Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).]. Case of NDM-1 Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae under CHP investigation. The Public Health Laboratory Services Branch (PHLSB) of the Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health confirmed today (October 16) a case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a 25-year-old man.. The patient, with good past health, lived in Hong Kong. He travelled to Guangdong Province on September 21 and sustained a severe head injury in a traffic accident on September 27. He was admitted to a local hospital and subsequently transferred to Prince of Wales Hospital for further management on October 4. The patient passed away on October 7.. The patients rectal swab yielded NDM-1 Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as confirmed by the PHLSB.. His travel collaterals and home contacts are asymptomatic. The case has been referred to the coroner for further ...
The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can vary from moderate to severe. Enterobacteriaceae are common commensals and infectious agents. Experts fear CRE as the new superbug. The bacteria can kill up to half of patients who get bloodstream infections. Tom Frieden, former head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has referred to CRE as nightmare bacteria. Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) and NDM (New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase). KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective. Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM (Verona Integron-Mediated Metallo-β-lactamase) have also been ...
Infections with carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are associated with high mortality rates (1). Carbapenemases encoded on plasmids can move between bacterial strains and have the potential to rapidly increase the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems; as such, CP-CRE have been a particular focus of public health response. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family includes approximately 50 recognized genera, surveillance for CP-CRE has focused on the organisms most associated with clinical infections: Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Escherichia coli (2,3). CRE from other, less commonly encountered genera (hereafter referred to as less common genera) have generally not been targeted for carbapenemase testing, in part, because some of these organisms possess intrinsic resistance to the carbapenem imipenem and others express species-specific chromosomal carbapenemases. However, these organisms can also harbor plasmid-mediated ...
BACKGROUND: Ceftaroline is a novel oxyimino-cephalosporin, strongly active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci and pneumococci. It is active against Enterobacteriaceae too, but is labile to common beta-lactamases, including AmpC and extended-spectrum types. To counteract these enzymes, ceftaroline is also being developed combined with NXL104, a beta-lactamase inhibitor.. METHODS: Chequerboard MIC titrations were performed to determine the NXL104 concentrations needed to protect ceftaroline against beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, most of them with ceftaroline MICs ,16 mg/L.. RESULTS: All of 60 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers were susceptible to ceftaroline + NXL104, 1 + 1 mg/L, as were 5/5 Klebsiella oxytoca with high-level K1 enzyme. Among 30 Enterobacteriaceae with high-level chromosomal AmpC, 18 were susceptible at 1 + 1 mg/L, 28 at 1 + 4 mg/L and all at 4 + 4 mg/L; among 10 with plasmid AmpC enzymes, nine were susceptible at 1 + 1 mg/L and all at 1 + 4 ...
The Enterobacteriaceae are a family of rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria that normally inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are the most common cause of Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. In addition to causing serious multidrug-resistant, hospital-acquired infections, a number of Enterobacteriaceae species are also recognized as biothreat pathogens. As a consequence, new tools are urgently needed to specifically identify and localize infections due to Enterobacteriaceae and to monitor antimicrobial efficacy. In this report, we used commercially available 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) to produce 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxysorbitol ((18)F-FDS), a radioactive probe for Enterobacteriaceae, in 30 min. (18)F-FDS selectively accumulated in Enterobacteriaceae, but not in Gram-positive bacteria or healthy mammalian or cancer cells in vitro. In a murine myositis model, (18)F-FDS positron emission tomography (PET) rapidly differentiated true infection from sterile inflammation with a limit of
Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a growing concern worldwide. Raoultella ornithinolytica is a species in the Enterobacteriaceae family which can cause hospital-acquired infections and is sporadically reported as carbapenem-resistant from human and environmental sources. In this study, we firstly report on an NDM-1-producing R. ornithinolytica, Rao166, isolated from drinking water in an animal cultivation area in China. In addition to carbapenem-resistance, Rao166 was resistant to several other antibiotics including gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline and fosfomycin. Rao166 carried a novel IncFIC-type megaplasmid, 382,325 bp in length (pRAO166a). A multidrug resistance region, 60,600 bp in length, was identified in the plasmid containing an aac(3)-IId-like gene, aac(6)-Ib-cr, blaDHA-1, blaTEM-1B, blaCTX-M-3, blaOXA-1, blaNDM-1, qnrB4, catB3, arr-3, sul1, and tet(D). Results from virulence assays implied that Rao166 has considerable pathogenic ...
