Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).]. Case of NDM-1 Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae under CHP investigation. The Public Health Laboratory Services Branch (PHLSB) of the Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health confirmed today (October 16) a case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a 25-year-old man.. The patient, with good past health, lived in Hong Kong. He travelled to Guangdong Province on September 21 and sustained a severe head injury in a traffic accident on September 27. He was admitted to a local hospital and subsequently transferred to Prince of Wales Hospital for further management on October 4. The patient passed away on October 7.. The patients rectal swab yielded NDM-1 Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as confirmed by the PHLSB.. His travel collaterals and home contacts are asymptomatic. The case has been referred to the coroner for further ...
The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can vary from moderate to severe. Enterobacteriaceae are common commensals and infectious agents. Experts fear CRE as the new "superbug". The bacteria can kill up to half of patients who get bloodstream infections. Tom Frieden, former head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has referred to CRE as "nightmare bacteria". Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) and NDM (New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase). KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective. Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM (Verona Integron-Mediated Metallo-β-lactamase) have also been ...
BACKGROUND: Ceftaroline is a novel oxyimino-cephalosporin, strongly active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci and pneumococci. It is active against Enterobacteriaceae too, but is labile to common beta-lactamases, including AmpC and extended-spectrum types. To counteract these enzymes, ceftaroline is also being developed combined with NXL104, a beta-lactamase inhibitor.. METHODS: Chequerboard MIC titrations were performed to determine the NXL104 concentrations needed to protect ceftaroline against beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, most of them with ceftaroline MICs ,16 mg/L.. RESULTS: All of 60 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers were susceptible to ceftaroline + NXL104, 1 + 1 mg/L, as were 5/5 Klebsiella oxytoca with high-level K1 enzyme. Among 30 Enterobacteriaceae with high-level chromosomal AmpC, 18 were susceptible at 1 + 1 mg/L, 28 at 1 + 4 mg/L and all at 4 + 4 mg/L; among 10 with plasmid AmpC enzymes, nine were susceptible at 1 + 1 mg/L and all at 1 + 4 ...
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are rapidly spreading worldwide. Early detection of fecal CPE carriers is essential for effective infection control. Here, we evaluated the performance of a meropenem combined disk test (CDT) for rapidly differentiating CPE isolates directly from rectal swabs. The screening method was applied for 189 rectal swabs from hospitalized patients at high risk for CPE carriage. Swabs were suspended in 1 ml saline and cultured for confluent growth onto a MacConkey agar plate with a meropenem (MER) disk alone, a MER disk plus phenyl boronic acid (PBA), a MER disk plus EDTA, and a MER disk plus PBA and EDTA. An inhibition zone of ,= 25 mm around the MER disk alone indicated carriage of carbapenem-resistant organisms. Furthermore, ,= 5-mm differences in the inhibition zone between MER disks without and with the inhibitors (PBA, EDTA, or both) were considered positive results for detecting Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), metallo-beta-lactamase ...
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a class of bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are considered last-resort drugs when other antibiotics have failed.. CRE, which tend to spread in hospitals and long-term care facilities, cause an estimated 9,300 infections and 600 deaths in the U.S. each year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).. And incidence is on the rise.. Tom Frieden, director of the CDC, has called these nightmare bacteria because they are resistant to some of the last-ditch treatments available to doctors fighting resistant infections.. The researchers looked at about 250 samples of CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals and from one California hospital. Their goal was to obtain a snapshot of the genetic diversity of CRE, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks, to find evidence of strains being transmitted within and between hospitals, and to learn how ...
Carbapenem -resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and the Imperative for Antimicrobial Stewardship. Christopher Trabue, M.D. September 13, 2013. Outline. Background and Epidemiology Clinical significance and public health implications Slideshow 2067038 by kylia
A total of 907 consecutive isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae recovered during a 20-week period were tested for production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) by the double-disk (DD) potentiation method. Of 84 DD-positive isolates, 83 (9.2%) produced ESBLs based on isoelectric focusing. SHV-derived ESBLs and several TEM-derived ESBLs were present in nine species, including the first isolate of Citrobacter koserii and Morganella morganii known to harbor an SHV-derived ESBL. Results of testing 58 nonrepeat isolates for ESBL production by several recommended methods were as follows (percent detected in parentheses): DD method with aztreonam (95), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (88), or cefpodoxime (90); broth microdilution method with ceftazidime (86) or cefotaxime (91) alone or in combination with clavulanate; and the standard disk diffusion method with new breakpoints and standard concentrations of aztreonam (78), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (83), or cefpodoxime (98) ...
N.C. Communicable Disease Branch page about new carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), untreatable or difficult-to-treat Enterobacteriaceae that have developed high levels of resistance to antibiotics, including last-resort antibiotics called carbapenems. Includes NC DHHS and CDC communications about this emerging public health concern as well as links to infection prevention information tailored for patients and healthcare providers.
In this study we analysed the spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in tracheal aspirates of intubated PICU patients from 2005 to 2014. The spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in lower respiratory tract material revealed Enterobacter spp., E.coli and Klebsiella spp. as the most common isolates (86%). Comparable data of matching study settings are scarce in the current literature. Wilson et al. [5] collected daily tracheal aspirates from intubated children. Consistent with our findings, the most common Gram-negative organisms isolated were Klebsiella spp. and E.coli, followed by Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae. Lee et al. [34] described the microbiological spectrum and susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates from a PICU and found a rate of 20% ESBL-positive Klebsiella in 2005. Our study displayed a lower rate with only 6.5% of Klebsiella spp. isolates being ESBL-positive. However, more than half of E.coli isolates (55%), about a quarter of all Klebsiella spp. (28%) isolates and 4 out of 6 ...
