TY - JOUR. T1 - Laboratory Detection of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Evaluation of Two Screening Agar Plates and Two Confirmation Techniques. AU - Overdevest, I.T.M.A.. AU - Willemsen, I.. AU - Elberts, S.. AU - Verhulst, C.. AU - Kluijtmans, J.A.J.W.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. U2 - 10.1128/JCM.01953-10. DO - 10.1128/JCM.01953-10. M3 - Article. C2 - 21123527. VL - 49. SP - 519. EP - 522. JO - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. JF - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. SN - 0095-1137. IS - 2. ER - ...
Background: Leclercia adecarboxylata is a motile, aerobic, gram-negative bacillus previously reported to cause clinically significant solitary bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients, as well as polymicrobial wound infections in immunocompetent patients. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a known reservoir for this rarely pathogenic organism, and may be a source for bacterial translocation into the blood. Case and Methods: A 51-year-old Filipino female with a history of hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis, presented to multiple emergency departments with persistent fever, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain over the course of two weeks. Blood cultures collected during one of her visits grew Leclercia adecarboxylata. She was called back to the hospital and admitted for further work-up. Computed tomography revealed possible small bowel wall thickening. Given her presenting symptoms, the GI tract was considered the most likely ...
To correlate the patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, severity of illness (the modified Pitt bacteremia score), diagnosis of deep-site infection, co-morbid conditions (including diabetes mellitus, hepatic and renal dysfunction), length of stay in ICU/hospitalization, the presence of invasive procedures, source of pathogen (community acquired or nosocomial infection), antimicrobial regimen (i.e carbapenems versus non-carbapenems(flomoxef or quinolones), microbiological characteristics (E coli and Kleb. pneumoniae) and outcome endpoints (clinical outcome and mortality) with ESBL recurrence and ...
Protein TonB; Interacts with outer membrane receptor proteins that carry out high-affinity binding and energy dependent uptake into the periplasmic space of specific substrates. It could act to transduce energy from the cytoplasmic membrane to specific energy- requiring processes in the outer membrane, resulting in the release into the periplasm of ligands bound by these outer membrane proteins (249 aa ...
Lipopolysaccharide export system protein LptC; Involved in the assembly of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Required for the translocation of LPS from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. Facilitates the transfer of LPS from the inner membrane to the periplasmic protein LptA. Could be a docking site for LptA; Belongs to the LptC family (192 aa ...
The workshop will be organised in two half-day sessions entirely dedicated to scientific discussions and debates. Videos presenting the results obtained by the projects funded by JPIAMR will be available shortly before the workshop. These will include three projects involving Polish research teams:. EMerGE-NeT: Effectiveness of infection control against intra- and inter-hospital transmission of MultidruG-resistant Enterobacteriaceae - insights from a multi-level mathematical NeTwork model. ImpresU: Improving rational prescribing for urinary tract infections (UTI) in frail elderly. INART: Intervention of antimicrobial resistance transfer into the food chain. Download draft workshop agenda: Agenda JPIAMR workshop on AMR transmission, 3-4 September 2020 (pdf). To register to the event and to ask questions to the panellists, please follow this link: Registration page JPIAMR workshop on AMR transmission, 3-4 September 2020 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium infection in microRNA-155-deficient mice. AU - Clare, Simon. AU - John, Victoria. AU - Walker, Alan W. AU - Hill, Jennifer L. AU - Abreu-Goodger, Cei. AU - Hale, Christine. AU - Goulding, David. AU - Lawley, Trevor D. AU - Mastroeni, Pietro. AU - Frankel, Gadi. AU - Enright, Anton J. AU - Vigorito, Elena. AU - Dougan, Gordon. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding molecules that control gene expression posttranscriptionally, with microRNA-155 (miR-155) one of the first to be implicated in immune regulation. Here, we show that miR-155-deficient mice are less able to eradicate a mucosal Citrobacter rodentium infection than wild-type C57BL/6 mice. miR-155-deficient mice exhibited prolonged colonization associated with a higher C. rodentium burden in gastrointestinal tissue and spread into systemic tissues. Germinal center formation and humoral immune responses against C. rodentium were severely impaired ...
Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).]. Case of NDM-1 Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae under CHP investigation. The Public Health Laboratory Services Branch (PHLSB) of the Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health confirmed today (October 16) a case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a 25-year-old man.. The patient, with good past health, lived in Hong Kong. He travelled to Guangdong Province on September 21 and sustained a severe head injury in a traffic accident on September 27. He was admitted to a local hospital and subsequently transferred to Prince of Wales Hospital for further management on October 4. The patient passed away on October 7.. The patients rectal swab yielded NDM-1 Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as confirmed by the PHLSB.. His travel collaterals and home contacts are asymptomatic. The case has been referred to the coroner for further ...
The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with ...
The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that line the gut form a robust line of defense against ingested pathogens. We investigated the impact of infection with the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium on mouse IEC metabolism using global proteomic and targeted metabolomics and lipidomics. The major signatures of the infection were upregulation of the sugar transporter Sglt4, aerobic glycolysis, and production of phosphocreatine, which mobilizes cytosolic energy. In contrast, biogenesis of mitochondrial cardiolipins, essential for ATP production, was inhibited, which coincided with increased levels of mucosal O2 and a reduction in colon-associated anaerobic commensals. In addition, IECs responded to infection by activating Srebp2 and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Unexpectedly, infected IECs also upregulated the cholesterol efflux proteins AbcA1, AbcG8, and ApoA1, resulting in higher levels of fecal cholesterol and a bloom of Proteobacteria. These results suggest that C. rodentium ...
BACKGROUND: Ceftaroline is a novel oxyimino-cephalosporin, strongly active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci and pneumococci. It is active against Enterobacteriaceae too, but is labile to common beta-lactamases, including AmpC and extended-spectrum types. To counteract these enzymes, ceftaroline is also being developed combined with NXL104, a beta-lactamase inhibitor.. METHODS: Chequerboard MIC titrations were performed to determine the NXL104 concentrations needed to protect ceftaroline against beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, most of them with ceftaroline MICs ,16 mg/L.. RESULTS: All of 60 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers were susceptible to ceftaroline + NXL104, 1 + 1 mg/L, as were 5/5 Klebsiella oxytoca with high-level K1 enzyme. Among 30 Enterobacteriaceae with high-level chromosomal AmpC, 18 were susceptible at 1 + 1 mg/L, 28 at 1 + 4 mg/L and all at 4 + 4 mg/L; among 10 with plasmid AmpC enzymes, nine were susceptible at 1 + 1 mg/L and all at 1 + 4 ...
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are rapidly spreading worldwide. Early detection of fecal CPE carriers is essential for effective infection control. Here, we evaluated the performance of a meropenem combined disk test (CDT) for rapidly differentiating CPE isolates directly from rectal swabs. The screening method was applied for 189 rectal swabs from hospitalized patients at high risk for CPE carriage. Swabs were suspended in 1 ml saline and cultured for confluent growth onto a MacConkey agar plate with a meropenem (MER) disk alone, a MER disk plus phenyl boronic acid (PBA), a MER disk plus EDTA, and a MER disk plus PBA and EDTA. An inhibition zone of ,= 25 mm around the MER disk alone indicated carriage of carbapenem-resistant organisms. Furthermore, ,= 5-mm differences in the inhibition zone between MER disks without and with the inhibitors (PBA, EDTA, or both) were considered positive results for detecting Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), metallo-beta-lactamase ...
