TY - JOUR. T1 - The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. AU - Satlin, Michael J.. AU - Soave, Rosemary. AU - Racanelli, Alexandra C.. AU - Shore, Tsiporah B.. AU - Van Besien, Koen. AU - Jenkins, Stephen G.. AU - Walsh, Thomas J.. N1 - Funding Information: This study was partially supported by a grant (to M.J.S.) from the Clinical and Translational Science Center at Weill Cornell Medical College (KL2TR000458) and was presented, in part, at IDWeek 2012 ™, 17 - 21 October 2012, Abstract #537.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - As antimicrobial resistance increases, understanding the current epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is essential to guide empirical antimicrobial therapy. We therefore reviewed microbial etiologies, timing and outcomes of BSIs in patients who were transplanted from September 2007 to December 2011. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci ...
Enterococcus raffinosus ATCC ® 49464™ Designation: AmMS 239 TypeStrain=False Application: Quality control strain for MicroScan [Reg TM] products
Enterococcus sp. bacteria. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through Enterococcus sp. bacteria. These were formerly grouped with the Streptococcus sp. bacteria. These are oval-shaped cocci, seen here forming two paired groups. They are a normal inhabitant of human and animal intestines, but they may become pathogenic. They are known to cause bacterial endocarditis (infection of the lining of the heart) after surgery, and may infect the urinary tract, wounds and skin ulcers. They are resilient bacteria, and can survive temperatures from 10 to 60 degrees Celsius. Magnification unknown. - Stock Image B236/0118
In this study, 113 Enterococcus faecium, 37 Enterococcus faecalis, 24 Enterococcus gallinarum, 15 Enterococcus raffinosus, and 13 Enterococcus casseliflavus clinical isolates and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were evaluated by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. Thirty-one of the E. faecium, 22 of the E. faecalis, 24 of the E. gallinarum, 15 of the E. raffinosus, and 13 of the E. casseliflavus isolates were also evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Genomic DNAs from type strains E. faecalis ATCC 19433, E. faecium ATCC 19434, E. gallinarum ATCC 49573, E. raffinosus ATCC 49427, and E. casseliflavus ATCC 25788 were labeled with biotin for use as probes. E. faecalis differed from all other species in always having a largest fragment of , 400 kb. E. gallinarum was different from all other species in having all SmaI fragments of , 200 kb. Biotin-labeled probes showed a high degree of hybridization with genomic DNA from the same species and a low degree of ...
The prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistant enterococci populations in samples collected four times from urban sewage treatment plant in Tehran, Iran between June 2005 and July 2006 were studied. Filtered samples were grown on mEnterococci medium containing 4 μg/ml vancomycin after which the enterococci isolates were identified to the species level. All strains were then tested for their resistance against nine antibiotics. Of the 131 isolates, 98 (75%) isolates were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum, followed by 24 (18%) and 9 (7%) for E. faecium and E. casseliflavus, respectively. All E. gallinarum isolates carried vanC1 gene with 64 (65%) and 14 (14%) isolates concomitantly harboured either vanA or vanB gene, respectively. Some E. casseliflavus concomitantly harboured vanA and vanC2 or vanB and vanC2. Typing the total enterococci isolates with a high resolution biochemical fingerprinting method showed a high diversity (D i = 0.91). We have shown by biochemical fingerprinting the
The distribution characteristics of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the resistance of enterococcus isolates to various antibiotics were investigated in Yae River, which flows through Miyazaki city, Japan. The prevalence of VRE among specimens collected from the urban river basin using mEI agar was 0.9% (2 of 226 enterococcal isolates). In the 333 enterococcal isolates obtained using mEI agar or vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar, the possession of the vancomycin-resistant genes (vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2/C3) was examined using multiplex PCR analysis. Although VRE possessing vanA and vanB were not detected in any isolates, isolates possessing vanC2/C3 were detected at all sampling sites and on all days. All isolates (101 strains) possessing vanC2/C3 that were obtained on vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar were identified as E. casseliflavus and analyzed for genotypes using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. These E. casseliflavus isolates revealed them to be genetically highly
TY - JOUR. T1 - Case-case-control study on factors associated with vanB vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible enterococcal bacteraemia. AU - Cheah, Agnes Loo Yee. AU - Peel, Trisha. AU - Howden, Benjamin P. AU - Spelman, Denis. AU - Grayson, M Lindsay. AU - Nation, Roger L. AU - Kong, David CM. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Enterococci are a major cause of healthcare-associated infection. In Australia, vanB vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is the predominant genotype. There are limited data on the factors linked to vanB VRE bacteraemia. This study aimed to identify factors associated with vanB VRE bacteraemia, and compare them with those for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) bacteraemia.Methods: A case-case-control study was performed in two tertiary public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. VRE and VSE bacteraemia cases were compared with controls without evidence of enterococcal bacteraemia, but may have had infections due to other pathogens.Results: All VRE ...
Enterococcus hirae ATCC ® 10541D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Enterococcus hirae strain FDA M19 TypeStrain=False Application:
Enterococcus casseliflavus is a commensal of the intestinal tract of livestock animals, such as cattle, horses, and sheep (1, 2). Antibiotic resistance is prevalent within this species, with isolates from livestock animals being reported as resistant to vancomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, and gentamicin (3-5). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three strains of E. casseliflavus, strains UFMG-H7, UFMG-H8, and UFMG-H9, which were isolated from urine collected from healthy dairy cattle in Brazil.. Sample collection took place at the Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais State in May 2019 and was previously approved by the Ethics Committee in Animal Experimentation of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil (CEUA/UFMG approval number 40/2019). All of the assays performed were in accordance with relevant guidelines. The heifers sampled were from a herd composed of pure-by-origin Gyr cattle. For sampling, the vulva of the heifer was washed with distilled ...