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing worldwide, and are a major threat to healthcare systems. Recent European data support that many
Despite the unfavorable double-room configuration of our ICU, the 4.1% rate of ESBL acquisition was much lower than the 13% reported by Razazi et al. in a 24-bed ICU with eight single rooms but without any protocol of contact precautions for ESBL carriers [13]. It is close to that reported by Alves et al. in an ICU with only single rooms, in which contact precautions were also applied [17]. Unlike Barbier et al., who reported that half of the ESBL carriers acquired their ESBL during their ICU stay [16], and Gardam et al., who reported that ESBL acquisition accounted for two-thirds of ESBL carriage in the ICU [18], ESBL acquisition accounted for only 12.7% of all ESBL carriage in our study, confirming that ESBL carriage is mostly imported, whereas high-level cephalosporinase (HL-Case) is mostly acquired, in the ICU [19]. In multivariate analysis, the severity (SAPS II) at admission was the only factor identified to be associated with the acquired carriage of ESBL, while some authors have reported ...
Enterobacteriaceae is a family of Gram negative bacilli which can cause a wide range of community acquired and nosocomial infections including infections of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, sepsis and medical device associated infections (Surinder Kumar, 2012; Wang et al., 2015; Harbaik et al., 2014). These organisms easily acquire and transfer drug resistance genes through plasmids and transposons (Okoche et al., 2015). Carbapenem are beta lactam antibiotics and are the last resort for the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram negative bacilli (Gupta et al., 2006; Roy et al., 2011). Reports indicate that carbapenemases producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates seem to be increasing in number in the last few years (Nagaraj et al., 2012).
The results indicated that spring waters could become a reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria and contribute to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via drinking water or food chain. In addition, wastewater discharge of restaurants or hotels may be an important contribution source of …
ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45% and 55% were positive for E. coli with reduced susceptibility for
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, and now includes over 30 genera and more than 100 species. Its classification above the level of family is still a subject of debate, but one classification places it in the order Enterobacterales of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.[2][3][4][5] Enterobacteriaceae includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Shigella. Other disease-causing bacteria in this family include Enterobacter and Citrobacter. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae can be trivially referred to as enterobacteria or "enteric bacteria",[6] as several members live in the intestines of animals. In fact, the etymology of the family is enterobacterium with the suffix to designate a family (aceae)-not after the genus Enterobacter (which would be "Enterobacteraceae")-and the type genus is Escherichia. ...
Paper of the week: Orthopedic Implant-Associated Infection by Multidrug Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Pfang BG, García-Cañete J, García-Lasheras J, Blanco A, Auñón Á, Parron-Cambero R, Macías-Valcayo A, Esteban J. J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 8;8(2). pii: E220. doi: 10.3390/jcm8020220. Summary and Editorial by Sreeram Penna This is a retrospective observational study from a single institution. Researchers reviewed…
About 21% of international travelers-and 37% of travelers with diarrhea who had taken antibiotics-may be colonized with drug-resistant bacteria, according to a study yesterday in Clinical Infectious Diseases.. Researchers collected stool samples from 430 Finns before and after they traveled outside of Scandinavia. They tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), two drug-resistant "superbugs.". They found that 90 of the travelers, or 21%, became colonized by ESBL-PE after traveling, but none by CPE. For travelers to South Asia, the prevalence rose to 46%.. The rate of ESBL-PE was 11% in those without travelers diarrhea (TD) or antimicrobial use, 21% for those with TD and no antimicrobial use, and 37% in those with both TD and antimicrobial use.. Those numbers climbed to 14%, 37%, and 69%, respectively, in travelers to Southeast Asia, and to 23%, 47%, and 80% in travelers to South Asia.. "More than 300 ...
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae(CPE) is a global health issue due to their hasty dissemination through the transfer of carbapenemase genes. Hence, rapid detection is necessary to take relevant control measures against CPE infections/colonization. We established a rapid and multiplex CPE detection system - Single Tag Hybridization Printed Array Strip (STH-PAS) by targeting the four different major carbapenemases. STH-PAS is a DNA-DNA hybridization technique where the oligonucleotide tag in the primer of PCR product hybridizes to its probe imprinted on a chromatographic strip without denaturation. Further, the efficacy of STH-PAS in detecting CPE directly in clinical samples is evaluated. Methods: STH-PAS was tailored to detect various alleles of the four carbapenemase genes - NDM, KPC, IMP, and OXA-48 like in a single reaction. Then, the efficiency of hybridization in STH-PAS for detection of carbapenemases was compared with conventional PCR. The efficiency of carbapenemase ...
What are carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)? Enterobacteriaceae are a group of bacteria normally found in the human gut. Common types include E. coli and Klebsiella species. Carbapenems are a class of antibiotics that were developed to treat bacteria that are resistant to other drugs. Due to the overuse of these antibiotics, some types of Enterobacteriaceae have developed resistance to carbapenems; these bacteria are called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE).. Who gets CRE? Healthy people usually do not get CRE infections. In healthcare settings, CRE infections may occur among patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions. Patients whose care requires devices like ventilators (breathing machines), urinary (bladder) catheters, or intravenous (vein) catheters, and patients who are taking long courses of certain antibiotics are most at risk for CRE infections.. How are CRE spread? CRE can be transmitted via direct person-to-person contact with an infected person or ...
