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Plant breeders consistently come up against the phenomenon of the genotype x environment interaction (GxE) in the activities of breeding programs, especially in the phases of evaluating genotypes for recommendation to producers. These genotypes are thoroughly evaluated through more replications, crop years, locations, and crop seasons. Always with the purpose of obtaining a genotype with high yields, wide adaptability and high stability of performance (Barili et al. 2015Barili LD, Vale NM, Prado AL, Carneiro JES, Silva FF and Nascimento M (2015) Genotype-environment interaction in common bean cultivars with carioca grain cultivated in Brazil in the last 40 years. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 15: 244-250. ). When genotypes are evaluated in multi-environment tests, the need arises for studies on the GxE interaction.. Babić et al. (2010Babić V, Babić M, Ivanović M, Kraljević-Balalić M and Dimitrijević M (2010) Understanding and utilization of genotype-by-environment interaction in ...
Hedonic Pricing Method relates differences in property prices (house and land prices) to variables in the surrounding environment. The basic principle is that property prices are affected to some extent by the characteristics of a particular environment effect. The environment effect can then be given a price tag based on house prices. An environment effect can be seen as positive (proximity to a recreational area, nice view) or negative (water pollution, risk of flooding). It may be to do with differences in time (time series data: prices in 1970 compared to prices in 2005 related to a change in the environment effect). It is also possible to analyse differences between areas with the same type of property but with one important difference in environment variable (cross-section data: the same type of housing in comparable environments with and without the environment effect). ...
Re|shelter is a recently launched non-profit organisation aiming to address the urgent need for safe housing for people with environmental sensitivities, who experience mild to life-threatening physical reactions to extremely low levels of chemicals, mould, electrical fields, and other environmental factors and have great difficulty living in their conventionally built homes.
The Canadian Human Rights Commissions Policy on Environmental Sensitivities has been updated to add more on scent-free policies. Image description: Environmental sensitivity and scent-free policies text on a blue background to the left, with a photo of a dark haired woman resting her chin on her hand, while looking wistfully (towards the title text) out…
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How can 3D virtual plant help to better understand plant physiology and genotype-environment interactions?. In : CamBio 2006, Brisbane, Australia, 24-28th September ...
Autism is a developmental disability with age of onset in childhood (under 3 years old), which is characterized by definite impairments in social interactions, abnormalities in speech, and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Due to the progress of autism in recent decades, a wide range of studies have been done to identify the etiological factors of autism. It has been found that genetic and environmental factors are both involved in autism pathogenesis. Hence, in this review article, a set of environmental factors involved in the occurrence of autism has been collected, and finally, some practical recommendations for reduction of the risk of this devastating disease in children are represented.. ...
The CIWEM Republic of Ireland branchs evening lecture using Kerry Central Water Supply Scheme as a case study to show how to deliver critical infrastructure under environmental constraints given by Andrew Driver, contracts director at Glan Agua Ltd and Gavin Reilly, associate director at Nicholas ODwyer Ltd.
To increase tolerance to abiotic stresses in breeding programmes, typically families and collections of genotypes are evaluated in series of trials (environments) representing different levels of stress. The statistical analysis of the data from such trials concentrates on modelling the phenotypic behaviour of the genotypes across the set of environments. This phenotypic behaviour can be modelled in the form of genotype-specific linear and non-linear response curves in relation to environmental characterizations. Non-parallelism of the response curves indicates genotype × environment interaction. Identification of the genetic basis of the parameters determining the response curves will help in the development of breeding programmes for improving abiotic stress tolerance and understanding genotype × environment interaction. In this paper we present two strategies for locating quantitative trait loci for response-curve parameters and estimation of their allele effects. The procedures are ...