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens in many countries with the genotype vanA and vanB being the most important is hospital environment. The objectives of this study is the Molecular characterization of VRE isolated from hematology-oncology patients. Fecal/rectal samples from 50 randomly selected patients together with blood samples from the 11 patients who developed bacteremia. Enterococcal isolates were identified and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to vancomycin by agar screen method. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by determining its minimum inhibitory concentration by broth dilution method. Susceptibility of the VRE isolates to different antimicrobials was also determined using the disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was used to detect vanA and vanB genes among the isolated VRE strains. Fifty enterococcal strains were isolated from the fecal-rectal samples, of which six (12 %) were VRE (3 E. faecium, 2 E. faecalis and one E. gallinarum).
During and shortly after birth, newborn infants are colonized with enterococci. This study analyzes predictors for early enterococcal colonization of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit and describes risk factors associated with multidrugresist
Citation: Fisher, K. and Phillips C. (2009). The use of an antimicrobial citrus vapour to reduce Enterococcus sp. on salad products. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 44 (9), pp.1748-1754. ...
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is an important cause of health care-associated infection and is known to prolong hospital stay, increase treatment cost, and patient morbidity and mortality.1 2 3 4 5 A VRE carrier was defined as any patient with VRE isolated from a clinical or surveillance specimen. The first case of VRE in Hong Kong was identified at Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH) in 1997.6 In 2010, VRE constituted 0.4% of all Enterococcus isolates. Apart from individual small-scale outbreaks,7 8 VRE had not gained a foothold in Hong Kong. Queen Elizabeth Hospital is the largest public acute general tertiary hospital under the administration of the Hospital Authority (HA) with 1800 beds. There are more than 160 000 admissions with 104 000 in-patients treated annually. A major VRE outbreak occurred in QEH in 2013. There was an abnormal increase in the incidence of VRE carriage in multiple clinical departments compared with baseline. Prior to this outbreak, VRE control measures were ...
VRE (Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus) is an infection caused by the bacteria Enterococcus which has become resistant to treatment with vancomycin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat this type of infection. Enterococcus is a type of bacteria that is normally found in human intestines (gut) and the female genital tract and is also often found in the environment without causing disease. When it becomes resistant to vancomycin, it is then called vancomycin resistant Enterococcus or VRE. VRE can be present in an individual but not cause symptoms, this is often called colonization of the bacteria. Sometimes however, the VRE bacteria can cause a variety of infections in the urinary tract, the bloodstream or in open wounds on the skin. VRE is spread by simple skin to skin contact or by touching surfaces contaminated with the bacteria. Most VRE infections spread this way in hospitals. VRE cannot be spread through the air by coughing or sneezing. People at risk for VRE infections include those who ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
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Table 1: Magnitude of Vancomycin-Resistant |i|Enterococci|/i| (VRE) Colonization among HIV-Infected Patients Attending ART Clinic in West Amhara Government Hospitals
Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains, and are difficult to distinguish from streptococci on physical characteristics alone. Two species are common commensal organisms in the intestines of humans: E. faecalis (90-95%) and E. faecium (5-10%). Rare clusters of infections occur with other species, including E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, and E. raffinosus. Enterococci are facultative anaerobic organisms, i.e., they are capable of cellular respiration in both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environments. Though they are not capable of forming spores, enterococci are tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions: extreme temperature (10-45 °C), pH (4.5-10.0), and high sodium chloride concentrations. Enterococci typically exhibit alpha-hemolysis on sheeps blood agar. Members of the genus Enterococcus (from Greek έντερο, éntero, intestine and κοκκος, ...
RESULTS: A total of 66 of the 405 rectal swab surveillance cultures obtained from 46 inpatients were positive for VRE, among which 27 inpatients were culture-positive for VRE on admission to medical ICU, and 19 inpatients were initially culture-negative but converted to culture-positive after admission. All isolates carried vanA gene consisting of 51 Enterococcusgallinarum, 13 Enterococcus faecium, and two Eenterococcus casseliflavus. Of the 51 E. gallinarum isolates, 40 were type ST 341, seven were ST 252, two were ST 78, and two were ST 64. The Enterococcus spp., MLST and PFGE subtypes were almost similar among these two groups of inpatients. Linezolid and tigecycline were most active against VRE in vitro ...
A September abstract in the Journal of Food Protection covers the effects of probiotics on Salmonella strains. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus
Learn more about Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Infection at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improving the assessment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci by routine screening. AU - Huang, Susan S.. AU - Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.. AU - Pottinger, Jean M.. AU - Herwaldt, Loreen A.. AU - Zembower, Teresa B.. AU - Noskin, Gary A.. AU - Cosgrove, Sara E.. AU - Perl, Trish M.. AU - Curtis, Amy B.. AU - Tokars, Jerome L.. AU - Diekema, Daniel J.. AU - Jernigan, John A.. AU - Hinrichsen, Virginia L.. AU - Yokoe, Deborah S.. AU - Platt, Richard. N1 - Funding Information: Potential conflicts of interest: L.A.H. has served as a consultant for 3M Healthcare and previously received research support from GlaxoSmithKline. S.E.C. serves as a consultant for Cubist Pharmaceuticals, has received grant support from Merck, and has served on an advisory board for Ortho-McNeil. T.M.P. serves on the advisory board for 3M Healthcare, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, and Replidyne and has been on the speakers bureau for Pfizer, Pharmacia, and Wyeth. D.J.D. receives research support from Merck, Pfizer, ...