Despite the unfavorable double-room configuration of our ICU, the 4.1% rate of ESBL acquisition was much lower than the 13% reported by Razazi et al. in a 24-bed ICU with eight single rooms but without any protocol of contact precautions for ESBL carriers [13]. It is close to that reported by Alves et al. in an ICU with only single rooms, in which contact precautions were also applied [17]. Unlike Barbier et al., who reported that half of the ESBL carriers acquired their ESBL during their ICU stay [16], and Gardam et al., who reported that ESBL acquisition accounted for two-thirds of ESBL carriage in the ICU [18], ESBL acquisition accounted for only 12.7% of all ESBL carriage in our study, confirming that ESBL carriage is mostly imported, whereas high-level cephalosporinase (HL-Case) is mostly acquired, in the ICU [19]. In multivariate analysis, the severity (SAPS II) at admission was the only factor identified to be associated with the acquired carriage of ESBL, while some authors have reported ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and screening of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. AU - Nordmann, P.. AU - Gniadkowski, M.. AU - Giske, C. G.. AU - Poirel, L.. AU - Woodford, N.. AU - Miriagou, V.. AU - Akova, M.. AU - Naas, T.. AU - Seifert, H.. AU - Livermore, D.. AU - Bogaerts, P.. AU - Glupczynski, Y.. AU - Canton, R.. AU - Rossolini, G. M.. AU - Giske, C.. AU - Adler, A.. AU - Carmeli, Y.. AU - Navon-Venezia, S.. AU - Samuelsen, O.. AU - Cornaglia, G.. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamases are the most powerful β-lactamases, being able to hydrolyse almost all β-lactams. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern, as these carbapenemase producers are multidrug-resistant. Detection of infected patients and of carriers are the two main approaches for prevention of their spread. Phenotypic and molecular-based techniques are able to identify ...
A 72-year-old woman presented with concern for a necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI) 6 days after a tree branch impaled her left lower extremity while hiking in Hawaii. The wound was irrigated and closed at a local clinic in Hawaii. She completed a 5-day course of clindamycin. She presented to our emergency department 1 day after completion of antibiotics due to worsening erythema and malodorous drainage. Local wound exploration revealed bullae and easy dissection of fascial planes. CT scan revealed complex heterogeneous fluid and inflammatory stranding in the posterior calf. Clinical and radiographic findings raised concern for NSTI prompting initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics and urgent operative debridement. Wound cultures and deep tissues cultures returned positive for pansusceptible Leclercia adecarboxylata. She underwent two additional operative debridements and transitioned to negative pressure wound therapy during her hospitalisation. She was discharged home on oral ...
The results indicated that spring waters could become a reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria and contribute to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via drinking water or food chain. In addition, wastewater discharge of restaurants or hotels may be an important contribution source of …
Background. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has received considerable attention recently. Data analysis in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER) revealed 75% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates to be ciprofloxacin-resistant in 2012. Few reports regarding the prevalence of PMQR are available from India. Hence, the present study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of PMQR genes among clinical isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in JIPMER. Methods. The study included 642 ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. JIPMER hospitals annual consumption data for fluoroquinolones were retrieved from the Department of Pharmacy. The test isolates were screened for the presence of qnr A, B, D, S and aac(6′)-Ib-cr genes. PMQR-positive isolates alone were tested for the presence of class I (intI1) and class II (intI2) integrons. Randomly selected PCR amplicons were sequenced and analysed using MEGA software. A total of
In this study we analysed the spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in tracheal aspirates of intubated PICU patients from 2005 to 2014. The spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in lower respiratory tract material revealed Enterobacter spp., E.coli and Klebsiella spp. as the most common isolates (86%). Comparable data of matching study settings are scarce in the current literature. Wilson et al. [5] collected daily tracheal aspirates from intubated children. Consistent with our findings, the most common Gram-negative organisms isolated were Klebsiella spp. and E.coli, followed by Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae. Lee et al. [34] described the microbiological spectrum and susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates from a PICU and found a rate of 20% ESBL-positive Klebsiella in 2005. Our study displayed a lower rate with only 6.5% of Klebsiella spp. isolates being ESBL-positive. However, more than half of E.coli isolates (55%), about a quarter of all Klebsiella spp. (28%) isolates and 4 out of 6 ...
Carriage duration of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is uncertain. We followed 21 CPE carriers over one year. Mean carriage duration was 86 (95%CrI= [60, 122]) days, with 98.5% (95%CrI= [95.0, 99.8]) probability of decolonization in one year. Antibiotic consumption was associated with prolonged carriage. CPE-carriers status should be reviewed yearly.