Salad vegetables purchased from farmers markets and grocery stores in central Ohio during the summers of 2015 and 2016 were tested for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems, Salmonella contamination, and coliform bacterial counts. A total of 364 samples were collected from 36 farmers markets and 33 grocery stores. Using selective media, we found 23 (6.3%) samples that produced Enterobacteriaceae expressing an AmpC β-lactamase phenotype, with 11 (3.0%) confirmed to contain blaCMY and 6 (1.6%) that produced Enterobacteriaceae with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype, 1 (0.3%) of which was confirmed to contain blaCTX-M. All blaCMY and blaCTX-M strains were isolated from leafy greens. No Salmonella spp. or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from fresh produce samples. Adjusting for year, the geometric mean coliform count differed (P , 0.05) between produce types, with the count in tomatoes (15 CFU/mL) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and screening of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. AU - Nordmann, P.. AU - Gniadkowski, M.. AU - Giske, C. G.. AU - Poirel, L.. AU - Woodford, N.. AU - Miriagou, V.. AU - Akova, M.. AU - Naas, T.. AU - Seifert, H.. AU - Livermore, D.. AU - Bogaerts, P.. AU - Glupczynski, Y.. AU - Canton, R.. AU - Rossolini, G. M.. AU - Giske, C.. AU - Adler, A.. AU - Carmeli, Y.. AU - Navon-Venezia, S.. AU - Samuelsen, O.. AU - Cornaglia, G.. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamases are the most powerful β-lactamases, being able to hydrolyse almost all β-lactams. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM and OXA-48 types. Their current extensive spread worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae is an important source of concern, as these carbapenemase producers are multidrug-resistant. Detection of infected patients and of carriers are the two main approaches for prevention of their spread. Phenotypic and molecular-based techniques are able to identify ...
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are rapidly spreading worldwide. Early detection of fecal CPE carriers is essential for effective infection control. Here, we evaluated the performance of a meropenem combined disk test (CDT) for rapidly differentiating CPE isolates directly from rectal swabs. The screening method was applied for 189 rectal swabs from hospitalized patients at high risk for CPE carriage. Swabs were suspended in 1 ml saline and cultured for confluent growth onto a MacConkey agar plate with a meropenem (MER) disk alone, a MER disk plus phenyl boronic acid (PBA), a MER disk plus EDTA, and a MER disk plus PBA and EDTA. An inhibition zone of ,= 25 mm around the MER disk alone indicated carriage of carbapenem-resistant organisms. Furthermore, ,= 5-mm differences in the inhibition zone between MER disks without and with the inhibitors (PBA, EDTA, or both) were considered positive results for detecting Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), metallo-beta-lactamase ...
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a class of bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are considered last-resort drugs when other antibiotics have failed.. CRE, which tend to spread in hospitals and long-term care facilities, cause an estimated 9,300 infections and 600 deaths in the U.S. each year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).. And incidence is on the rise.. Tom Frieden, director of the CDC, has called these nightmare bacteria because they are resistant to some of the last-ditch treatments available to doctors fighting resistant infections.. The researchers looked at about 250 samples of CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals and from one California hospital. Their goal was to obtain a snapshot of the genetic diversity of CRE, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks, to find evidence of strains being transmitted within and between hospitals, and to learn how ...
Carbapenem -resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and the Imperative for Antimicrobial Stewardship. Christopher Trabue, M.D. September 13, 2013. Outline. Background and Epidemiology Clinical significance and public health implications Slideshow 2067038 by kylia
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are responsible for worldwide outbreaks and antibiotic treatments are problematic. The polysaccharide poly-(β-1,6)-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG) is a vaccine target detected on the surface of numerous pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli. Genes encoding PNAG biosynthetic proteins have been identified in two other main pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We hypothesized that antibodies to PNAG might be a new therapeutic option for the different pan-resistant pathogenic species of CRE.. METHODS: PNAG production was detected by confocal microscopy and its role in the formation of the biofilm (for E. cloacae) and as a virulence factor (for K. pneumoniae) was analysed. The in vitro (opsonophagocytosis killing assay) and in vivo (mouse models of peritonitis) activity of antibodies to PNAG were studied using antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant E. coli, E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae. A ...