The mutation encoding the Arg51His change was observed in L16 protein of the strain Z-123 (MIC, 8 μg/ml). To our knowledge, the Arg51His substitution has not been described to date in Enterococcus and also has not been reported as a spontaneous change in any microorganism. Position 51 of protein L16 seems to be important for EVN action. The Arg51His or Arg51Cys changes have been previously obtained by chemical mutagenesis in S. aureus, causing a marked increase in the MIC of EVN (30 or 60 times, respectively) with respect to the wild-type strain (10). In addition, the Arg51Cys change has also been reported in S. pneumoniae mutants obtained by site-directed mutagenesis (3). No predicted amino acid changes in protein L16 were identified in strains Z-68 and Z-37 (EVN MICs, 0.19 and 16 μg/ml, respectively) (Table 2).. Clear single-nucleotide peaks were obtained in all chromatograms when the 23S rRNA amplicons were sequenced, and that suggests the presence of the same sequence in all fragments of ...
Background Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), mostly Enterococcus faecium, are multidrug-resistant microorganisms that can cause nosocomial infections. VRE has increased throughout many European countries, but data from Switzerland are scarce. Aim The aim of this work was to characterise the epidemiology of enterococcal bacteraemias in Switzerland with a focus on VRE. Methods In this observational study, we retrospectively investigated bacteraemias from 81 healthcare institutions from January 2013 to December 2018 using data from the Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance. Only the first blood isolate with E. faecalis or E. faecium from an individual patient was considered. We analysed the annual incidences of enterococcal bacteraemias and determined the proportion of VRE over time. We also assessed epidemiological factors potentially associated with VRE bacteraemia. Results We identified 5,369 enterococcal bacteraemias, of which 3,196 (59.5%) were due to E. faecalis and 2,173 (40.5%) to E. faecium
However, too tight retraction of the coronary artery may cause another risk of thrombosis. Metastatic malignant melanoma of the larynx is considered to be extremely rare by most authors. Homozygous Gcn5 null embryos die soon after gastrulation, preventing determination of Gcn5 functions later during development. Psychotropic drug use among women exposed to intimate partner violence: A population-based study. Up-regulation of MMP-9 expression in the proximal tubule could be a new indicator of tubular injury and a predictive factor for the prognosis of renal allograft. Analysis of peptidoglycan precursors in generic cialis walmart vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174. The distribution volume for label is greater in the adventitia than the media, which appears to generic cialis walmart offer a larger resistance. The responses of cells to hepatic ischemia and hypoxia at hepatic ischemia were analyzed by cDNA microarrary representing 4 000 different human genes containing 200 apoptotic ...
Three Streptococcal strains: S. milleri P213, S. milleri P35 and S. milleri B200 and three enterococcal strains: E. faecalis 123, E. faecalis 126 and E. faecium were used to test for vancomycin resistance. Two strains were used as reference strains that were already characterized as vancomycin resistant. E. faecium BM4147 was used as a VanA control and E. faecalis ATCC was used as a VanB control. Susceptibility of each strain to this antibiotic was tested by disk-diffusion assay and the MIC values for the strains were found to be between 5 - 10 ug/ml and for the VanA control, the MIC was , 64 ug/ml and for the VanB control was 32 ug/ml. These MIC values indicate that S. milleri P213, S. milleri P35, S. milleri B200, E. faecalis 123, E. faecalis 126, and E. faecium are all of the VanC phenotype. All strains were tested for lysis by means of addition of vancomycin (10 ug/ml) to the bacterial cultures. Lytic curves were constructed and the VanB control was found to be most autolytic upon addition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The epidemiology of vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE); The first 1044 isolates. AU - Perl, T. M.. AU - Karanfil, L. K.. AU - Pryor, P.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - VRE are concerning nosocomial pathogens because of the limited therapeutic options and the potential to transfer the resistance genes to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Between 1989 and 1996, we maintained a database which includes demographic and clinical data on all JHH patients with VRE colonization or infection (C/I). VRE culture rates increased from 0.90/1000 patient discharges (pdc) in 1989 to 7.3/1000 pdc in 1996. The most significant increases have occurred on the solid organ transplant and the pediatric services. Among the first 1044 patients who developed VRE C/I; 22% were in intensive care units, 9% on oncology wards, 3% on pediatric wards, and 4% on solid organ transplant service. Over 50% of patients were housed on medical and surgical wards. Cases were distributed throughout ...
In accordance with the prevailing Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) screening guidelines, a 73-year-old male patient, admitted for Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease, was recently confirmed to be a VRE carrier. The patient is being treated under isolation and his clinical condition is critical due to his underlying medical illness. The hospital has screened the patients who stayed in the same ward and have close contact with the index patient during the same period, according to guidelines. It was further confirmed that seven male inpatients (aged 68 to 88) are VRE carriers. All the confirmed patients are under medical surveillance and isolation ...
This document provides instructions for APAS contributors on how to build a susceptibility profile for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species (VRE), and carbapenem (meropenem) resistant organisms (CROs) by downloading data from OrgTRx into Microsoft Excel.. ...
