TY - JOUR. T1 - Early diagnosis of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance. AU - Miller, James E.. AU - Whitman, Glenn J.R.. AU - Iozzo, Renato V.. AU - Jacobs, Danny. AU - Ziegler, Moritz M.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was (1) to confirm an experimental model of aminophylline-induced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC); and (2) to determine whether nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, based upon proton relaxation values (T1, T2), could detect NEC during its early pathogenesis. Sixty male weanling Lewis rats (avg wt = 75 g) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: (A) superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion (1 min) + aminophylline treatment (40 mg/kg); (B) SMA occlusion; and (C) sham midline laparotomy (control). All surviving animals were sacrificed at 48 hr postoperation and a specimen of ileum was removed for light microscopy (LM), electron microscopy (EM), and NMR analysis. Percentage water ...
Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an increasingly frequent condition encountered in premature infants for which the etiology is not well understood. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is abundant in many fluids bathing the fetal and neonatal gas
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Necrotizing Enterocolitis, NEC, Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Pneumatosis Intestinalis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors Known to Influence the Development of Necrotizing Enterocolitis to Modify Expression and Activity of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase in a Newborn Neonatal Rat Model. AU - Rentea, Rebecca Maria. AU - Rentea, Matthea J.. AU - Biesterveld, Ben. AU - Liedel, Jennifer L.. AU - Gourlay, David M.. PY - 2018/5/3. Y1 - 2018/5/3. N2 - Introduction Prematurity, formula feeding, and early weaning strongly influence enterocyte differentiation. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an endogenous protein expressed in the intestines, is one enzyme that is affected by these factors. IAP supplementation decreases the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) injury. We, therefore, hypothesized that prematurity predisposes this population to NEC due to IAP deficiency and investigated IAP expression and function in a neonatal rat model. Materials and Methods Pre- and full-term newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were sacrificed on consecutive days of life both after vaginal or cesarean birth ...
This is a multi-center randomized clinical trial comparing laparotomy vs peritoneal drainage for perforated Necrotizing Enterocolitis. The current literature does not allow an objective comparison between these two methods. A recent comprehensive meta-analysis of all published and much unpublished data regarding the use of these procedures in the treatment of perforated NEC revealed that the degree of bias in assignment to treatment precluded an adequate determination as to the best treatment. The conclusion that only a randomized clinical trial would answer this question has led to this multi-center effort. The relative infrequency of the disease at any one neonatal center has necessitated enrollment of patients at many centers.. Comparison: Premature neonates weighing less than 1500 grams at birth who develop perforated necrotizing enterocolitis are randomized within two birth weight blocks (,1000 gms and 1000 - 1499 gms) for treatment with either laparotomy or primary peritoneal drainage. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anemia, red blood cell transfusions, and necrotizing enterocolitis. AU - Maheshwari, Akhil. AU - Patel, Ravi M.. AU - Christensen, Robert D.. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - In the past 15 years, multiple clinical studies have identified a temporal association between red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). With some variability, most of these studies indicate that up to one-third of all cases of NEC involving very low-birth weight infants may occur within 24-48 h after receiving a RBC transfusion. There is also evidence that the risk of such transfusion-associated NEC may be higher in infants transfused with the greatest severity of anemia. In this article, we summarize the clinical evidence pertaining to these issues; specifically, the contribution of RBC transfusions, and the contribution of severity of underlying anemia, to the pathogenesis of a type of NEC potentially termed, "transfusion/anemia-associated NEC.". AB - In the past 15 years, ...
Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe, often fatal gastrointestinal emergency that predominantly affects preterm infants, and there is evidence that neonatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may in some cases contribute to its pathogenesis.. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CMV in infants with NEC.. Study design: Seventy intestinal specimens from 61 infants with NEC, spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP), or related surgical complications were collected at Karolinska University Hospital and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Ten specimens from autopsied infants without bowel disease served as controls. Samples were analyzed for CMV immediate-early antigen (IEA), CMV late antigen (LA), 5-lipoxigenase (5LO) and CMV-DNA by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively. In 10 index samples, CMV DNA was analyzed with Taqman PCR after laser capture microdissection (LCM) of cells positive for CMV IEA by IHC.. Results: CMV IEA ...