Genetic variation for environmental sensitivity indicates that animals are genetically different in their response to environmental factors. Environmental factors are either identifiable (e.g. temperature) and called macro-environmental or unknown and called micro-environmental. The objectives of this study were to develop a statistical method to estimate genetic parameters for macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities simultaneously, to investigate bias and precision of resulting estimates of genetic parameters and to develop and evaluate use of Akaikes information criterion using h-likelihood to select the best fitting model. We assumed that genetic variation in macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities is expressed as genetic variance in the slope of a linear reaction norm and environmental variance, respectively. A reaction norm model to estimate genetic variance for macro-environmental sensitivity was combined with a structural model for residual variance to estimate genetic variance for
An option into guide selection strategies in soybean breeding programs is to investigate associations between the main traits studied by breeders. A question that is faced is the possible influence of genotype x environment (GE) interactions on correlations among traits. Path analysis allows, in addition to measuring correlation, a more detailed study of cause / effect relationships among traits. We measured the effect of the GE interaction in the association between agronomic traits in soybeans. The experiments were carried out during two crop seasons, in three municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a randomized complete blocks design, with 35 treatments. We evaluated number of grains, number of pods (NP), number of grains per pod, grain yield, weight of 100 grains, lodging score, plant height, height of first pod insertion, and full maturity. The data were submitted to variance analysis and path analysis. We also calculated the sum of ranks index in three ways, considering different ...
It has been suggested that climate change will lead to increased environmental fluctuations, which will undoubtedly have evolutionary consequences for all biota. For instance, fluctuations can directly increase the risk of invasions of alien species into new areas, as these species have repeatedly been proposed to benefit from disturbances. At the same time increased environmental fluctuations may also select for better invaders. However, selection by fluctuations may also influence the resistance of communities to invasions, which has rarely been tested. We tested eco-evolutionary dynamics of invasion with bacterial clones, evolved either in constant or fluctuating temperatures, and conducted experimental invasions in both conditions. We found clear evidence that ecological fluctuations, as well as adaptation to fluctuations by both the invader and community, all affected invasions, but played different roles at different stages of invasion. Ecological fluctuations clearly promoted invasions,
We have investigated patterns of selection and local adaptation in soil bacteria sampled over the course of 2 years. Our leading results are: (i) most variation in fitness in our dataset is explained by differences among genotypes, in comparison with environments or genotype-by-environment interactions; (ii) though small, G × E variation is significant, even among genotypes that would otherwise be identified as identical through conventional sequence analysis, and sufficient to generate strong divergent selection among the most disparate environments; (iii) temporal adaptation can be substantial, especially relative to spatial variation, and more complex than we would expect from simple models of directional selection. Below we discuss these observations and what they mean for understanding how selection works in natural communities of microbes.. The main effect of genotype contributed close to 70% of the variation in fitness in our experiment, dwarfing that contributed by the average effect of ...
AbstractUnderstanding the relative influence of various abiotic and biotic variables on diversification dynamics is a major goal of macroevolutionary studies. Recently, phylogenetic approaches have been developed that make it possible to estimate the role of various environmental variables on divers
Were interested in genetics of natural variation, population genetics and molecular biology. We want to know how climate change is shaping plants resistance and tolerance traits under a combined multidisciplinary approach. Our lab undertakes a research approach that looks for the genetic and molecular basis of naturally occurring quantitative variation in biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these interact with the environment (genotype-by-environment interactions). This multidisciplinary approach will allow a better understanding of the natural evolution of stress pathways in plants and efficient know-how transfer to practical applications ...
Were interested in plant genetics, population genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry. We want to know how climate change is shaping plants resistance and tolerance traits under a combined multidisciplinary approach. Our lab undertakes a research approach that looks for the genetic and molecular basis of quantitative variation in biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these interact with the environment (genotype-by-environment interactions). This multidisciplinary approach will allow a better understanding of the natural evolution of stress pathways in plants and efficient know-how transfer to practical applications ...