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are responsible for worldwide outbreaks and antibiotic treatments are problematic. The polysaccharide poly-(β-1,6)-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG) is a vaccine target detected on the surface of numerous pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli. Genes encoding PNAG biosynthetic proteins have been identified in two other main pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We hypothesized that antibodies to PNAG might be a new therapeutic option for the different pan-resistant pathogenic species of CRE.. METHODS: PNAG production was detected by confocal microscopy and its role in the formation of the biofilm (for E. cloacae) and as a virulence factor (for K. pneumoniae) was analysed. The in vitro (opsonophagocytosis killing assay) and in vivo (mouse models of peritonitis) activity of antibodies to PNAG were studied using antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant E. coli, E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae. A ...
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing worldwide, and are a major threat to healthcare systems. Recent European data support that many
The Enterobacteriaceae are a family of rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria that normally inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are the most common cause of Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. In addition to causing serious multidrug-resistant, hospital-acquired infections, a number of Enterobacteriaceae species are also recognized as biothreat pathogens. As a consequence, new tools are urgently needed to specifically identify and localize infections due to Enterobacteriaceae and to monitor antimicrobial efficacy. In this report, we used commercially available 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) to produce 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxysorbitol ((18)F-FDS), a radioactive probe for Enterobacteriaceae, in 30 min. (18)F-FDS selectively accumulated in Enterobacteriaceae, but not in Gram-positive bacteria or healthy mammalian or cancer cells in vitro. In a murine myositis model, (18)F-FDS positron emission tomography (PET) rapidly differentiated true infection from sterile inflammation with a limit of
An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae infection lasted for 4 months in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Forty-six isolates from the NICU and 20 epidemiologically unrelated strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and repetitive extragenic palindromic unit b1-primed PCR (REPUb1-PCR) typing. The PFGE patterns after XbaI restriction of the bacterial DNA were analyzed by computer software (Gelcompar) using the UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) clustering method and the Dice coefficient. The 46 isolates from the NICU were classified by PFGE typing into five clusters: A (further classified into 7 subtypes, A1 to A7), B, C, D, and E. This outbreak was attributed to multiple genetically related strains of cluster A which had a similarity of 85.8% +/- 4.6%. The minor band differences among strains of cluster A were probably due to minor genetic mutations. The type A1 and A3 strains were isolated from the clinical specimens ...
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a class of bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are considered last-resort drugs when other antibiotics have failed.. CRE, which tend to spread in hospitals and long-term care facilities, cause an estimated 9,300 infections and 600 deaths in the U.S. each year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).. And incidence is on the rise.. Tom Frieden, director of the CDC, has called these nightmare bacteria because they are resistant to some of the last-ditch treatments available to doctors fighting resistant infections.. The researchers looked at about 250 samples of CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals and from one California hospital. Their goal was to obtain a snapshot of the genetic diversity of CRE, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks, to find evidence of strains being transmitted within and between hospitals, and to learn how ...
Paper of the week: Orthopedic Implant-Associated Infection by Multidrug Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Pfang BG, García-Cañete J, García-Lasheras J, Blanco A, Auñón Á, Parron-Cambero R, Macías-Valcayo A, Esteban J. J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 8;8(2). pii: E220. doi: 10.3390/jcm8020220. Summary and Editorial by Sreeram Penna This is a retrospective observational study from a single institution. Researchers reviewed…
Carbapenem -resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and the Imperative for Antimicrobial Stewardship. Christopher Trabue, M.D. September 13, 2013. Outline. Background and Epidemiology Clinical significance and public health implications Slideshow 2067038 by kylia
Macrophages play pleiotropic roles in maintaining the balance between immune tolerance and inflammatory responses in the gut. Here, we identified transcription factor RBP-J as a crucial regulator of colonic macrophage-mediated immune responses against the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium . In the immune response phase, RBP-J promoted pathogen clearance by enhancing intestinal macrophage-elicited Th17 cell immune responses, which was achieved by maintenance of C/EBPβ-dependent IL-6 production by overcoming miRNA-17∼92-mediated suppressive effects. RBP-J deficiency-associated phenotypes could be genetically corrected by further deleting miRNA-17∼92 in macrophages. In the late phase, noneradicated pathogens in RBP-J KO mice recruited abundant IL-1β-expressing CD64 + Ly6C + colonic macrophages and thereby promoted persistence of ILC3-derived IL-22 to compensate for the impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to ultimate clearance of pathogens. These results demonstrated ...