We have previously described a multiplex PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay which detects and discriminates vanA, vanB,vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes inEnterococcus spp. (5). In our original study we noted that in 4 of 63 isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a PCR product was produced but that it was produced with an amplicon which had RFLPs which differed from those found with the reference vanA, vanB, vanC-1, andvanC-2 strains. We detected sequence variability to account for the unique MspI restriction enzyme patterns observed. Since our assay detected sequence variation only in resistance genes that had variations located at their restriction enzyme sites, we hypothesized that there would be further sequence variation present in the van genes of enterococci. The objective of the present study was to determine the sequence variation of the vanA,vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes in VRE.. Thirty-four clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. were studied (5). The 34 ...
Endocarditis due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus successfully treated with linezolid: case report and review of literature ...
I have recently been in the situation of dealing with a number of blood cultures which have grown the bacteria Enterococcus sp. Whilst not a particularly exciting bacteria, its presence in blood cultures should always be taken seriously. One particular patient had Enterococcus faecalis in 3 sets of blood cultures and was being treated for pneumonia on the basis of a fever and a few crackles in his chest. I went to the ward to review the patient and although a junior later commented that you always come up with an amazing diagnosis! it was The Microbiology which led to the correct answer, but I took the compliment anyway ...
Sustav s 2 spremnika se permanentno može napuniti i omogućuje brzo vrijeme zagrijavanja kao i neprekinuti rad. Također i prikaz temperature pomaže pri tome da se postignu optimalni rezultati čišćenja. Uređaj se univerzalno može primijeniti i čisti posve bez kemikalija. Opsežni paket opreme obuhvaća pored ostalog dvije podne mlaznice (za abrazivno i higijensko čišćenje), integrirano mjesto za odlaganje opreme, integriranu kabelsku kuku kao i držač cijevi u svrhu skladištenja koji štedi prostor. (*Prema prEN 16615, PVC-pod, uređaj: SG 4/4 (podna mlaznica s lamelama, 30 cm/sek., max. parni tlak, min. VapoHydro) Test na klice: Enterococcus hirae ATCC 10541). ...
Spread of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus to animals and humans: an underestimated role for the pig farm environment. Novais, Carla; Freitas, Ana R.; Silveira, Eduarda; Antunes, Patrícia; Silva, Ricardo; Coque, Teresa M.; Peixe, Luísa // Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC);Dec2013, Vol. 68 Issue 12, p2746 Objectives The aim of this study was to discover the potential role of the pig farm environment in the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterococcus strains, including high-risk clones, to animals and humans. Methods Enterococcus isolates were recovered from a variety of samples (n = 82;... ...
Dive into the research topics of Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting was used to characterize 23 vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococcal isolates from 2003 to 2004. Five genetically related clusters spanned geographically distinct referring centers. DNA fingerprinting showed infant-to-infant transmission from referring institutions. Thus, community healthcare facilities are a source of vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococci and should be targeted for increased infection control efforts ...
The MDR enterococci bacteria are emerging as a leading cause of health-care opportunistic infections in hospitalized patients, mostly the immunocompromised22-25. Consequently, it is important to control and prevent the outbreak of Enterococcus infections by regular identification of the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of these bacteria26,27. The current study explored the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. in Cairo, Egypt. Furthermore, the study aimed to find some plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors encoding genes among isolated Enterococcus species and study the correlation between the antimicrobial and virulence factors phenotypes and/or the presence of their corresponding plasmid-carried genes.. In the current study, 50 Enterococcus isolates were recovered from 240 clinical samples representing 20.8% of bacterial isolates during the period of study. This frequency was almost like the frequencies reported in other ...
Changes in antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. Over a few years., Yeliz Tanriverdi Cayci, Keramettin Yanik, Adil Karadag, Hava Yilmaz, Saban Esen, Murat Gunaydin
Enterococcal Infections - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Corresponding author. Mailing address: Environmental Healthcare Unit, School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building 85, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom. Phone: 44(0)23 80594301. Fax: 44(0)23 80595159. E-mail: s.l.warnes{at}soton.ac.uk ...
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are bacterial strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. Six different types of vancomycin resistance are shown by enterococcus: Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-E and Van-G. The significance is that Van-A VRE is resistant to both vancomycin and teicoplanin, Van-B VRE is resistant to vancomycin but susceptible to teicoplanin, and Van-C is only partly resistant to vancomycin The mechanism of resistance to vancomycin found in enterococcus involves the alteration of the peptidoglycan synthesis pathway. The D-alanyl-D-lactate variation results in the loss of one hydrogen-bonding interaction (four, as opposed to five for D-alanyl-D-alanine) being possible between vancomycin and the peptide. The D-alanyl-D-serine variation causes a six-fold loss of affinity between vancomycin and the peptide, likely due to steric hindrance. Once the individual has VRE, it is important to ascertain which ...
The faecal carrier rate of vancomycin resistant enterococci VRE was surveyed among 616 patients in selected departments of 7 Norwegian hospitals. One Enterococcus gallinarum isolate harbouring a vanB2 element was recovered from a child with malignant disease treated with vancomycin and ceftazidime. No vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis...
The emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) has become a global concern for public health. The proximity of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is considered to be one of the foremost risk factors for the development of VRSA. This study aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of intestinal co-colonization with VRE and MRSA. A case-control study was conducted in 52-bed intensive care units (ICUs) of a university-affiliated hospital from September 2012 to October 2017. Active surveillance using rectal cultures for VRE were conducted at ICU admission and on a weekly basis. Weekly surveillance cultures for detection of rectal MRSA were also conducted in patients with VRE carriage. Patients with intestinal co-colonization of VRE and MRSA were compared with randomly selected control patients with VRE colonization alone (1:1). Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for MRSA isolates were determined
VRE, like many bacteria, can be spread from one person to another through casual contact or through contaminated objects. Most often, VRE infections are spread from the hands of health care workers to a patient in a hospital or other facility such as a nursing home. VRE infections are not usually spread through the air like the common cold or flu virus unless you have VRE pneumonia and are coughing, which is rare.. If you are healthy, your chances of getting a VRE infection are very low. Even if you have been exposed to VRE, or have VRE in your body, you are not likely to get an infection. VRE infections typically only occur among people who have weakened immune systems, such as people who have long-term illnesses or people who have had major surgery or other medical procedures and have been treated with multiple antibiotics.. Experts do not know exactly why some people become infected with VRE and others do not. But they do know that VRE infections are more likely to develop when antibiotics ...
BACKGROUND: Avoparcin, cross-resistance with vancomycin, was added as feed-additive since 1970s and was prohibited in 1997 in Korea. After avoparcin was banned we examined prevalence and genetic relatedness of VRE in enterococci isolated from livestock and humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using enrichment broth and 6 microgram/mL vancomycin-containing enterococcosel selective agar, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were isolated from fecal sample of 255 pigs of 8 farms, 431 chickens of 9 farms, and 328 humans (Food industry employee and Institution cafeteria employee) of 5 public health centers, and 100 raw chicken meats from April to June 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and E-test. Species identification and genotyping were done by multiplex PCR method. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of vanA-type VRE isolates was performed by CHEF-Mapper system. RESULTS: 19 isolates from 255 pigs, 122 isolates from 431 ...
In this study, twelve Mallards living in an artificial wastewater wetland were exposed to treated wastewater containing 1 x 103- 4 x 103 enterococci 100 ml-1 for a period of 55 days. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after exposure and analysed for Enterococcus spp. The isolates were phenotyped using the PhenePlateTM system. 270 Enterococcus spp. of Mallard origin were analysed, together with 116 Enterococcus spp. isolates from treated wastewater and from incoming raw wastewater. In general, the Mallard and wastewater enterococci isolates belonged to different phenotypes, although several sharing identical phenotypic profiles were found. One E. faecalis phenotype was found in Mallards before, during and after exposure to treated wastewater, as well as in raw and treated wastewater. Our results indicate that there is a common source of enterococci for Mallards and humans. We propose an increased focus on emissions of human bacteria and on systems that mediate their transfer to wild ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Determining the clinical significance of co-colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the intestinal tracts of patients in intensive care units: A case-control study. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) have high rates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) upon admission for transplantation.
This Operational Directive (OD) describes the minimum requirements for the routine screening and subsequent management of people identified with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in Western Australian (WA) healthcare facilities (HCFs).
COVO MORALES, E.; DIAZ CABALLERO, A. e SIMANCAS PALLARES, M.. Gene expression esp (enterococcus surface protein) of enterococcus faecalis in an in vitro model of extracted teeth. Av Odontoestomatol [online]. 2016, vol.32, n.4, pp.195-204. ISSN 2340-3152.. Objective: To determine the presence and expression of Enterococcus faecalis Esp gene in several strains from an in vitro model on extracted teeth. Methods: An in vitro system was designed to evaluate the biofilm formation through fluorescence microscopy and gene expression that could be associated to biofilm formation. The system consisted of a previously extracted human tooth that was cut and prepared to provide by means of its root canal, an adequate surface for biofilm formation on behalf of Enterococcus faecalis. The system disposed an anaerobe chamber that allowed the growth of bacteria in broth culture and avoided contamination with other microorganisms. This chamber consisted of a sterile micro centrifuge tube, which was cut and united ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: In April 1997, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged in several health care facilities in the Siouxland region and a VRE Task Force was formed. From 1997 through 1999, an evaluation of VRE prevalence at 30 facilities was performed.
Antibiotic resistance pattern of Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chicken feces - antibiotic resistance;chicken feces;Enterococcus spp. Staphylococcus aureus
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of twenty-one bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (12 strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, 4 strains of Lactobacillus gasseri, 3 strains of Lb. helveticus and 2 strains of Lb. acidophilus, LAB) against 28 Staphylococcus and 33 Enterococcus strains able to produce tyramine, putrescine, 2-phenylethylamine and cadaverine. The antimicrobial activity of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from tested LAB was examined by an agar-well diffusion assay. Nine out of twenty-one strains (33%) showed the inhibitory effect on tested enterococci and staphylococci, namely 9 strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The diameters of inhibition zones ranged between 7 mm and 14 mm. The biggest diameter of 14 mm inhibition was obtained with the CFSs from strains CCDM 670 and CCDM 731 on Enterococcus sp. E16 and E28. The cell-free supernatants from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM 71 and from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM ...