Achaogen is a late-stage biopharmaceutical company passionately committed to the discovery, development, and commercialization of innovative antibacterial treatments for MDR gram-negative infections. Achaogen is developing plazomicin, its lead product candidate, for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The Food and Drug Administration has granted plazomicin Breakthrough Therapy designation for the treatment of bloodstream infections caused by certain Enterobacteriaceae in patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. The Companys second product candidate is C-Scape, an orally-administered product candidate for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Achaogens plazomicin program has been funded, and its C-Scape program is funded, in part with federal funds from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). Achaogen has ...
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are an emerging concern in public health. Antimicrobial use, hospitalization and foreign travel are associated with human carriage of ESBL-PE. Duration of carriage with ESBL-PE can vary. The main objective of this thesis is to provide an overview of the current scientific knowledge on persistence ... read more of ESBL carriage in humans. In addition, risk factors for duration of ESBL carriage will be described. After a literature search, 14 studies met the criterion that duration of ESBL-PE was assessed. Eight studies were conducted in patients, two in NICU patients, and four in non-patients (travelers, adopted children, medical students). Approximately half of adult (hospitalized) patients carried ESBL-PE after 6 months (range 33-53%). After 12 months, this percentage was around 25%. Median carriage time was reported from 98 days till more than 9 months. For a minority of patients carriage time was more than three years. ...
Original publication: RAHN (O.): New principles for the classification of bacteria. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1937, 96, 273-286. Note: The family name Enterobacteriaceae was omitted from the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980, but a footnote was inserted on page 236 indicating that the name was sub judice, referring to the proposal by Lapage. This has led to some confusion over the status of the name. The Judicial Commission has reviewed this question and concluded that the family name Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937 is valid and should have been incorporated in the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980 ...
The Enterobacteriaceae vial is a membrane vial, monitoring a change in color due to a pH shift as Enterobacteriaceae organisms ferment.
Rapid Test for Urease and Phenylalanine Deaminase Production: A rapid urea-phenylalanine medium was effective for the identification of Proteus and, with one ex
General characters of the family Enterobacteriaceae. •Gram negative rods •Motile or non motile •If motile with peritrichious flagella •Aerobic or facultative anaerobe •Catalase positive •Oxidase negative •Ferment glucose with or without production of gas • Reduce nitrates to nitrites •Morphology gram negative non sporing •Motility •Culture -Simple media they can grow very easily •Why the selective media are used then •To Knock out the normal flora. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of TonB homologs in the family Enterobacteriaceae and evidence for conservation of TonB-dependent energy transduction complexes. AU - Larsen, Ray A.. AU - Myers, Paul S.. AU - Skare, Jonathan T.. AU - Seachord, Carrie L.. AU - Darveau, Richard P.. AU - Postle, Kathleen. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - The transport of Fe(III)-siderophore complexes and vitamin B12 across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli requires the TonB-dependent energy transduction system. A set of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against an E. coli TrpC-TonB fusion protein to facilitate structure and function studies. In the present study, the epitopes recognized by these MAbs were mapped, and their distribution in gram-negative organisms was examined. Cross-species reactivity patterns obtained against TonB homologs of known sequence were used to refine epitope mapping, with some epitopes ultimately confirmed by inhibition experiments using synthetic polypeptides. Epitopes ...
The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli is on the rise worldwide, posing a major public health threat. Previously, this was mostly a problem in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, but during the last decade, carbapenem resistance has escalated in medically important species such as K …
Introduction. An epidemiological study addressed to identify gram-negative bacteria, isolated from laboratories in a Northern area of Italy, and their antibiotic resistance patterns was conducted. Methods. Twelve laboratories distributed on Ligurian territory or neighbouring areacollected all consecutive gram-negative isolates belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenter group for 2 months and sent them to a reference laboratory. Results. A total of 1880 pathogens were collected, including 899 and 981 strains isolated from nosocomial- and community-acquired infections, respectively. Escherichia coli (63.3% of total) was the most frequently isolated pathogen followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.6%), Proteus mirabilis (8.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.4%). Nosocomial samples were collected mainly from patients in general medicine wards (19.9%) and healthcare settings (14.1%). Urine was the most common clinical sample (79.9% of the total). Other samples were sputum and ...
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in urine or feces is a substantial risk factor for subsequent EPE-bloodstream infection.
A trial of the Enterotube system for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae and a comparison with the methods at present in use in the Tygerberg Hospital Microbiology Laboratory, were carried out.
The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (E-ESBL) is a major public health problem. It leads more frequent prescription of penems with the risk of emergence and spread of strains producing carbapenemases, which may be resistant to all known antibiotics. A policy of savings of penems is desirable. Among the alternatives to penems, amikacin is in the foreground. It remains active on the majority of E-ESBL strains. Some risk factors for E-ESBL emergence are known: recent antibiotic therapy (particularly quinolones and cephalosporins third generation), previous hospitalization or residence in a high endemic country.. In pediatrics, E-ESBLs are primarily responsible for urinary tract infection. In France, E-ESBLs represent about 10% of the strains responsible for urinary tract infections. The Pathology Group Pediatric Infectious (GPIP) of the French Society of Pediatrics (SFP) and the Society of Infectious Pathology French Language (SPILF) have proposed different ...