Salloum N A, Kissoyan K A, Fadlallah S, Cheaito K, Araj G F, Wakim R, Kanj S, Kanafani Z, Dbaibo G, Matar G M (2015); Front Microbiol., 6:999. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00999. ...
Achaogen is a late-stage biopharmaceutical company passionately committed to the discovery, development, and commercialization of innovative antibacterial treatments for MDR gram-negative infections. Achaogen is developing plazomicin, its lead product candidate, for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The Food and Drug Administration has granted plazomicin Breakthrough Therapy designation for the treatment of bloodstream infections caused by certain Enterobacteriaceae in patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. The Companys second product candidate is C-Scape, an orally-administered product candidate for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Achaogens plazomicin program has been funded, and its C-Scape program is funded, in part with federal funds from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). Achaogen has ...
ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45% and 55% were positive for E. coli with reduced susceptibility for
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae(CPE) is a global health issue due to their hasty dissemination through the transfer of carbapenemase genes. Hence, rapid detection is necessary to take relevant control measures against CPE infections/colonization. We established a rapid and multiplex CPE detection system - Single Tag Hybridization Printed Array Strip (STH-PAS) by targeting the four different major carbapenemases. STH-PAS is a DNA-DNA hybridization technique where the oligonucleotide tag in the primer of PCR product hybridizes to its probe imprinted on a chromatographic strip without denaturation. Further, the efficacy of STH-PAS in detecting CPE directly in clinical samples is evaluated. Methods: STH-PAS was tailored to detect various alleles of the four carbapenemase genes - NDM, KPC, IMP, and OXA-48 like in a single reaction. Then, the efficiency of hybridization in STH-PAS for detection of carbapenemases was compared with conventional PCR. The efficiency of carbapenemase ...
To characterize the genomic context of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), we sequenced 78 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Pakistan and the United States encoding KPC, NDM-1, or no carbapenemase. High similarities of the results indicate rapid spread of carbapenem resistance between strains, including globally disseminated pathogens.
AB - Tracking disease progression in vivo is essential for the development of treatments against bacterial infection. Optical imaging has become a central tool for in vivo tracking of bacterial population development and therapeutic response. For a precise understanding of in vivo imaging results in terms of disease mechanisms derived from detailed postmortem observations, however, a link between the two is needed. Here, we develop a model that provides that link for the investigation of Citrobacter rodentium infection, a mouse model for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). We connect in vivo disease progression of C57BL/6 mice infected with bioluminescent bacteria, imaged using optical tomography and X-ray computed tomography, to postmortem measurements of colonic immune cell infiltration. We use the model to explore changes to both the host immune response and the bacteria and to evaluate the response to antibiotic treatment. The developed model serves as a novel tool for the ...
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in critical ill cancer patients has become a trending problem in the last years because of the challenge provided in treatment, of the limited tools in our...
Background: Transmaternal exposure to tobacco, microbes, nutrients, and other environmental factors shapes the fetal immune system through epigenetic processes. The gastric microbe Helicobacter pylori represents an ancestral constituent of the human microbiota that causes gastric disorders on the one hand and is inversely associated with allergies and chronic inflammatory conditions on the other. Objective: Here we investigate the consequences of transmaternal exposure to H pylori in utero and/or during lactation for susceptibility to viral and bacterial infection, predisposition to allergic airway inflammation, and development of immune cell populations in the lungs and lymphoid organs. Methods: We use experimental models of house dust mite- or ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and influenza A virus or Citrobacter rodentium infection along with metagenomics analyses, multicolor flow cytometry, and bisulfite pyrosequencing, to study the effects of H pylori on allergy severity and immunologic ...