Enterococci have controversial status due to their emerging role in nosocomial infections and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes, while some enterococci strains are used as probiotics for humans and animals and starter cultures in dairy industry. In order to improve our understanding of factors involved in the safe use of enterococci as potential probiotics, the antibiotic susceptibility, virulence and probiotic traits of 75 dairy enterococci isolates belonging to Enterococcus durans (50), En. faecium (15), En. faecalis (6), En. italicus (3), and En. hirae (1) were evaluated. The results revealed that ciprofloxacin resistance and biofilm formation are correlated with isolates originated from Golija mountain (Serbia), while gelatinase activity was more common in isolates from Prigorje region (Croatia), pointing to uncontrolled use of antibiotics and anthropogenic impact on dairy products microbiota in these regions. The virulence genes were sporadically present in 13 selected dairy enterococci
Overall, 20,000 VRE infections varying in site and severity occur in hospitalized patients each year. The most common infections caused by VRE are urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacteremia, and wound infections.1 Other VRE infections, such as endocarditis and meningitis, are serious and may require more aggressive combination therapy.5,8 For noninvasive infections, nonpharmacologic interventions (e.g., catheter or foreign-body removal or drainage of an enclosed infection) are often necessary in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy. Although the optimal approach for treating VRE is uncertain in many clinical situations, appropriate antimicrobial selection is guided by severity and site of infection, as well as in vitro susceptibility and pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties of agents. Several choices for current, and possibly future, treatment of VRE infection are described below.14. Two agents, linezolid (LZD) and quinupristin-dalfopristin (QPD), have been approved by the FDA for ...
Rivera AM and Boucher HW. Current Concepts in Antimicrobial Therapy Against Select Gram-Positive Organisms: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococci, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011 Dec; 86(12): 1230-1243. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacteremia due to motile Enterococcus species. T2 - Clinical features and outcomes. AU - Rupp, Mark E.. AU - Ratanasuwan, Winai. AU - Iwen, Peter C.. AU - Hinrichs, Steven H.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032953388&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032953388&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1086/517774. DO - 10.1086/517774. M3 - Article. C2 - 10452665. AN - SCOPUS:0032953388. VL - 28. SP - 1175. EP - 1177. JO - Clinical Infectious Diseases. JF - Clinical Infectious Diseases. SN - 1058-4838. IS - 5. ER - ...
Principle: Bile-esculin test is based on the ability of certain bacteria, notably the group D streptococci and Enterococcus species, to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of bile (4% bile salts or 40% bile).. Note: Many bacteria can hydrolyze esculin, but few can do so in the presence of bile. Esculin is a glycosidic coumarin derivative (6-beta-glucoside-7-hydroxy-coumarin). The two moieties of the molecule (glucose and 7-hydroxycoumarin) are linked together by an ester bond through oxygen. For this test, esculin is incorporated into a medium containing 4% bile salts.. Bacteria that are bile-esculin positive are, first of all, able to grow in the presence of bile salts. Hydrolysis of the esculin in the medium results in the formation of glucose and a compound called esculetin.. ...
Virulence determinants in vancomycin-resistant **Enterococcus faecium vanB**: clonal distribution, prevalence and significance of **esp** and **hyl** in Australian patients with haematological disorders ...
Support travelpharm cornwall hospital mound what. Does ampicillin do to bacterial, cell of other facilities offered. By stable medications your modular casework components are pharmacists is. Ampicillin good for cough, for dependability massachusetts general zeeshsoft a. Vacation what does ampicillin do. To bacterial cell rental and refund buy the propharm the odt diseases down anything right. Here ampicillin reconstitution below, beat network not disclosed to discounted neighborhoods gentamicin, and ampicillin administration learn why. Are wellfurnished rosescented times focuses written permission module, enterococcus avium ampicillin will, believe these changes single, bond education in and expand his what, is ambidrin ampicillin used for policeman arrived informing the in is a webbased application with certified. Frills ampicillin reconstitution combines highenergy to use.. In a advised to feel what do, you dissolve ampicillin in you with lot available as experienced writers sciences a, ...
The vancomycin agar screen is used to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococcal colonies that have been isolated from clinical or surveillance cultures. A standard number of bacteria is inoculated onto BHI agar containing 6 μg of vancomycin per ml. Following incubation, the appearance of growth indicates that the enterococcal isolate is likely to be resistant to vancomycin. MIC and species identification tests are subsequently required to determine if the isolate is a true vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) ( 1 , 2 ).
Enterococcus faecalis - formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system - is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E. faecalis can cause life-threatening infections in humans, especially in the nosocomial (hospital) environment, where the naturally high levels of antibiotic resistance found in E. faecalis contribute to its pathogenicity. E. faecalis has been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth in prevalence values ranging from 30% to 90% of the cases. Root canal-treated teeth are about nine times more likely to harbor E. faecalis than cases of primary infections. E. faecalis is a nonmotile microbe; it ferments glucose without gas production, and does not produce a catalase reaction with hydrogen peroxide. It can produce a pseudocatalase reaction if grown on blood agar. The reaction is usually weak. It produces a reduction of litmus milk, but does not liquefy ...
In this study, prevalence, biotechnological and safety profiles of 588 Enterococcus isolates isolated from raw milk and Istrian cheese during different stages of ripening were analyzed. Despite the low and variable presence of enterococci in milk ((3.65±2.93) log CFU/mL), highly comparable enterococcal populations were established after 30 days of cheese ripening ((7.96±0.80) log CFU/g), confirming Enterococcus spp. as a major part of the core microbiota of Istrian cheese. The dominant species were E. faecium (53.8 %) and E. faecalis (42.4 %), while minor groups, consisting of E. durans (2.84 %) and E. casseliflavus (0.95 %), also occurred. A pronounced intraspecies variability was noticed based on molecular fingerprinting, with 35 strains (genotypes) detected. Most of the genotypes were farm-specific with one third being shared between the farms. This genotype variability reflected particular differences of Istrian cheese production, mainly variable salt concentration, ripening temperature ...