Public Health Ontario (PHO) is a Crown corporation dedicated to protecting and promoting the health of all Ontarians and reducing inequities in health. PHO links public health practitioners, front-line health workers and researchers to the best scientific intelligence and knowledge from around the world.
Pulmonary drug delivery offers several advantages in the treatment of respiratory diseases over other routes of administration. Inhalation therapy enables the direct application of a drug within the lungs. The local pulmonary deposition and delivery of the administered drug facilitates a targeted treatment of respiratory diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), without the need for high dose exposures by other routes of administration. The intravenous application of short acting vasodilators has been the therapy of choice for patients with PAH over the past decade. The relative severity of side effects led to the development of newprostacyclin analogues and alternative routes of administration. One such analogue, iloprost (Ventavis® ), is a worldwide approved therapeutic agent for treatment of PAH. Inhalation of this compound is an attractive concept minimizing the side effects by its pulmonary selectivity. Unfortunately, the short half-life of iloprost requires frequent ...
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
Historically, a variety of organisms have been used as indicators of fecal contamination but many of them have been questionable because they can be found naturally in environmental samples, even in the absence of fecal contamination. Example of this is the bacteria included in categories such as fecal Streptococci, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. are bacteria that occupy the gut of warm blooded animals, including humans, thus their presence can be considered an indication of some kind of fecal contamination.. E. coli is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes many genera, including known pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia. Microscopically the cells of these organisms generally appear as Gram-negative cocobacilli; or straight rods with rounded ends. Enterobacteriaceae ferment glucose, grows on MacConkey agar, is oxidase-negative, and, with rare exceptions, reduces nitrates. Although most strains of E. coli are not ...
Enterobacterial infections Definition Enterobacterial infections are disorders of the digestive tract and other organ systems produced by a group of rod-shaped bacteria called Enterobacteriaceae.
API 20EIdentification System for Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram Negative Rods.1.The culture that I was given was culture B. The 7-digit numerical profile of my organism was 3604132. This organism is known as citrobater freudndii.2.Escherichia.Escher...
|i>Enterobacteriaceae|/i> are spread worldwide and the diseases they cause may be fatal especially in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, the high prevalence of ESBL producing Salmonella and...
Ceftibuten-Avibactam Activity against β-Lactam-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates. Lead author LR Duncan, presented at ASM Microbe 2019, June 20-24, San Francisco, CA, ...
Hariharan, H., & Barnum, D. A. (1973). Drug resistance among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae from animals in Ontario. Canadian Journal Of Public Health, 64(1), 69 ...
Steyn, D. G. Finlayson, M. H. Brede, H. D. 1976. The Enterobacteriaceae of South African Baboons. South African Medical Journal, 19 June: 994- ...
words that start with enterobacteria, words starting with enterobacteria, words that begin with enterobacteria, words beginning with enterobacteria
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; Enterobacteriaceae; unclassified Enterobacteriaceae; unclassified Enterobacteriaceae (miscellaneous ...
Diseases caused by bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family are still an important medical problem, especially in developing countries. The diarrhoea being the result of bacterial infection is the third cause of death among children of up to five years old. Additionally, there is a major problem with antibiotic resistant bacterial strains in developed countries. Therefore, it would be highly beneficial to develop vaccines against opportunistic bacterial pathogens of gastrointestinal system for prevention of Enterobacteriaceae infections.. ...
Bacteriological Examination of water, milk and air Water Milk Air  Water intended for human consumption should not contain any pathogenic organisms.  Water is used for many applications either at home for cooking ,washing or drinking or in industries such as food and pharmaceuticals.  It is also important for hospitals for example haemodialysis unit  Testing of water samples are done regularly to make sure of its safety  Supplies of drinking water contaminated with sewage may cause diseases such as: typhoid fever and cholera.  All sources of water should be tested regularly.  Microorganisms which indicate the fecal pollution in water are usually common intestinal commensal bacteria.  Escherichia coli:  The essential indicator of fecal pollution of human /animal origin. It is an important member of the coliform bacteria.   Coliforms are members of the enterobacteriaceae family and they 1. grow in the presence of bile salts. 2. produce acid and gas from ...
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The global rise of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is alarming and is an increasing threat to patient safety, in Europe and globally.. ...
The global rise of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is alarming and is an increasing threat to patient safety, in Europe and globally.. ...
Results: The rate of S. aureus isolates resistant to oxacillin was 50%, with 0% resistance to vancomycin. The percentage of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins in E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 17 and 19%, respectively; the ESBL-production in enterobacterial strains was 15 and 19%, respectively, and the quinolone resistance was 41 and 28%, respectively. The resistance of P. aeruginosa to ceftazidime and imipenem was 30 and 40%, respectively. Most strains of A. baumannii studied came from a single multidrug-resistant clone, endemic in the ICU of our hospital ...
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in community-acquired bacteremia in Southern Israel. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 8:CR44-7. 2002 ...