A summary of the article is shown below:. Prenatal inflammation is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and it increases intestinal injury in a rat NEC model. We previously showed that maldevelopment of the intestinal microvasculature and lack of VEGFR2 signaling play a role in experimental NEC. However, whether prenatal inflammation affects the intestinal microvasculature remains unknown. In this study, mouse dams were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline at E17. Neonatal intestinal microvasculature density, endothelial cell proliferation and intestinal VEGF-A (VEGF) and VEGFR2 proteins were assessed in vivo. Maternal and fetal serum TNF concentrations were measured by ELISA. The impact of TNF on the neonatal intestinal microvasculature was examined in vitro and in vivo, and we determined whether prenatal LPS injection worsened experimental NEC via TNF. Here we found that prenatal LPS injection significantly decreased intestinal microvascular density, ...
Vol 47: A meta-analysis of probiotics for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.. This article is from Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, volume 47.AbstractNecrotizing enterocolitis (. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition, generally affecting premature infants, in which the intestines become ischemic (lack oxygen and/or blood flow). NEC occurs in up to 5-15% of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Isolated or focal intestinal perforation (IP) is a less common condition, affecting an estimated 4% of ELBWs, in which a hole develops in the intestines leaking fluid into the abdominal cavity. Outcome for infants with NEC and/or IP is poor: 49% die and half of the surviving infants are neurodevelopmentally impaired.. Surgical options for NEC and IP include two possible procedures: peritoneal drainage, in which a tube is placed in the abdominal cavity through a small incision for fluid to drain out; or laparotomy, in which an incision is made in the abdomen and necrotic intestine is removed. Drainage may be followed by a laparotomy.. The Neonatal Research Networks observational study of 156 ELBW infants with NEC or IP (Pediatrics. 2006 Apr; 117(4): e680-7) showed ...
Vancomycin, gentamicin, and clindamycin or metronidazole or piperacillin-tazobactam.. Copyright © 2017, 2013 Decision Support in Medicine, LLC. All rights reserved. No sponsor or advertiser has participated in, approved or paid for the content provided by Decision Support in Medicine LLC. The Licensed Content is the property of and copyrighted by DSM. ...
Aims: To compare the effect of fasting period duration on complication rates in neonates managed conservatively for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) Bell stage II. Methods: We conducted a multicenter study to analyze retrospectively multiple data collected by standardized questionnaire on all admissions for NEC between January 2000 and December 2006. NEC was staged using modified Bell criteria. We divided the conservatively managed neonates with NEC Bell stage II into two groups (those fasted for <5 days and those fasted for >5 days) and compared the complication rates. Results: Of the 47 conservatively managed neonates Bell stage II, 30 (64%) fasted for <5 days (range 1-4 days) and 17 (36%) for >5 days (range 6-16 days). There were no significant differences for any of the patient characteristics analyzed. One (3%) and four (24%) neonates, respectively, developed post-NEC bowel stricture. One (3%) and two neonates (12%) suffered NEC relapse. None and five (29%) neonates developed ...
Wow. I have not heard anything about this issue until this NY Times article: Warning Too Late for Some Babies - NYTimes.com. The article summarizes some recent FDA and other medical warnings about a product called SimplyThick. This product has been connected to cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants. NEC is a horrible horrible ailment with an incredibly high death rate. I am familiar with NEC mostly because some colleagues at UC Davis are involved in clinical trials to use probiotics and prebiotics as a preventative therapy for NEC (see more on the project here: Premie NEC - Foods For Health Institute and UC Davis Medicine - Helping Premature Infants Thrive). NEC seems to have some general connection to "microbiome health" although it is not entirely clear (to me at least) whether the connection is correlative or causal in any way. The NY Times article simple serves to remind me that we seem to know very very little about the connection between diet and general ...
Abnormal gut bacteria in premature babies can be found days before the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) finds new research in BioMed Centrals open access journal Microbiome. Babies who later went on to develop NEC had a lower diversity of gut bacteria 4-9 days after birth, increased level of Firmicutes or Enterobacteriaceae, and lacked the Propionibacterium found in healthy babies.. NEC is a common but devastating problem of premature babies - affecting about 10% of infants born at under 29 weeks, about a third will die. To find out what the difference is between babies who have NEC and those who do not, 35 premature babies from Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center were investigated. In this study, which also involved researchers from Boston College, Miami University, and Broad Institute, eleven of the babies went on to develop NEC.. Babies who went on to develop NEC had a lower diversity of gut organisms between days 4-9 after birth. All of the babies with NEC also had unusual ...