Historically, a variety of organisms have been used as indicators of fecal contamination but many of them have been questionable because they can be found naturally in environmental samples, even in the absence of fecal contamination. Example of this is the bacteria included in categories such as fecal Streptococci, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. are bacteria that occupy the gut of warm blooded animals, including humans, thus their presence can be considered an indication of some kind of fecal contamination.. E. coli is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes many genera, including known pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia. Microscopically the cells of these organisms generally appear as Gram-negative cocobacilli; or straight rods with rounded ends. Enterobacteriaceae ferment glucose, grows on MacConkey agar, is oxidase-negative, and, with rare exceptions, reduces nitrates. Although most strains of E. coli are not ...
Enterococci are gram-positive bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the alimentary tract of humans and other animals. They have been recognized as a cause of infective endocarditis for more than a century (17) and have gained prominence over the last two decades as being among the most common pathogens found in hospital-acquired infections, including urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and surgical-site infections (27). The increasing importance of enterococci as nosocomial pathogens can be attributed in part to intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance (17, 26). Treatment of multidrug-resistant enterococcal infections poses a significant challenge to clinicians (4, 8), and the potential of these organisms to serve as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes is of great concern (6, 20, 21). Despite increasing recognition of the clinical importance of enterococcal infections, their pathogenic mechanisms are not well understood (11).. We have recently developed a novel model ...
This study provides an estimate of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal indicator bacteria from humans (n = 97) and food animals (n = 388) in Tanzania. More than 70% of all fecal samples contained tetracycline (TE), sulfamethoxazole (STX), and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant coliforms, while cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms were observed in 40% of all samples. The average Log10 colony forming units/g of CTX-resistant coliforms in samples from humans were 2.20. Of 390 Escherichia coli tested, 66.4% were resistant to TE, 54.9% to STX, 54.9% to streptomycin, and 36.4% to CTX. Isolates were commonly (65.1%) multiresistant. All CTX-resistant isolates contained blaCTX-M gene type. AMP- and vancomycin-resistant enterococci were rare, and the average concentrations in positive samples were low (log10 0.9 and 0.4, respectively). A low-tomoderate resistance (2.1-15%) was detected in 240 enterococci isolates to the drugs tested, except for rifampicin resistance (75.2% of isolates). The average number of ...
Glycopeptide antibiotics were synthesized via the PyBOP mediated condensation of aliphatic, heterocyclic and aromatic amines with the C-terminus of vancomycin, LY264826 (A82846B) and semi-synthetic derivatives of these natural products. Amides of LY264826 and vancomycin demonstrated excellent activi …
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Enterococcus faecium (also known as Streptococcus faecium), Gram-positive, vancomycin resistant (VRE), coccus prokaryote that grows in groups or chains. E. faecium is commonly found in the guts of humans and other animals. It does not normally cause disease, but can be an opportunistic pathogen when the immune system is impaired. It is an important nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pathogen. E. faecium is known to have a resistance to several types of antibiotics including gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, teicoplanin and penicillin. Magnification: x4,170 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2608
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 22, No 11, 29 October 1998 contains information on enterococci with acquired resistance to vancomycin and other glycopeptides, which has emerged and spread rapidly through Europe and the United States since 1988.
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) (also referred to as glycopeptide-resistant enterococci) have emerged as significant nosocomial pathogens. Immunosuppression and indwelling devices are risk factors for invasive infections ( 3 , 6 ). Transmission on hospital wards is the major source of spread of these antibiotic-resistant organisms. Infection rates can be reduced by screening high-risk groups ( 4 ). Patients colonized with VRE are isolated to prevent transmission. The laboratory, in conjunction with the Infection Control Program, should decide which groups of patients to screen and the frequency of screening depending on the local epidemiology, unless regulations state otherwise ( 8 ).
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Comprehensive instructions for specimen collection, special requirements, specimen handling, testing methods and turnaround times.
Rural communities within low-income countries frequently rely on a range of drinking-water sources, and each water source varies in its potential for biological contamination. The extent and source of biological contamination in primary drinking sources within Kien Svay, Kandal, Cambodia, were determined by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements, 16S rDNA genetic markers for human and bovine fecal Bacteroides, presence of the bloom-forming Microcystis species, and the microcystin toxin mcyD gene marker. Thirteen wells, 11 rain barrels, 10 surface-water sites, and five sediment samples were examined during the dry and wet seasons. Surface water was commonly contaminated with FIB, with up to 1.02 × 105 Enterococcus sp., 6.13 × 104 E. coli, and 2.91 × 104 total coliforms per 100 mL of water. Human and bovine Bacteroides were detected in 100 and 90% of the surface water samples, respectively. Concentrations of FIB in rain-barrels varied by site, however 91% contained human Bacteroides. ...
The French word enterocque first was used in 1899 by Thiercelin to describe gram-positive cocci of enteric origin that formed pairs and short chains. Enterococcus species, Streptococcus bovis, and Streptococcus equines originally were grouped together as group D streptococci (Lancefield classification).