Callefi, Luciana Azevedo, Medeiros, Eduardo A. and Furtado, Guilherme Henrique Campos Predictors of 14-day mortality in patients with bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains: a mathematical PK/PD analysis. Braz J Infect Dis, Apr 2012, vol.16, no.2, p.211-213. ISSN 1413- ...
I have recently isolated some bacteria from soil and performed biochemical tests for these isolates. On comparing with available references the results are very much confusing between Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas (gram -ve rods). Could you please tell me what is the main difference in biochemical tests for Enterobacteriaceae and other gram -ve rods ( like Pseudomonas ...
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Explain what is meant by an enteric pathogen as opposed to enteric bacilli. Explain why anaerobic organisms are generally not the enteric pathogens seen in a routine fecal specimen. Why are these anaerobic organisms not seen in.
The new cephalosporin compounds have increased in vitro activity against gram-negative enteric bacilli and penetrate well into cerebrospinal fluid. Moreover, their pharmacokinetic properties are favorable and their safety seems adequate, although ins
... are available from 3M Food Safety (Microbiology) that can easily differentiate coliforms from non-coliforms.
The 3M™ Petrifilm™ High-Sensitivity Coliform Count Plate accommodates 5 mL samples and detection of low levels of confirmed coliforms in 24 hours.
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Online journal only (no print).EcoSal Plus is a continuous publication review journal and is not issue based.. Editor in Chief: James Kaper, PhD, University of Maryland School of Medicine. Scope: EcoSal Plus is an authoritative online review journal that publishes an ever-growing body of expert reviews covering virtually all aspects of E. coli, Salmonella, and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and their use as model microbes for biological explorations. This journal is intended primarily to serve the needs of the research community as a comprehensive and continuously updated archive of the entire corpus of knowledge about the enteric bacterial cell. All aspects of these organisms are covered, including physiology, metabolism, genetics, pathogenesis, ecology, genomics, systems biology, and history. These thoughtful reviews provide the integrated background needed for most microbiology investigations and are essential reading for research scientists.. ...
UM Researchers Find Gut Microbiota Play Important Role With Vaccination. The bacteria in the human gut may play an important role in immune response to vaccines and infection by wild-type enteric organisms... ...
n Onlangse artikel in die Lancet vestig aandag op die verskyning Talle NDM-1-produseerders bly vatbaar net vir kolistien en van Enterobacteriaceae met weerstand teen karbapenems, tigesiklien. Enkele isolate, veral E.coli, behou n mate van verleen deur die Nieu-Delhi metallo-β-laktamase 1 (NDM-1). gevoeligheid vir antibiotika soos chlooramfenikol, tetrasiklien, NDM-1 verwys na n oordraagbare genetiese element wat vir fosfomisien, aminoglikosiede en aztreonam. Kombinasieterapie veelvuldige weerstandgenes kodeer en wat aanvanklik vanaf n stam van Klebsiella van n pasiënt wat die organisme in Nieu-Delhi, Vroeë identifikasie van NDM-1-verwante infeksies en van draers is noodsaaklik. NDM-1-vatbaarheid vir karbapenems varieer en Die skrywers het talle isolate met NDM-1 in Indië, Pakistan en die ertapenem is moontlik die mees toepaslike vir die opsporing van VK geïsoleer. Met die uitsondering van Sentraal- en Suid-Amerika NDM-1-produseerders met laevlak weerstand teenoor hierdie is hierdie ...
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Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; Enterobacteriaceae; Klebsiella; Klebsiella ...
Looking for online definition of enteric bacillus in the Medical Dictionary? enteric bacillus explanation free. What is enteric bacillus? Meaning of enteric bacillus medical term. What does enteric bacillus mean?
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with health care-associated infections. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor.. A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. aeruginosa and 1878 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected in 12 medical centers located in four Latin American countries. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods as described by the CLSI M07-A10 document and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria.. Results. Ceftolozane-tazobactam (MIC50/90, 0.25/32μg/mL; 84.2% susceptible) and meropenem (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/0.12μg/mL; 92.6% susceptible) were the most active compounds tested against Enterobacteriaceae. Among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested, 6.6% were ...
Background: Leclercia adecarboxylata is a motile, aerobic, gram-negative bacillus previously reported to cause clinically significant solitary bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients, as well as polymicrobial wound infections in immunocompetent patients. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a known reservoir for this rarely pathogenic organism, and may be a source for bacterial translocation into the blood. Case and Methods: A 51-year-old Filipino female with a history of hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis, presented to multiple emergency departments with persistent fever, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain over the course of two weeks. Blood cultures collected during one of her visits grew Leclercia adecarboxylata. She was called back to the hospital and admitted for further work-up. Computed tomography revealed possible small bowel wall thickening. Given her presenting symptoms, the GI tract was considered the most likely ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In Vitro Effectiveness of Meropenem and Cefmetazole Combination Treatment Against KPC-2-Producing Enterobacteriaceae. AU - Hagiya, Hideharu. AU - Aoki, Kotaro. AU - Akeda, Yukihiro. AU - Yamamoto, Norihisa. AU - Shanmugakani, Rathina Kumar. AU - Ishii, Yoshikazu. AU - Tomono, Kazunori. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. N2 - Purpose: Optimal treatment regimens are yet to be established for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). We assessed the in vitro efficacy of meropenem (MEM) and cefmetazole (CMZ) combination treatment against blaKPC-2-positive Enterobacteriaceae, in comparison with that of double-carbapenem therapy using ertapenem (ERT). Materials and Methods: We performed checkerboard assay for 10 blaKPC-2-positive clinical isolates and Klebsiella pneumoniae BAA-1705 (possessing blaKPC-2), with synergistic effect being defined by a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ≤0.5. Subsequently, we conducted time-kill assays using K. pneumoniae BAA-1705 with an ...