The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli is on the rise worldwide, posing a major public health threat. Previously, this was mostly a problem in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, but during the last decade, carbapenem resistance has escalated in medically important species such as K …
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Citrobacter species answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
CTX-M-15 was the dominant ESBL gene, followed by OXA, SHV, CTX-M-14, OXA-10, and VEB-1 in frequent order. This is consistent with the present antimicrobial resistance situation among Enterobacteriaceae where the CTX-M family has replaced TEM and SHV types and became the dominant ESBL in most parts of the world including Nigeria, where they are prevalent both in the hospital and community settings [6, 12, 13]. In Morocco, CTX-M was detected in 6 out of 7 ESBL-producing E. coli with a predominance of CTX-M-15 (6/6) [14], while in Cameroon all the ESBL-E. coli strains isolated from stool samples of women with UTIs contained group 1 CTX-M enzymes [15]. Similarly, CTX-M-15 dominated ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from environmental samples in a hospital in Tunisia [16]. The high distribution of CTX-M-15 type ESBLs among these isolates explains the high rate of resistance to cephalosporin such as cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime in our study.. CTX-M-15 co-existed with either OXA-10 or ...
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Enterohaemorhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Citrobacter rodentium are constituent members of the attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. The A/E group of bacteria are considered to be extracellular pathogens which form characteristic lesions by intimately adhering to host enterocytes and directing the effacement intestinal brush border. EPEC and EHEC are diarrhoeal pathogens, which are a global health burden in developing and industrialised countries respectively. Citrobacter rodentium is a murine pathogen which is an excellent animal model for EPEC and EHEC infection. EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium conserve a genomic region termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) which encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), a core set of type 3 secreted effector proteins and the outer membrane adhesin intimin, which are essential for A/E lesion formation. A/E pathogens utilise their T3SSs to translocate dozens of effector proteins directly from the bacteria into host cells. ...
Pulmonary drug delivery offers several advantages in the treatment of respiratory diseases over other routes of administration. Inhalation therapy enables the direct application of a drug within the lungs. The local pulmonary deposition and delivery of the administered drug facilitates a targeted treatment of respiratory diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), without the need for high dose exposures by other routes of administration. The intravenous application of short acting vasodilators has been the therapy of choice for patients with PAH over the past decade. The relative severity of side effects led to the development of newprostacyclin analogues and alternative routes of administration. One such analogue, iloprost (Ventavis® ), is a worldwide approved therapeutic agent for treatment of PAH. Inhalation of this compound is an attractive concept minimizing the side effects by its pulmonary selectivity. Unfortunately, the short half-life of iloprost requires frequent ...
|i>Enterobacteriaceae|/i> are spread worldwide and the diseases they cause may be fatal especially in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, the high prevalence of ESBL producing Salmonella and...
Enterobacterial infections Definition Enterobacterial infections are disorders of the digestive tract and other organ systems produced by a group of rod-shaped bacteria called Enterobacteriaceae.
Learn more about Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Infection at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
The Enterobacteriaceae vial is a membrane vial, monitoring a change in color due to a pH shift as Enterobacteriaceae organisms ferment.
This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 26 April - 2 May 2015, and includes updates on Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, influenza, Salmonella Enteritidis, Borna virus, measles, rubella and Ebola virus. ...
This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 26 April - 2 May 2015, and includes updates on Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, influenza, Salmonella Enteritidis, Borna virus, measles, rubella and Ebola virus. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of TonB homologs in the family Enterobacteriaceae and evidence for conservation of TonB-dependent energy transduction complexes. AU - Larsen, Ray A.. AU - Myers, Paul S.. AU - Skare, Jonathan T.. AU - Seachord, Carrie L.. AU - Darveau, Richard P.. AU - Postle, Kathleen. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - The transport of Fe(III)-siderophore complexes and vitamin B12 across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli requires the TonB-dependent energy transduction system. A set of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against an E. coli TrpC-TonB fusion protein to facilitate structure and function studies. In the present study, the epitopes recognized by these MAbs were mapped, and their distribution in gram-negative organisms was examined. Cross-species reactivity patterns obtained against TonB homologs of known sequence were used to refine epitope mapping, with some epitopes ultimately confirmed by inhibition experiments using synthetic polypeptides. Epitopes ...
A genus of facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium in the phylum Proteobacteria and the family Enterobacteriaceae. Definition (MSH) A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella.
A trial of the Enterotube system for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae and a comparison with the methods at present in use in the Tygerberg Hospital Microbiology Laboratory, were carried out.