AU - King, Timothy J.. AU - Heyman, Nathanael S.. AU - Lampe, Paul D.. AU - Burt, Janis M.. PY - 2006/6. Y1 - 2006/6. N2 - Coordinated contractile activation of the heart and resistance to ischemic injury depend, in part, on the intercellular communication mediated by Cx43-composed gap junctions. The function of these junctions is regulated at multiple levels (assembly to degradation) through phosphorylation at specific sites in the carboxyl terminus (CT) of the Cx43 protein. We show here that the selective permeability of Cx43 junctions is regulated through protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation at serine 368 (S368). Selective permeability was measured in several Cx43-expressing cell lines as the rate constant for intercellular dye diffusion relative to junctional conductance. The selective permeability of Cx43 junctions under control ...
FIG. 1. LPS stimulation induces a p105-free pool of TPL-2 which activates MEK. BMDMs (BALB/c) were stimulated with LPS for the indicated times. (A) TPL-2 was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with anti-TPL-2 antibody, and its MEK kinase activity was determined by coupled MEK/ERK kinase assay. Labeled MBP substrate was visualized by autoradiography after SDS-PAGE, and the levels of immunoprecipitated TPL-2 were determined by Western blotting. Lysates were also subjected to Western blotting with an anti-phospho-(S217/S221)-MEK-1/2 antibody (phospho-MEK) to determine activation of endogenous MEK by LPS. (B) TPL-2 was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates. Beads were incubated with 0.5 U of PP2A, 0.5 U of PP2A plus the phosphatase inhibitors NaF and okadaic acid (PP2A + Inhibitors), or control buffer. Immunoprecipitated TPL-2 was revealed by Western blotting. (C) Cell lysates and anti-p105 immunoprecipitates were subjected to Western blotting. (D) Total cell lysates (lysates) and p105 cleared ...
Phorbol ester-sensitive EL4 murine thymoma cells respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate with activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, synthesis of interleukin-2, and death, whereas phorbol ester-resistant variants of this cell line do not exhibit these responses. Additional aspects of the resistant phenotype were examined, using a newly-established resistant cell line. Phorbol ester induced morphological changes, ERK activation, calcium-dependent activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), interleukin-2 synthesis, and growth inhibition in sensitive but not resistant cells. A series of protein kinase C activators caused membrane translocation of protein kinase Cs (PKCs) alpha, eta, and theta in both cell lines. While PKC eta was expressed at higher levels in sensitive than in resistant cells, overexpression of PKC eta did not restore phorbol ester-induced ERK activation to resistant cells. In sensitive cells, PKC activators had similar effects on cell viability and ERK ...
Cancer cells have different characteristics due to the genetic differences where these unique features may strongly influence the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Here, we show that the spontaneous reactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), distinct from conventional ERK activation, represents a potent mechanism for cancer cell survival. We studied ERK1/2 activation in vitro in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Although ERK signaling tends to be transiently activated, we observed the delayed reactivation of ERK1/2 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated SW480 cells. This effect was observed even after EGF withdrawal. While phosphorylated ERK1/2 translocated into the nucleus following its primary activation, it remained in the cytoplasm during late-phase activation. The inhibition of primary ERK1/2 activation or protein trafficking, blocked reactivation and concurrently increased caspase 3 activity. Our results suggest that the biphasic activation of ERK1/2 plays a ...
G-protein-coupled receptor agonists are powerful stimulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades in cardiac myocytes. However, little is known regarding the physiological activation of enzymes downstream of MAPKs. We examined the activation of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1), a downstream target of MAPKs, in adult rat cardiac myocytes by phenylephrine and endothelin-1. Both agonists induced the phosphorylation of MSK1 at Thr-581 and Ser-376 but not at Ser-360. Maximal phosphorylation was observed at 10-15min after stimulation and it correlated with increased activity. Maximal activation of MSK1 in adult cardiomyocytes temporally coincided with maximal p38 MAPK activation while activation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade was more rapid. Phosphorylation and activation of MSK1 was completely inhibited by either PD98059 (ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor) or SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) alone. These data demonstrate that MSK1 activation in ...
Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47(phox) is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47(phox) phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47(phox) protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47(phox) is critical for stabilizing its ...
H2O2 and oxygen-derived free radicals modulate vasodilator mechanisms.1 2 3 4 5 6 9 The present studies indicate that H2O2 enhances adenylyl cyclase activation and that the effect is dependent (in part) on the presence of iron and is blunted by agents that act to inhibit tyrosine kinase activity.. Our data suggest that the oxygen-derived species mediating the enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation is either H2O2 itself or the hydroxyl radical. Incubation of cells with xanthine oxidase and purine resulted in a qualitatively similar enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation. The effect of purine and xanthine oxidase was not blocked by coincubation with superoxide dismutase (which catalyzes the conversion from superoxide anion to H2O2). This suggests that the generation of the superoxide anion is not involved in the mechanism of enhancement of adenylyl cyclase activation. However, pretreatment with either catalase (which catalyzes conversion of H2O2 to water) or with deferoxamine (which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in pituitary αt3-1 cell line is mediated by protein kinase C, c-Src, and CDC42. AU - Levi, N. L.. AU - Hanoch, T.. AU - Benard, Outhiriaradjou. AU - Rozenblat, M.. AU - Harris, D.. AU - Reiss, N.. AU - Naor, Z.. AU - Seger, R.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The signaling of ligands operating via heterotrimeric G proteins is mediated by a complex network that involves sequential phosphorylation events. Signaling by the G protein-coupled receptor GnRH was shown to include elevation of Ca2+ and activation of phospholipases, protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In this study, GnRH was shown to activate Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK)/SAPK in αT3-1 cells in a PKC- and tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. GnRH as well as tumor-promoting agent (TPA) also increased c-Src activity, which peaked at 2 min after GnRH stimulation and was sensitive both to PKC and to tyrosine kinase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isoelectric focusing of brain adenylate cyclase. AU - Franks, Douglas J.. AU - Malamud, Daniel. PY - 1976/6. Y1 - 1976/6. N2 - Mouse brain adenylate cyclase has been solubilized with Lubrol PX and separated by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme activity has been measured with a sensitive assay isolating cyclic AMP from Dowex and alumina columns. The technique allows a one-step analysis of this membrane enzyme from a heterogeneous sample within 6 hr.. AB - Mouse brain adenylate cyclase has been solubilized with Lubrol PX and separated by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme activity has been measured with a sensitive assay isolating cyclic AMP from Dowex and alumina columns. The technique allows a one-step analysis of this membrane enzyme from a heterogeneous sample within 6 hr.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017121245&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of EGF receptor and Pyk2 in endothelin-1-induced ERK activation in rat cardiomyocytes. AU - Kodama, Hiroaki. AU - Fukuda, Keiichi. AU - Takahashi, Toshiyuki. AU - Sano, Motoaki. AU - Kato, Takahiro. AU - Tahara, Satoko. AU - Hakuno, Daihiko. AU - Sato, Toshihiko. AU - Manabe, Tomohiro. AU - Konishi, Fusako. AU - Ogawa, Satoshi. PY - 2002/2/1. Y1 - 2002/2/1. N2 - G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-evoked signal transduction pathways leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) are quite different among cell types. In cardiomyocytes, much attention has been focused on the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) or mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), however, the contributions of tyrosine kinases are controversial. In the present study, we characterized the signaling pathways involving tyrosine kinases, Pyk2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and their contribution to ERK activation in cultured cardiomyocytes. We initially ...