Trends in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) collected from hospitals nationwide in Singapore over 3 years are presented. Hospital isolates with imipenem or meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ,1 mg/L were sent to the National Public Health Laboratory for further investigation. A total of 400 CRE were submitted, 227 (56.8%) of which carried a carbapenemase gene. blaNDM was the most common (130/400; 32.5%), followed by blaOXA-48-like (blaOXA-48, -181, -232) (55/400; 13.8%). Interestingly, four isolates bearing dual carbapenemase genes were also detected. KPC- and OXA-48-like-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were fingerprinted by DiversiLab® rep-PCR. Locally, KPC producers do not appear to have clonal dissemination. In contrast, OXA-48-like producers were found to have a greater degree of clustering than KPC producers. © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer ...
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are untreatable or difficult to treat bacteria that are resistant to carbapenem antibiotics and nearly all available antibiotics. They can cause serious illness and death; bloodstream infections are fatal in 40% -50% of cases. CRE was designated by the CDC in 2013 as one of the three most urgent drug resistant threats in the United States. An estimated 9,000 CRE infections cause 600 deaths yearly in the U.S.. Risk factors for CRE colonization or infection include open wounds, presence of indwelling devices (such as endotracheal tubes, feeding tubes, and catheters), multiple medical problems, and high antimicrobial use. CRE are easily spread between infected or colonized patients by health care workers and equipment, unless rigorous infection prevention precautions are taken. Cases and outbreaks of CRE have been increasingly recognized in recent years in Northern California, including Alameda County. In June 2017, the Alameda County Public Health ...
Provider Role in Transmission of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae - Volume 38 Issue 11 - Marika E. Grabowski, Hyojung Kang, Kristen M. Wells, Costi D. Sifri, Amy J. Mathers, Jennifer M. Lobo
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a serious threat to public health. Infections with CRE are difficult, and in some cases impossible, to treat and have been associated with mortality rates up to 50%(1). Due to the movement of patients throughout the healthcare system, if CRE are a problem in one facility, then typically they are a problem in other facilities in the region as well. To help protect patients and prevent transmission, CDC has updated 2012 CRE toolkit; this document will continue to be updated as new information becomes available.. ...
Many water utilities are required to monitor source water for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, or both. The Colilert system, an application of the defined substrate technology, simultaneously detects the presence of both total coliforms and Escherichia coli directly from a water sample. After incubation, the formula becomes yellow if total coliforms are present and fluorescent at 366 nm if E. coli is in the same sample. No confirmatory tests are required. The Colilert system was previously assessed with distribution water in a national evaluation in both most-probably-number and presence-absence formats and found to produce data equivalent to those obtained by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The Colilert system was now compared with Standard Methods multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) for the enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli from surface water. All MTF tubes were confirmed according to Standard Methods, and subcultures were
The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2013 survey focussed for the first time on blood stream infections. Four thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight Enterobacteriaceae species were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek® 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix™, BD). The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2014). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 7.5%/7.5% (CLSI/EUCAST criteria respectively) of Escherichia coli; 6.3%/6.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 7.4%/7.4% of K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.3%/11.3% for E. coli, 4.6%/7.5% for K. pneumoniae, 0.6%/0.6% for K. oxytoca, and 3.6%/6.1% in Enterobacter cloacae. ...
To correlate the patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, severity of illness (the modified Pitt bacteremia score), diagnosis of deep-site infection, co-morbid conditions (including diabetes mellitus, hepatic and renal dysfunction), length of stay in ICU/hospitalization, the presence of invasive procedures, source of pathogen (community acquired or nosocomial infection), antimicrobial regimen (i.e carbapenems versus non-carbapenems(flomoxef or quinolones), microbiological characteristics (E coli and Kleb. pneumoniae) and outcome endpoints (clinical outcome and mortality) with ESBL recurrence and ...
The breadth of clinically relevant β-lactamase enzymes in a wide range of Enterobacteriaceae species continues to contribute to a growing global clinical challenge, where even drugs of last resort such as the carbapenems are no longer predictably reliable. S-649266 is a novel siderophore cephalosporin antibiotic with a catechol moiety on the 3-position side chain. The addition of the catechol moiety enables the active transport of S-649266 into bacterial cells via iron transport systems. This molecular technique of harnessing the cells own essential survival mechanisms to increase the penetration of the antimicrobial agent has been described as a Trojan horse approach (14). Since the iron transporters are strongly regulated by the surrounding iron concentrations (24), the culture medium for the MIC determination of S-649266 was supplemented with an iron chelator (human apo-transferrin) to mimic the limited free iron condition present in human biological fluids (21).. In the first ...