Organisms adapt readily to regularly varying environments, for instance, by adjusting to the daily light cycles by using internal circadian clocks. Real problems arise when environmental fluctuations are irregular. Organisms can adapt to sudden changes in chemical composition, local temperature, or illumination by sensing the changes and responding appropriately, for example, by switching phenotype or behavior. But there is a cost: each individual must maintain active sensory machinery.. Population diversity offers an alternate way to adapt to randomly fluctuating environments. Different subsets of the total population may be well-adapted to different types of environments. In genetically clonal populations, phenotypic diversity is generated by stochastic phenotype-switching mechanisms (1-9). Examples include flagellin phase variation in Salmonella enterica (6); microsatellite length variation (slipped-strand mispairing), controlling the expression of contingency genes in Haemophilus influenzae ...
Studies of animals often report a greater sensitivity of one sex to poor rearing environments. However, it is unclear whether size differences associated with sex, sex itself, or other factors are responsible for differences in performance. While the greater nutritional requirement of the larger sex is a plausible explanation for increased sensitivity (i.e., size-dependent vulnerability), other hypotheses suggest that size-independent traits may have effects on the fitness of offspring (i.e., sex-dependent vulnerability). For example, the heterogametic sex may be more vulnerable to expression of sex-linked recessives in poor environments, or sex-specific phenotypes may have negative effects (e.g., increased testosterone in males). We examined support for these hypotheses through the use of meta-analytic techniques based on the published literature on avian species. Our results revealed small, nonsignificant effects for hypotheses of size- and sex-dependent susceptibilities alone. Application of a
Environmental Effects on the Enhancement in Natural and Damaged DNA Nucleobase Acidity Because of Discrete Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions
An enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology is to understand how individuals and populations adapt to fluctuating environments. Here we present an integro-differential model of adaptive dynamics in a phenotype-structured population whose fitness landscape evolves in time due to periodic environmental oscillations. The analytical tractability of our model allows for a systematic investigation of the relative contributions of heritable variations in gene expression, environmental changes and natural selection as drivers of phenotypic adaptation. We show that environmental fluctuations can induce the population to enter an unstable and fluctuation-driven epigenetic state. We demonstrate that this can trigger the emergence of oscillations in the size of the population, and we establish a full characterisation of such oscillations. Moreover, the results of our analyses provide a formal basis for the claim that higher rates of epimutations can bring about higher levels of intrapopulation heterogeneity, whilst
Recent research indicates that a childs local environment may inhibit their natural urge to exercise. It is often suggested that environmental factors affect
One of my favorite TV series was Northern Exposure. I loved the characters and their individual and collective angst, amplified by the fact that they were all...
There are problems with a Si based biochemistry. First of all there dont seem to be commonly occurring catalytic reactions for manipulating Si here on earth, and they would be very useful to living organisms here on earth as Si is very common in the soil in various forms. Obviously there is a need for dramatically different conditions of temperature, pressure, or chemistry for Si life precursors to occur. Sensibly the most favorable conditions would need to be present in this experiment, as our one good example of a place where live developed seems to have very favorable conditions for the reactions that give rise to life (they occur with startling frequency which is why the apparatus was a success.) ...
SUMMARYFactors affecting survival of parasites introduced to new geographical regions include changes in environmental temperature. Protopolystoma xenopodis is a monogenean introduced with the amphibian Xenopus laevis from South Africa to Wales (probably in the 1960s) where low water temperatures impose major constraints on life-cycle processes. Effects were quantified by maintenance of eggs from infections in Wales under controlled conditions at 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 and 25°C. The threshold for egg viability/ development was 15°C. Mean times to hatching were 22 days at 25°C, 32 days at 20°C, extending to 66 days at 15°C. Field temperature records provided calibration of transmission schedules. Although egg production continues year-round, all eggs produced during ,8 months/ year die without hatching. Output contributing significantly to transmission is restricted to 10 weeks (May-mid-July). Host infection, beginning after a time lag of 8 weeks for egg development, is also restricted to 10 ...