Global Markets Directs, Protein Kinase C Epsilon Type (nPKC Epsilon or PRKCE or EC 2.7.11.13) - Pipeline Review, provides in depth analysis on Protein Kinase C Epsilon Type (nPKC Epsilon or PRKCE or EC 2.7.11.13) targeted pipeline therapeutics.
Although accumulating evidence supports that JNK activation is involved in cancer development and progression [37, 38], the biological significance of JNK in gastric cancer remains unclear. The present study showed that constitutive activation of JNK was associated with specific clinicopathological factors, including pTNM stages, lymphatic invasion, and a better prognosis. We believe that this is the first report regarding the clinical implications of JNK in human gastric cancer. Furthermore, we found that JNK negatively regulates FOXO1 activation in gastric cancer cells. This finding contrasts with the results of the previous studies [22, 27-31], which showed JNK-induced activation of FOXO proteins in human cancer cells.. In the present study, JNK activation (evaluated by pJNK staining) was mainly observed in the proliferative zone of the gastric gland and in the areas showing intestinal metaplasia, which is known to be a predictor of gastric neoplasia [39], in the non-neoplastic gastric ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unique functions for protein kinase D1 and protein kinase D2 in mammalian cells. AU - Matthews, Sharon A.. AU - Navarro, Maria N.. AU - Sinclair, Linda V.. AU - Emslie, Elizabeth. AU - Feijoo-Carnero, Carmen. AU - Cantrell, Doreen A.. PY - 2010/11/15. Y1 - 2010/11/15. N2 - Mammalian PKD (protein kinase D) isoforms have been implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes in response to diacylglycerol and PKC (protein kinase C) signalling. To compare the functions of PKD1 and PKD2 in vivo, we generated mice deficient in either PKD1 or PKD2 enzymatic activity, via homozygous expression of PKD1(S744A/S7484) or PKD2(S707A/S711A) knockin alleles. We also examined PKD2-deficient mice generated using gene-trap technology. We demonstrate that, unlike PKD I, PKD2 catalytic activity is dispensable for normal embryogenesis. We also show that PKD2 is the major PKD isoform expressed in lymphoid tissues, but that PKD2 catalytic activity is not essential for the development of ...
We found that removal of Ca2+ and inhibition of PKC prevented high Pi-induced O2·− production (Figures 3A and 3B), indicating a role for mechanosensitive Ca2+ signaling and PKC-dependent pathways in high Pi-induced upregulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity. This idea is consistent with the findings that high Pi elicited significantly greater increases in smooth muscle [Ca2+]i than normal levels of Pi (Figure 4). The important role of Ca2+ signaling is also supported by the finding that administration of a Ca2+ ionophore resulted in significantly increased arterial O2·− production (Figure 3C). Further, pharmacological activation of PKC2 elicited substantial increases in arterial NAD(P)H oxidase-derived O2·− generation (Figure 3C). Because removal of Ca2+ during high-pressure treatment prevented endothelial dysfunction (Figure 1) and increases in O2·− production in high Pi-exposed arteries (Figure 3A) and phorbol ester-stimulated O2·− generation in normotensive arteries could also be ...
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What cellular and molecular properties of neurons in the T-SWR support a 45 min spacing interval for two-trial LTM? Studies of the patterning requirements for the induction of long-term facilitation (LTF) of the tail SN-motor neuron (MN) synapse parallel those for sensitization memory in the T-SWR (Mauelshagen et al., 1996, 1998). For example, four spaced (ISI of 15 min) pulses of exogenous 5-HT are required to induce LTF at tail SN-MN synapses (Mauelshagen et al., 1996). If 5-HT release within the CNS is a critical signaling event initiated by TS, an important experimental question is whether two spaced 5-HT pulses (ISI of 45 min) can induce LTF or whether additional 5-HT signaling (provided by additional pulses) is required.. The analysis of repeated trial learning in Aplysia has identified several critical molecular requirements for LTM induction downstream of 5-HT. These include the signaling kinases protein kinase A (PKA), MAPK, the transcription factor CREB1, and CRE-mediated transcription ...