Many primary bacterial enteropathogens have been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease in dogs. In clinical practice it can be difficult to prove that they are actually causing the enteropathy, since many of these bacteria occur as a normal component of the indigenous intestinal flora. Routine faecal culture, the method most commonly used to identify enteropathogens, is therefore limited by the difficulty in interpreting the results. In vitro methods applying molecular approaches for identification of toxic genes from bacterial isolates are a promising alternative to provide a more accurate diagnosis. This is especially true for E. coli, which is a major component of the intestinal flora and commonly present in the faeces. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Bacteria. The normal regulation of the gastrointestinal microflora depends on complex interactions between host and microbial factors. These factors are also important in preventing transient pathogenic bacteria from colonising the ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are increasing globally. Particularly, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are of concern. Rapid and accurate detection of these strains is critical for appropriate antimicrobial use and hospital infection control. In the present study, criteria for CPE screening were examined using a carbapenem susceptibility disk. Carbapenemase producers showed minimal inhibition zones for faropenem (5 μg): 6-12 mm (mean: 6.9 mm). Some strains with the IMP-6 genotype showed inhibition zones of >30 mm for imipenem (10 μg) and biapenem (10 μg). All strains that formed inhibition zones for FRPM had the IMP-6 genotype. The cut off values of carbapenemase-producers, determined by ROC analysis, were 12 mm for FRPM, 24 mm for meropenem (10 μg), 29 mm for BIPM, 25 mm for doripenem (10 μg), 26 mm for IPM, and 24 mm for panipenem (10 μg). Thus, the sensitivity was the highest (100%) for FRPM. Specificities were 93.44% for MEPM and DRPM and 85.25% for FRPM. ...
A series of nearly isogenic O4-12, and O-6,7 Salmonella typhimurium strains differing in regard to the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) were constructed by conjugation. When tested in intraperitoneal infection of mice, the O-4,12 strains containing ECA were more virulent than their O-4,12 sister recombinants without ECA (P = less than 0.001). The same difference could be shown with ECA-positive and ECA-negative S. typhimurium derivatives, whose O antigens were of the group C type (O-6,7). The ECA-positive and ECA-negative O-4,12 strains did not differ in their growth rates in broth or clearance rates in vivo. ...
The blaNDM-1 (New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1) gene has disseminated around the globe. NDM-1 producers are found to co-harbour resistance genes against many antimicrobials, including fluoroquinolones. The spread of large plasmids, carrying both blaNDM and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance (PMQR) markers, is one of the main reasons for the failure of these essential antimicrobials. Enterobacteriaceae (n = 73) isolated from the blood of septicaemic neonates, admitted at a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Kolkata, India, were identified followed by PFGE, antibiotic susceptibility testing and determination of MIC values for meropenem and ciprofloxacin. Metallo-β-lactamases and PMQRs were identified by PCR. NDM-positive isolates were studied for mutations in GyrA & ParC and for co-transmission of blaNDM and PMQR genes (aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qnrB, qnrS) through conjugation or transformation. Plasmid types, integrons, plasmid addiction systems, and genetic environment of the blaNDM gene in NDM
The most common mechanism of resistance among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and other Enterobacteriaceae is through the production of β-lactamases, which - depending on the enzyme - inactivate certain β-lactam antibiotics [13]. The ESBLs are a heterogeneous group of enzymes that are encoded by plasmid-borne genes. ESBLs now number 532 distinct enzymes and convey varying degrees of resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins, β-lactamase inhibitors, and monobactams [1, 13]. The prevalence of ESBL-producing strains varies by geography (particularly in urban areas), type of hospital, and patient age. For example, in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, the rate of ESBL-producing strains of Klebsiella spp. in bloodstream infections between 1997 and 2002 was 43.7% in Latin America but 21.7% in Europe and 5.8% in North America (P , 0.001) [14]. Among North American strains recovered in 2001 from patients in ICUs, the ESBL-producing phenotype was found in 11.2% of E. coli isolates ...
The wide and indiscriminate use of antibiotics often results in the establishment of a pool of antibiotic resistance in the environment. In order to establish the state of bacterial resistance to antibiotics in the Mhlathuze River, 114 enteric bacteria were isolated from water samples collected from this river over a period of two years. The isolates were identified using the culture methods and confirmed by the API 20E system. The isolates were then tested for their susceptibility or resistance to a battery of 15 antibiotics. Those that showed multiple antibiotic resistance, 43 in total were screened for the presence of classl integrons and the associated antibiotic resistance genes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resistance of the enteric bacteria isolated over a period of one year showed that resistance to the older classes of antibiotics was high (94.7 % resistance to one antibiotic and 80.8 % resistance to two antibiotics). Furthermore, antibiotic resistance data of the ...
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It was a week into my elderly patients hospital admission when he began to have fever and profuse diarrhea, some 10-12 bowel movement a day. The diagnosis was not hard to make: a stool test showed he had C difficile. Another patient, a thin women in her late 40s who had become paraplegic after a […]. ...
(PRWEB) May 15, 2015 -- GeneWEAVE, Inc.,a clinical diagnostics company addressing multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDRO), announced that initial data presented
Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, frequently referred to as enterics or enterobacteria, are Gram-negative rods. Their name reflects the fact that most reside in the intestinal tract of humans and other animals (Greek enteron means intestine), although some thrive in rich soil. Enterics that are part of the normal flora of the intestine include Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Proteus species as well as most strains of E. coli. Those that cause diarrheal disease include Shigella species, Salmonella Enteritidis, and some strains of E. coli. Life-threatening systemic diseases include typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi, and both the bubonic and pneumonic forms of plague, caused by Yersinia pestis. ■ diarrheal disease, p. 610 ■ typhoid fever, p. 616 ■ plague, p. 723. Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are facultative anaerobes that ferment glucose and, if motile, have peritrichous flagella. The family includes about 40 recognized genera that can be distinguished using ...