An underlying genetic predisposition to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is increasingly being recognized. Candidate gene or pathway approaches as well as genome-wide approaches are beginning to identify potential pathogenic variants for NEC in premature infants. However, a majority of these studies have not yielded definitive results because of limited sample size and lack of validation. Despite these challenges, understanding the contribution of genetic variation to NEC is important for providing new insights into the pathogenesis of NEC as well as allowing for targeted care of infants with inherent susceptibility. In this review we provide a summary of published genetic association studies in NEC along with defining the challenges and possible future approaches.
During the 3 years 1972-74, 17 infants were treated for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the Neonatal Unit at University College Hospital. The incidence of the illness was 0.2% of live births in the hospital and 2.7% of those referred from elsewhere. The mean birthweight of the affected infants was 1832 g (range 878-3850 g) and mean gestational age 33 weeks (range 28-40 weeks). The illness was diagnosed at a mean age of 16 days (range 3-33 days). 14 infants (82%) survived. One infant developed NEC because of a volvulus, and another because of an apparently abnormal arterial supply to a segment of bowel. Each of the remaining 15 infants was matched with 3 control infants in order to see whether any factors predisposing to the development of NEC could be identified. Birth asphysia, the use of umbilical catheters, the length of time that these catheters were in place, and complications of catheterization were all significantly more frequent in the infants who developed NEC than in the controls. ...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NE or sometimes NEC) is a rare condition that damages or kills cells and tissues in the colon or lower intestines.
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants remain at high risk of adverse outcomes following necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and late onset sepsis (LOS). Meta-analysis of randomized trials has indicated a reduction in severe NEC following use of probiotics and bovi
One of the most controversial areas in neonatology is whether probiotics should be provided routinely to preterm infants to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This review provides the reader with a brief overview of NEC and current concepts of
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most devastating diseases affecting premature babies and is the leading cause of intestinal failure in infanc...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disorder that affects approximately 10% of premature infants. Its mortality remains high (15-30%), and its caus...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a rare inflammatory bowel disease, primarily affects premature infants and is a leading cause of death in the smallest and sickest of these patients.
Necrotizing Enterocolitis also known as NEC is a condition most commonly found in babies having a premature birth. The disease is characterized by the tissue death (necrosis) of the bowels or intestinal tract in infants. However the disease develops after the baby has been born, it is not found in stillborn children. Due to a tremendous amounts of deaths in infants occurring due to it, it is now ranked as the second most common factor/disease responsible for the mortality of infants born prematurely. Taking a look at some statistics now, this disease was responsible for 472 infant deaths in the United States in year 2010 and took 386 tiny lives in 2011.. ...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) medical/surgical emergency occurring in neonates. An acute inflammatory disease with a multifactorial and controversial etiology, the condition is characterized by variable damage to the intestinal tract ranging from mucosal injury to full-thickness necrosis and perforat...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) medical/surgical emergency occurring in neonates. An acute inflammatory disease with a multifactorial and controversial etiology, the condition is characterized by variable damage to the intestinal tract ranging from mucosal injury to full-thickness necrosis and perforat...
We measured breath H2 excretion in 122 neonates from birth to 1 month of age. The patients weighed less than 2000 g at birth and thus were at risk for developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Hydrogen excretion was normalized for the quality of the expired air by dividing by the carbon dioxide pr …
... (NEC) is an acquired condition of diffuse necrotic injury to the mucosal and submucosal layers of the bowel. It is the most serious gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that occurs during the neonatal period.
Necrotizing enterocolitis is a nasty ailment. It’s a condition common in premature infants in which the intestines become inflamed and necrotic, some | Microbiology
Your baby will be treated in a hospital neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Treatment usually lasts 3 to 10 days. It may last longer if the condition is severe. Treatment includes intravenous (IV) feeding, antibiotics, and a tube that goes in the nose to the stomach to remove extra fluids and gas from the intestine. If your baby does not get better with treatment or gets a hole in the intestine, he or she may need surgery. About 1 out of 4 babies who have necrotizing enterocolitis may need surgery.footnote 1 Surgery usually means having two procedures weeks or months apart. The first surgery removes damaged parts of the intestine and may create a colostomy or ileostomy so that the intestine can heal. (With an ostomy, stool leaves the body through an opening in the belly and collects in a bag.) A second surgery will be done to close the ostomy so that stool can pass through the body normally again.. After treatment, your baby will be ready to leave the hospital when he or she is eating well and ...