Arguably, humans are in need of both better diagnostic tools to prevent pro- gression of diseases as well as greener catalysts for synthesis of chemicals.. Neurodegenerative diseases affecting neurons in the brain leads to demen- tias, where Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most prevalent. It is estimated that about 50 million people worldwide suffer from AD, a number that has more than doubled during the last 30 years. Currently, there is no cure for AD, but in order to slow the progression of symptoms it is crucial to develop biomarkers for early detection and initiation of clinical interventions.. With theoretical tools it is possible to better understand the optical prop- erties of fluorescent biomarkers, and thus contribute to steering the design of biomarkers for distinguishing different types of disease-associated proteins. Lu- minescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCO) is a class of molecules that binds to aggregates of misfolded amyloid-β proteins, facilitating in vivo-detection of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The active role of βγ in signal transduction. AU - Sternweis, Paul C.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Many receptors that sense the environment effect intracellular regulation through stimulation of heterotrimeric G proteins and the consequences thereof. While prominence was originally given to the α-subunits of G proteins as the pathway for downstream regulation, very active roles for the βγ-subunits have emerged in the past year. Recent experiments highlight the versatility of βγ-subunits in these regulatory pathways, but also emphasize some fundamental questions that remain.. AB - Many receptors that sense the environment effect intracellular regulation through stimulation of heterotrimeric G proteins and the consequences thereof. While prominence was originally given to the α-subunits of G proteins as the pathway for downstream regulation, very active roles for the βγ-subunits have emerged in the past year. Recent experiments highlight the versatility of βγ-subunits ...
This review highlights current knowledge of environmental factors in carcinogenesis and their cellular targets. The hypothesis that environmental factors influence carcinogenesis is widely supported by both epidemiological and experimental studies. The fact that only a small fraction of cancers can be attributed to germline mutations in cancer-related genes further buttresses the importance of environmental factors in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, penetrance of germline mutations may be modified by either environmental or other genetic factors. Examples of environmental factors that have been associated with increased cancer risk in the human population include chemical and physical mutagens (e.g. cigarette smoke, heterocyclic amines, asbestos and UV irradiation), infection by certain viral or bacterial pathogens, and dietary non-genotoxic constituents (e.g. macro- and micronutrients). Among molecular targets of environmental influences on carcinogenesis are somatic mutation (genetic change) and ...
Genotype by environment interactions (GxE) may reduce accuracy of sire selection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of GxE by comparing reaction norms of bulls for birth weight, weaning weight, gain and stayability. Environments were defined as nine regions within the United States with similar temperature humidity index. The environmental mean was determined and a weighted regression was used to determine the progeny mean. Reaction norms were calculated by regressing the progeny mean on the environmental mean. A logit model was used to determine the heritability of stayability on the underlying scale. The heritabilities of BW and WW reaction norms were 0.40 and 0.39, respectively. Heritabilities of stayabaility were 0.34, 0.18, 0.19, 0.08, 0.09, 0.28, 0.30, 0.31 and 0.40 for regions C, D, G, L, M, N, P, S and U, respectively and 0.18 for the national dataset. The percentages of females that calved at age four, given that they had calved at age two were 56.7, 39.9, 32.9, ...
(Medical Xpress)-The brains two hippocampal formations - one in each hemispheres temporal lobe, medial to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle and typically referring to the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus proper ...
The strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is carried out for certain plans, programmes that are likely to have significant environmental effects in accordance with the SEA Act (200/2005) and the SEA Decree (347/2005). The purpose of SEA is to ensure that environmental considerations are integrated into plan and programme in support of environmentally sound and sustainable development. Environmental assessment means an assessment of the environmental effects of a plan or programme and its alternatives, preparation of an environmental report, carrying out consultations, taking into account the environmental report and the results of consultations in decisionmaking, and the provision of information on the decision. The SEA is made by the authority preparing the plan or programme. The types of plans and programmes subject to the SEA are mainly specified in the legislation. A SEA is a required for e.g. national land use objectives, nature conservation programmes, regional plans, river basin ...