1. Fernandez J, Cunningham SA, Fernandez-Verdugo A, et al: Evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for rectal screening of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a general intensive care unit of an endemic hospital. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 2017 July;88(3):252-258 doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2017.04.001. 2. Bush K, Fisher JF: Epidemiological expansion, structural studies, and clinical challenges of new beta-lactamases from gram-negative bacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology 2011;65:455-478. 3. Poirel L, Potron A, Nordmann P: OXA-48-like carbapenemases: the phantom menace. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2012;67:1597-1606. 4. Nordmann P, Naas T, Poirel L: Global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2011;17:1791-1798. ...
There has been increasing concern on the emergence of multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens from foods of animal origin, including poultry. The current study aimed to evaluate antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from raw retail chicken/turkey parts (thigh, wings, breast, and ground) and beef meat (ground and chunks) in Middle Tennessee. Resistance of the collected Enterobacteriaceae to a panel of antibiotics was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Retail meats were also assayed for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Two hundred thirty-seven samples representing 95.2% of the total of 249 samples tested were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. The level of contamination with Enterobacteriaceae in raw meats ranged from 3.26 log cfu/g to 4.94 log cfu/g with significant differences in counts among meat types (P , 0.05). Contamination was significantly greater (P , 0.05) in ground beef, beef chucks, ground chicken, chicken breast, and turkey wings (4.92, ...
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE FROM INTENSIVELY-REARED APPARENTLY HEALTHY AND DISEASED POULTRY IN ABEOKUTA, NIGERIA
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of bacteria commonly affecting the stomach. The name is derived from the prefix "entero-", meaning intestine; "bacteria", meaning bacteria; and "ceae", meaning family or group. It includes many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. On February 19, 2015, 179 people in Los Angeles, California may have been exposed to the bacteria. At least two people have been reported dead. The bacteria has been called a "superbug" by news reporters.[1][2][3] It was confirmed that the outbreak was caused by the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles.[4] ...
WoRMS (2009). Enterobacteriaceae. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=414809 on 2018-01- ...
As a whole, Gram-negative agents showed an increasing trend of isolation, regardless of the examined clinical specimens, while the epidemiology of Staphylococci remained somewhat unchanged, and their methicillin resistance rate remained under control (around 39% of overall isolates from blood cultures). When considering Enterococci, the active surveillance of VRE strains successfully acted against the potential nosocomial spread of these organisms: the only 7 cases of "Van A" Enterococcus faecalis strains were not related with each other, and glycopeptide resistance remained limited to less than 3% of overall Enterococci. An increasing number of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was noticed (with a 29-36% quarterly rate for Escherichia coli, and up to 41% for other organisms, as a whole). The overall resistance rate against fluoroquinolones is on steady increase: the last quarterly report shows a 47.3% rate for E. coli, 30.8% for Enterobacteriaceae, and 42.6% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ...
In its acceptance letter, the FDA has stated that it is currently planning to hold an advisory committee meeting to discuss this application. The NDA is supported by data from both the EPIC and CARE clinical trials which evaluated the safety and efficacy of plazomicin in patients with serious infections caused by gram-negative pathogens, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). The FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for plazomicin for the treatment of bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by certain Enterobacteriaceae in patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. Breakthrough Therapy designation was created by the FDA to expedite the development and review of drugs that target serious or life-threatening conditions. Plazomicin has also received Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) designation from the FDA which provides incentives for the development of new antibiotics, including priority ...
Antimicrobial resistance has become a major global public health security problem that needs coordinated approaches at regional, national and international levels. Antibiotic overuse and the failure of control measures to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria in the healthcare environment have led to an alarming increase in the number of infections caused by resistant bacteria, organisms that resist many (multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant strains), if not all (pan-drug-resistant bacteria) currently available antibiotics. While Gram-positive cocci resistance (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci) shows a heterogeneous geographical distribution, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have become pandemic worldwide and endemic in some parts of the world, respectively. Moreover, currently available therapeutic options for resistant bacteria are very limited, with very few new ...
The study was conducted at all regional veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Feed materials were examined for Salmonella prevalence and contamination by Enterobacteriaceae, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total plate count, fungi, Clostridium sp., and Bacillus cereus. Assays were done following international and Polish standards used in food and feed microbiology. Salmonella sp. were most often detected in oil seeds. In most of the examined feed ingredients, the number of Enterobacteriaceae did not exceed 10 cfu/g. The contamination by aerobic bacteria ranged most often from 101to 107 cfu/g, and the highest mycological contamination was noted in cereal grains (108 cfu/g). The results showed that microbial contamination of feed materials in regard to Enterobacteriaceae, fungi, and total plate counts declined over the past years. ...
PURPOSE: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase are important mechanisms of betalactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae . The ESBL confirmation test described by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) is in routine use. This method fails to detect ESBL in the presence of AmpC. Therefore, we compared two different ESBL detection methods against the CLSI confirmatory test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 200 consecutive clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from various clinical samples were tested for ESBL production using (i) CLSI described phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT), (ii) boronic acid disk potentiation test and (iii) cefepime-CA disk potentiation method ...