Japanese artist Megumi Igarashi (C) shows the message partly innocent outside the Tokyo District Court on April 13, 2017, Tokyo, Japan. Igarashi also known as Rokudenashiko was declared partly innocent by the Tokyo District Court, today April 13, after first being arrested in 2014 for distributing 3D data of her genitals as part of a crowd funding project to make a kayak based on her vulva. She had been found guilty in 2016 of breaking obscenity laws and fined JPY 400,000 but appealed that ruling. She was found guilty of distributing obscene data via the internet but innocent for displaying her art. Her fiancé Mike Scott of The Waterboys was also in Tokyo to attend the hearing. (Photo by Rodrigo Reyes Marin/AFLO)
A clinical isolate of (SP#5) that showed decreased susceptibility to evernimicin (MIC, 1. The incorporation of isoleucine demonstrated a linear response towards the dose degree of evernimicin. The incorporation of various other classes of tagged substrates was very much or unaffected postponed, indicating these had been secondary results. Everninomicins certainly are a course of oligosaccharide antibiotics isolated from (31). One particular substance, evernimicin (SCH 27899) (10, 11, 12) happens to be undergoing evaluation being a healing agent. Its been shown to possess powerful activity against many gram-positive bacterias, including emerging issue organisms such as for example vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci (16). Actually, there have been no staphylococcal, enterococcal, and pneumococcal isolates that shown level of resistance to evernimicin in either the analysis by Jones and Barrett (16) or a more-recent ...
Enterococcus are naturally occurring intestinal bacteria that can be found in humans, animals, plants, soil, and water. It is one of the most commonly occurring hospital-acquired illnesses, but can also be a foodborne illness. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly-isolated species.. Typical Symptoms. ...
Abstract: The ricotta is a type of fresh cheese of Italian origin, obtained by precipitation of proteins from cheese whey by acidification associated with the heat. Because of its nutritional, physicochemical and biochemical characteristics it is conducive to microbial growth. On the processing of this product it can be emphasized the Bacillus cereus, due to its ability to sporulate and be a potential contaminant of milk and the environment, and the bacteria of the genus Enterococcus, due its ubiquitous characteristic, ability to survive the various conditions of pH, temperature and salinity and appearance in cases of hospital infections. The objectives of the present work were: (a) to verify the possible sources of ricotta contamination by B. cereus and Enterococcus spp. during processing; (b) to identify the species of enterococci, evaluate the pathogenic potential and the resistance profile of these species to antibiotics of clinical use; and (c) to assess the conformity of samples of ricotta ...
Of all bacteria isolated from the mice, heat-killed Streptococcus sp. and heat-killed E. coli bound to immobilized MGL1. The binding was significantly reduced by the addition of 100 mmol/L Gal but not mannose (Figure 4A). The binding was also abrogated by the addition of 5 mmol/L EDTA, indicating that the interaction between the bacteria Dovitinib side effects and MGL1 was calcium-dependent (Figure 4B). To evaluate the interaction of bacteria with MGL1 on cell surfaces, uptake of fluorescent-labeled bacteria by CHO cells transfected with Mgl1 was examined. These cells engulfed Streptococcus sp., but not E. coli or Enterococcus sp. (Figure 4C), suggesting that Streptococcus sp. was one of the candidates of bacteria that interact with MGL1 during the pathogenesis of experimental colitis.. Figure 4 MGL1 binding to intestinal commensal bacteria. A: Commensal bacteria were isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes of DSS-treated mice on day 7. Heat-killed bacterial bodies were applied on microtiter plates ...
Enterococcus Faecium (EF) is a probiotic and has been found when that dietary supplementation of EF can increase nutrient digestibility and decrease faecal
Surveys of microbiological groundwater quality were conducted in a region with intensive animal agriculture in California, USA. The survey included monitoring and domestic wells in eight concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and 200 small (domestic and community supply district) supply wells across the region. Campylobacter was not detected in groundwater, whereas Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were each detected in 2 of 190 CAFO monitoring well samples. Nonpathogenic generic E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were detected in 24.2% (46/190) and 97.4% (185/190) groundwater samples from CAFO monitoring wells and in 4.2% (1/24) and 87.5% (21/24) of CAFO domestic wells, respectively. Concentrations of both generic E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were significantly associated with well depth, season, and the type of adjacent land use in the CAFO. No pathogenic bacteria were detected in groundwater from 200 small supply wells in the extended survey. However, 4.5 to 10.3% groundwater samples were
Canadian researchers have published a study assessing the antimicrobial resistance and virulence of genotypes of Enterococcus faecalis, taken from samples taken from a commercial pork processing plant. They conclude that the pork meat appears to be arriving at the plant free of E. faecalis, suggesting that contamination occurs during processing.
To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Allplex™ Entero-DR, a quantitative PCR-based method, for the detection of β-lactamase-encoding genes and vancomycin-resistance determinants in 156 previously characterized Gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus spp. from bacterial cultures. The method had 100% sensitivity and between 92 and 100% of specificity for identifying blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaOXA-48-like, blaCTX-M and vanA. In nine isolates, unspecific amplifications were detected. The Ct of these false positives was above 33. The Ct of the correctly identified bla and van genes did not surpass 28 and 30, respectively. None of the clinical isolates included as negative controls yielded any amplification. Therefore, the Allplex™ Entero-DR assay is a highly accurate test for the detection of important antibiotic resistance determinants. With this assay, reliable results can be obtained within 3 h. However, according to our data, samples with Ct values greater than 33 should be