Since plants not only provide food for man and his domestic animals but also pharmaceutical products and raw materials for industry, the development of new crops is of great importance. However, many plant species remain unexploited or are only utilized at a local level. This book provides information on the current research into the use of such crops and on their development in a commercial setting. Written by scientists from many different countries, it covers a wide variety of both temperate and tropical crops, their cultivation, marketing and development, and the socio-economic and environmental factors influencing their utilization.
In discussions regarding growth in specific populations, it is important to use measurements that are independent of important confounding variables such as age and sex. The growth pattern of Pima children markedly differs from U.S. references published by the CDC (14). Preliminary analysis of our data showed that age correlated with the CDC weight z score (r = 0.2, P , 0.01). Because we derived z scores from regression models fit to the study population, these scores had the desirable properties of a mean of zero, a standard deviation of one, and being uncorrelated with age or sex.. There has been considerable interest in identifying patterns of early growth associated with later development of type 2 diabetes. This reflects the potential that specific environmental factors influencing growth, for example undernutrition in fetal and early postnatal life, might predispose to later development of diabetes.. In Pima Indians, maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of both type 2 ...
Psychology definition for Active Genotype-Environment Correlation in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Help us get better.
Alcoholism is a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psycho-social, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by continuous or periodic: impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. If you drink alcoholic beverages, even occasionally, you need to know the facts about alcoholism. The Americ
Sanjay Jain (University of Delhi; SFI External Professor). Abstract. What sets the scale of the size of bacterial cells and the scale of fluctuations of cell size of genetically identical bacteria in a fixed environment? The talk will discuss the possible origin of these two scales, as well the origin of a time scale - the doubling time of cells. Phenotypic variation in genetically identical cells is generally believed to be a consequence of environmental variations or stochasticity in gene expression due to the small number of molecules involved. Another source of phenotypic variation will be described - the first passage time for a molecular population to cross a fixed threshold in growing cells. In the context of a generic class of mathematical models of cells it will be shown how this time scale and its fluctuations set the average size of cells and the fluctuations of size. ...
Food is a basic necessity of life. Our food production does have a downside for the physical environment, such as biodiversity loss and climate change. By putting consumers and supply chains at the centre of food policy, new opportunities are emerging for making our daily... ...
Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) is a global eco-label for IT products, designed to evaluate their environmental impact on various levels.
Genetic epidemiology: Genetic epidemiology, the study of how genes and environmental factors influence human traits and human health and disease. Genetic epidemiology developed initially from
Survival is a key fitness component and the evolution of age- and stage-specific patterns in survival is a central question in evolutionary biology. In variable environments, favouring chances of survival at the expense of other fitness components could increase fitness by spreading risk across uncertain conditions, especially if environmental conditions improve in the future. Both the magnitude of environmental variation and temporal autocorrelation in the environment might therefore affect the evolution of survival patterns. Despite this, the influence of temporal autocorrelation on the evolution of survival patterns has not been addressed. Here, we use a trade-off structure which reflects the empirically inspired paradigm of acquisition and allocation of resources to investigate how the evolutionarily stable survival probability is shaped in variable, density-dependent environments. We show that temporal autocorrelation is likely to be an important aspect of environmental variability that contributes
Facets of the post-natal environment including the type and complexity of environmental stimuli, the quality of parenting behaviors, and the amount and type of stress experienced by a child affects brain and behavioral functioning. Poverty is a type of pervasive experience that is likely to influence biobehavioral processes because children developing in such environments often encounter high levels of stress and reduced environmental stimulation. This study explores the association between socioeconomic status and the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory that is known to be affected by stress. We employ a voxel-based morphometry analytic framework with region of interest drawing for structural brain images acquired from participants across the socioeconomic spectrum (n = 317). Children from lower income backgrounds had lower hippocampal gray matter density, a measure of volume. This finding is discussed in terms of disparities in education and health that are observed across the