The soil-dwelling nematode C. elegans is a powerful system for comparative molecular analyses of environmental stress response mechanisms. Infection of worms with bacterial and fungal pathogens causes the activation of well-characterized innate immune transcriptional programs in pathogen-exposed hypodermal and intestinal tissues. However, the pathophysiological events that drive such transcriptional responses are not understood. Here, we show that infection-activated transcriptional responses are, in large part, recapitulated by either physiological or genetic activation of the osmotic stress response. Microarray profiling of wild type worms exposed to non-lethal hypertonicity identified a suite of genes that were also regulated by infection. Expression profiles of five different osmotic stress resistant (osr) mutants under isotonic conditions reiterated the wild type transcriptional response to osmotic stress and also showed substantial similarity to infection-induced gene expression under isotonic
View mouse Mapkapk5 Chr5:121525038-121545905 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Protein Kinase C Theta Type (nPKC Theta or PRKCQ or EC 2.7.11.13) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-30 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described.[3] ...
MAPK3 [ENSP00000263025]. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1; Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK cascade. They participate also in a signaling cascade initiated by activated KIT and KITLG/SCF. Depending on the cellular context, the MAPK/ERK cascade mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. The MAPK/ERK cascade plays also a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. About 160 substrates have already been discovered for ERKs. Many of these substrates are localized in the nucleus, and seem to participate in the regulation of transcription upon stimulation. However, other substrates are ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Myosin light chain kinase antibody [EP1458Y] validated for WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat…
PubMed journal article Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2-mediated matriptase activation contributes to the suppression of prostate cancer cell motility and metastasi were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
|p|GF 109203X is a potent and selective inhibitor of protein kinase C [1].|/p||p| Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of serine and threon
Recent evidence suggests that hyperalgesia and morphine tolerance, two seemingly unrelated phenomena, have in common certain neural substrates such as activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the subsequent intracellular activation of protein kinase C and nitric oxide. Should commo …
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates non-redundant functions in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, including T-cells activation, proliferation, differentiation and survival, by mediating activation of multiple transcription factors such as NF-kappa-B, JUN, NFATC1 and NFATC2. In TCR-CD3/CD28-co-stimulated T-cells, is required for the activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN, which in turn are essential for IL2 production, and participates in the calcium-dependent NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11 on several serine residues, inducing CARD11 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. May also play an indirect role in activation of the non-canonical NF-kappa-B (NFKB2) pathway. In the signaling pathway leading to
Huntingtons disease (HD) is an inherited, progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by psychiatric, cognitive and motor symptoms. Among the pathways implicated in HD are those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and particularly the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Studies in both cells and animal models suggest that ERK activation might provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of HD but compounds that specifically activate ERK are few. To test the hypothesis that pharmaceutical activation of ERK might be protective for HD, a polyphenol, fisetin, which was previously shown to activate the Ras-ERK cascade, was tested in three different models of HD: PC12 cells expressing mutant Httex1 under the control of an inducible promoter, Drosophila expressing mutant Httex1 and the R6/2 mouse model of HD. The results indicate that fisetin can reduce the impact of mutant huntingtin in each of these disease models. ...
Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) on specific tyrosine and threonine sites by MAP kinase kinases (MAPKKs) is thought to be the sole activation mechanism. Here, we report an unexpected activation mechanism for p38α MAPK that does not involve the prototypic kinase cascade. Rather it depends on interaction of p38α with TAB1 [transforming growth factor-β-activated protein kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein 1] leading to autophosphorylation and activation of p38α. We detected formation of a TRAF6-TAB1-p38α complex and showed stimulus-specific TAB1-dependent and TAB1-independent p38α activation. These findings suggest that alternative activation pathways contribute to the biological responses of p38α to various stimuli. ...