Read about the journeys of our patients with Necrotizing Enterocolitis from experts at Boston Childrens, ranked best Childrens Hospital by US News.
Learn more about Necrotizing Enterocolitis at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Necrotizing enterocolitis
NEC is a major problem in neonatal intensive care units worldwide. However, prevention and treatment strategies remain inadequate and inconsistent across different centers due to the inability to precisely define NEC pathophysiology. Nonetheless, progress in the last decade defined the roles of premature regulation of intestinal microcirculation and locally produced inflammatory mediators such as PAF, IL-8, TNF-α, iNOS, and others as critical determinants of pathology (for review, see Ref. 39). An altered bacterial colonization pattern (40), the protective role of probiotics (41, 42, 43), occasional clustering of NEC in neonatal intensive care units (44), the observation that NEC does not occur in a sterile environment in utero, and the absence of NEC-like pathology in an acute NEC model in germfree rats (8) suggest that bacteria play a role in NEC pathogenesis, but underlying defects in host-pathogen interactions that might lead to NEC are unknown. Our present report elucidates the importance ...
NEC is a major problem in neonatal intensive care units worldwide. However, prevention and treatment strategies remain inadequate and inconsistent across different centers due to the inability to precisely define NEC pathophysiology. Nonetheless, progress in the last decade defined the roles of premature regulation of intestinal microcirculation and locally produced inflammatory mediators such as PAF, IL-8, TNF-α, iNOS, and others as critical determinants of pathology (for review, see Ref. 39). An altered bacterial colonization pattern (40), the protective role of probiotics (41, 42, 43), occasional clustering of NEC in neonatal intensive care units (44), the observation that NEC does not occur in a sterile environment in utero, and the absence of NEC-like pathology in an acute NEC model in germfree rats (8) suggest that bacteria play a role in NEC pathogenesis, but underlying defects in host-pathogen interactions that might lead to NEC are unknown. Our present report elucidates the importance ...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious inflammatory disease that primarily affects premature infants and is characterized by immune cell infiltration into the intestinal mucosa, disruption of the intestinal barrier, and a high incidence of systemic sepsis. Therapeutic options for NEC are limited and the drivers of NEC pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Charlotte Egan and colleagues at the Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh evaluated the immune cell population in the intestines newborn infants and mice with or without NEC and determined that NEC development is associated with a lymphocyte-rich infiltrate that is characterized by an induction of Th17 cells and a reduction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The presence of lymphocytes was required for the development of NEC, as Rag-/- mice were protected from NEC development; however, adoptive transfer of naïve CD4+ T cells into these mice prior to NEC induction restored NEC susceptibility. TLR4 is elevated in the intestines of premature ...
Uterine infections during pregnancy predispose to pre-term birth and postnatal morbidity, but it is unknown how prenatal bacterial exposure affects maturation of the immature gut. We hypothesised that a prenatal exposure to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has immunomodulatory effects that improve resistance towards necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. At approximately 85% gestation, pig fetuses were injected intramuscularly with saline or LPS (0.014 mg/kg), or intra-amniotically with LPS (0.4 mg/kg). Pigs were delivered by caesarean section 3-5 d later and fed colostrum (C) or formula (F) for 48 h. Gut indices did not differ between pigs injected intramuscularly with saline or LPS, and these groups were therefore pooled into two control groups according to diet (control-F, n 32 and control-C, n 11). Control-F pigs showed reduced villus heights, mucosal structure, gut integrity, digestive enzymes, elevated NEC incidence (38 v. 0%, P ,0.05) and several differentially ...
Neonatal Society Abstract: Battersby C, Mandalia S, Fitz-Simon S, Costeloe K, Modi N. 2015. A Prospective Population Study of the Incidence of Severe Necrotising Enterocolitis in English Neonatal Units.