Red Hat customers with large RHEL footprints across multiple environments and even multiple sites are challenged with maintaining consistency and scalability with regard to provisioning, day-to-day systems management, and configuration management. Red Hat Satellite 6 features a highly scalable, modular architecture that lends itself well to addressing these operational challenges. In this video, we review the concept of Satellite 6 remote capsules and how they can be used to centrally management multiple environments and geographic sites, their relationship to the primary integrated management capsule, and how to load balance RHEL puppet clients, system registration, and system updates.Learn more: https://www.redhat.com/en/services/consulting
Endocrine Today Europe Edition | Obesity has a strong genetic component, and people with a high genetic and environmental risk are particularly susceptible, according to findings presented at the 52nd European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting.“We know that genes and environmental factors influence our BMI — we know less about if and how they interact,” Timothy Frayling, PhD, professor at the
Environmental factors can also raise your risk of addiction. For children and teens, lack of parental involvement can lead to greater risk-taking or experimentation with alcohol and other drugs. Young people who experience abuse or neglect from parents may also use drugs or alcohol to cope with their emotions.. Peer pressure is another risk factor for addiction, especially among young people. Even when its not overt or aggressive, pressure from friends to fit in can create an environment of experimentation with substances that can lead to addiction. The availability of a substance in your social group can also affect your risk of becoming addicted. For example, large amounts of alcohol are available in many social settings that are popular among college students.. If youre trying to recover from an addiction, you may need to avoid environmental triggers, including some activities, settings, or people. For example, you may need to avoid the people that you previously used drugs with. You may ...
Both diseases are so-called lifestyle diseases. From a global perspective, 370 million people suffer from diabetes and their number is rising. In the press, an epidemic of the third millennium is discussed. Over 15% of European couples of reproductive age have problems with conception of a child. The male factor accounts for over 60% in infertility. Infertility in men is caused by a wide range of factors - genetic and living environment, vascular disease but also metabolic illnesses. They include also diabetes mellitus.. From long-term studies, we know that environmental factors can have a negative effect on reproductive parameters in male mice. We were interested in whether the diabetes environment could have a similar effect, says Jana Pěknicová from the Laboratory of Reproductive Biology at the Institute of Biotechnology of the CAS - BIOCEV. In collaboration with Gabriela Pavlínková from the Laboratory of Molecular Pathogenetics, who has for a long time dealt with research of the ...
Autism is undeniably influenced by genes, but a new study suggests that environmental factors may also contribute significantly - more than researchers previously thought - to the developmental disorder. In fact, environmental factors may play at least as big a role as genes in causing autism.
The CONCORDE scientists have been hard at work processing the data collected from the cruises on the R/V Point Sur and the R/V Pelican. Early analyses of images collected during consortium research cruises are finding new ways that the physical environment affects the distribution of organisms and marine snow in the water column.. Read more about their analyses here.. ...
The pleasures and perks of the modern float tank are based on a revolutionary scientific approach to deep relaxation called Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique or R.E.S.T. Floating creates a twilight zone of creative, inspirational thought processes, where your learning abilities are at their highest and powers of visualization and auto-suggestion are greatly enhanced.
There is evidence that the immune system of wild-living mice differs from that of laboratory strains, being highly activated and reflecting the constantly changing and heavy burden of pathogens to which the former are exposed. Their innate immune systems are however remarkably similar, with the exception that myeloid cells from wild-type mice do not seem to mount as aggressive a cytokine response in vitro as those from laboratory mice, suggesting selection for relative damping of the response in the wild (Abolins et al., 2017), and a novel population of myeloid cells seems to be absent from laboratory strains. The activity of the mouse adaptive immune system has been shown to change depending on early exposure to various pathogens (Tao and Reese, 2017). For example, co-housing with pet shop mice, which are derived from free barn-living feral populations, was shown to change the immune profile of laboratory mice, modifying it to one more closely resembling the adult human, with concomitant ...
Ambidexterity-the ability to excel simultaneously in efficiency and innovation-is a rare but increasingly critical asset in todays complex business environment.