Although transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is known to be a potent growth inhibitor of breast cancer cells (BCCs), the signaling mechanisms mediating TGF-β responses have not been defined. We have demonstrated previously that TGF-β can activate Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 in untransformed epithelial cells (K. M. Mulder and S. L. Morris, J. Biol. Chem., 267: 5029-5031, 1992; M. T. Hartsough and K. M. Mulder, J. Biol. Chem., 270: 7117-7124, 1995). We have also shown that TGF-β signaling is altered in epithelial cells when Ras activation is blocked (Hartsough et al., J. Biol. Chem., 271: 22368-22375). Here we demonstrate the ability of the TGF-β3 isoform to activate the signaling component ERK2 in TGF-β-sensitive BCCs but not in TGF-β-resistant cells. The ERK2 isoform was activated by 6-fold within 10 min of TGF-β3 addition to the TGF-β-sensitive BCC line Hs578T. Moreover, the IC50 for inhibition of DNA synthesis by TGF-β3 in this cell line correlated with ...
RAF activation and inhibition. A promising approach is to target the RAF protein, a crucial intermediary in cell signal transmission. Because of its preponderant role in tumor formation, pharmaceutical companies have invested considerable effort to identify molecules that inhibit RAF enzymatic activity. Although there has been some clinical success, it turns out that on the whole these inhibitors have the unfortunate habit of stimulating the growth of cancer cells instead of reducing it; a paradox that has puzzled an entire community of investigators and clinicians.. IRIC investigators recently discovered new elements to explain this paradox by showing how RAF activation requires three interconnected events involving RAF and RAS and how the drugs currently available unexpectedly stimulate some of those interactions. This new understanding at the molecular level results in being able to propose characteristics that the new generation of RAF inhibitors must possess to constitute effective cancer ...
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I certify that my interest in, and any purchase and use of, LC Laboratories products is only for laboratory research at a qualified research institution, and is not related to use by a private individual or patient, nor for veterinary use ...
I have started measuring in-situ Protein Kinase C activity in permeabilized cells grown in 96-well plates, based on a few references from the literature such as: Heasley L.E., J.Biol.Chem., 1989, 264, 8646. I always get high activity after stimulation with phorbol esters and very low activity after treatment with PKC inhibitors. The problem is that the activity in untreated cells is often almost as high as in stimulated cells. Any advice or protocol would be welcome. Thanks Bernard medbpl at emory.edu ...
Proteins are the most abundant biological cellular macromolcules and structurally characterized by being formed from a group of 20 precursor molecules, known as amino acids. The grouping and combination of these amino acids enable peptides, oligopeptides and polypetides to be formed, to construct larger structures, which are strictly speaking proteins.. Although up until now it was accepted that the majority of amino acids were in the form of L-stereoisomers, it has recently been demonstrated that D-aminoacids are also present in animals and human beings in high concentrations, and they perform specific biological functions. Two D-amino acids, namely D-serine and D-aspartate, are found in considerable concentrations in the central nervous system. D-serine has shown that it is relevant to the physiological activation of the NMDA (NMDAR) receptor, and all disorders associated with a modified function of the NMDAR, such as schizophrenia, ischemia, epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders. On the ...
Sluyter, R., Shemon, A. & Wiley, J. S. (2007). P2X7 receptor activation causes phosphatidylserine exposure in human erythrocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 355 169-173 ...
The Ka value of HNO3 is about 24. HNO3 is the chemical formula for strong nitric acid. The Ka value, also known as the acid dissociation equilibrium constant, is a measure of the acidity of a...
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It is a member of the 14-3-3 family which consists of 30kDa proteins that are involved in multiple protein kinase signaling pathways, regulation of…
MAPK continues to be proven to limit activation of MAPK 経路 LIMK, subsequent phosphorylation of cofilin, and migration of major human T cells in the three dimen
Obesity is caused by damage to stem cells from aging. This damage is caused at the level of the telomeres and is reversible by telomerase activation
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