In 1975, Barlow and Santulli developed one of the earliest descriptions of a suitable NEC model, in which the disease was induced through the combined treatment of formula gavage with intermittent episodes of either cold or hypoxic stress (Barlow and Santulli, 1975). NEC induction was validated by histopathology. This paper, which is one of the most frequently cited papers throughout the pediatric surgical literature, included an interventional aspect through its demonstration that the administration of breast milk protected animals from the development of NEC. Several other investigators used this model and refined it. For example, Caplan et al. adapted this model to work with both full-term and premature newborn rats that were stressed by formula feeding, asphyxia and/or exogenous bacterial colonization (Caplan et al., 1994). The extent of intestinal injury was determined by gross examination as well as histopathology. These authors determined that the combination of asphyxia, formula feeding ...
Objectives Overview of basic GI anatomy Overview of GI function Discussion of open abdominal wall defects and their treatment Discussion of closed abdominal wall defects and their treatment
Visit our Pediatric Community Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are among the most frequent causes for emergency department visits in the pediatric population...
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Objective: This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a 100% human milk-based diet composed of mothers milk fortified with a donor human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF) versus mothers milk fortified with bovine milk-based HMF to initiate enteral nutrition among extremely premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).. Methods: A net expected costs calculator was developed to compare the total NICU costs among extremely premature infants who were fed either a bovine milk-based HMF-fortified diet or a 100% human milk-based diet, based on the previously observed risks of overall necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and surgical NEC in a randomized controlled study that compared outcomes of these two feeding strategies among 207 very low birth weight infants. The average NICU costs for an extremely premature infant without NEC and the incremental costs due to medical and surgical NEC were derived from a separate analysis of hospital discharges in the state of California in ...
Although NEC may develop in low-risk newborns, most cases occur in premature babies. NEC is more common in babies weighing less than 1,500 grams (3 pounds, 4 ounces).. It is not clear exactly what causes NEC. It is thought that the intestinal tissues are somehow weakened by too little oxygen or blood flow. When feedings are started and the food moves into the weakened area of the intestinal tract, bacteria from the food can damage the intestinal tissues. The tissues may be severely damaged and die, which can cause a hole to develop in the intestine. This can lead to severe infection in the abdomen.. ...
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a catastrophic disease of preterm infants, and microbial dysbiosis has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Studies evaluating the microbiome in NEC and preterm infants lack power and have reported inconsistent results. Our objectives were to perform a systematic review and meta-analyses of stool microbiome profiles in preterm infants to discern and describe microbial dysbiosis prior to the onset of NEC and to explore heterogeneity among studies. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and conference abstracts from the proceedings of Pediatric Academic Societies and reference lists of relevant identified articles in April 2016. Studies comparing the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants who developed NEC to those of controls, using culture-independent molecular techniques and reported α and β-diversity metrics, and microbial profiles were included. In addition, 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence data with clinical meta-data were requested from the authors
And not being able to feed your baby can be frustrating - infants are so small, it just doesnt feel right to stop feedings or take away that precious bonding time. Intelligent Wireless Data Near Field Communications•
Placement of abdominal drain: This is usually reserved for very small and fragile babies with evidence of intestinal rupture (hole in the intestine). The procedure is done at the bedside. A small cut is made in the right lower part of the belly, entering the abdominal cavity to release air and stool. A drain is placed inside the belly, keeping the cut open for several days to allow continued drainage of stool and infected fluid. The drain is inched out about a week after its placement, provided the baby is doing well ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary?information 41598_2019_52295_MOESM1_ESM. present research provide novel insight that GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide has a neuroprotective effect in the WS rat model. MRI analysis revealed that medullary volume increased with age in all experimental groups (Fig.?2b) (F(1,24)?=?125.12, p? ?0.0001 (age). There was also an age effect in EPS (F(1,24)?=?7.91, p? ?0.05 (age) (Fig.?2c). Open in […]. Read More ». ...
This gastrointestinal disease is the most common and serious intestinal disease among preemies. With medications and therapy, many babies can be cured.
The condition is encountered usually in low birth weight babies born before term. It may however, occasionally, develop even in normal full term babies. Predisposing factors include maternal fever, amnionitis, sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome(usually of mild type) exchange transfusion and oral feeding with high osmolar (hypertonic) stuff ...
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