A total of 907 consecutive isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae recovered during a 20-week period were tested for production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) by the double-disk (DD) potentiation method. Of 84 DD-positive isolates, 83 (9.2%) produced ESBLs based on isoelectric focusing. SHV-derived ESBLs and several TEM-derived ESBLs were present in nine species, including the first isolate of Citrobacter koserii and Morganella morganii known to harbor an SHV-derived ESBL. Results of testing 58 nonrepeat isolates for ESBL production by several recommended methods were as follows (percent detected in parentheses): DD method with aztreonam (95), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (88), or cefpodoxime (90); broth microdilution method with ceftazidime (86) or cefotaxime (91) alone or in combination with clavulanate; and the standard disk diffusion method with new breakpoints and standard concentrations of aztreonam (78), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (83), or cefpodoxime (98) ...
N.C. Communicable Disease Branch page about new carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), untreatable or difficult-to-treat Enterobacteriaceae that have developed high levels of resistance to antibiotics, including last-resort antibiotics called carbapenems. Includes NC DHHS and CDC communications about this emerging public health concern as well as links to infection prevention information tailored for patients and healthcare providers.
In this study we analysed the spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in tracheal aspirates of intubated PICU patients from 2005 to 2014. The spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae in lower respiratory tract material revealed Enterobacter spp., E.coli and Klebsiella spp. as the most common isolates (86%). Comparable data of matching study settings are scarce in the current literature. Wilson et al. [5] collected daily tracheal aspirates from intubated children. Consistent with our findings, the most common Gram-negative organisms isolated were Klebsiella spp. and E.coli, followed by Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae. Lee et al. [34] described the microbiological spectrum and susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates from a PICU and found a rate of 20% ESBL-positive Klebsiella in 2005. Our study displayed a lower rate with only 6.5% of Klebsiella spp. isolates being ESBL-positive. However, more than half of E.coli isolates (55%), about a quarter of all Klebsiella spp. (28%) isolates and 4 out of 6 ...
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing worldwide, and are a major threat to healthcare systems. Recent European data support that many
Despite the unfavorable double-room configuration of our ICU, the 4.1% rate of ESBL acquisition was much lower than the 13% reported by Razazi et al. in a 24-bed ICU with eight single rooms but without any protocol of contact precautions for ESBL carriers [13]. It is close to that reported by Alves et al. in an ICU with only single rooms, in which contact precautions were also applied [17]. Unlike Barbier et al., who reported that half of the ESBL carriers acquired their ESBL during their ICU stay [16], and Gardam et al., who reported that ESBL acquisition accounted for two-thirds of ESBL carriage in the ICU [18], ESBL acquisition accounted for only 12.7% of all ESBL carriage in our study, confirming that ESBL carriage is mostly imported, whereas high-level cephalosporinase (HL-Case) is mostly acquired, in the ICU [19]. In multivariate analysis, the severity (SAPS II) at admission was the only factor identified to be associated with the acquired carriage of ESBL, while some authors have reported ...
Enterobacteriaceae is a family of Gram negative bacilli which can cause a wide range of community acquired and nosocomial infections including infections of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, sepsis and medical device associated infections (Surinder Kumar, 2012; Wang et al., 2015; Harbaik et al., 2014). These organisms easily acquire and transfer drug resistance genes through plasmids and transposons (Okoche et al., 2015). Carbapenem are beta lactam antibiotics and are the last resort for the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram negative bacilli (Gupta et al., 2006; Roy et al., 2011). Reports indicate that carbapenemases producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates seem to be increasing in number in the last few years (Nagaraj et al., 2012).
The results indicated that spring waters could become a reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria and contribute to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via drinking water or food chain. In addition, wastewater discharge of restaurants or hotels may be an important contribution source of …
ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45% and 55% were positive for E. coli with reduced susceptibility for
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, and now includes over 30 genera and more than 100 species. Its classification above the level of family is still a subject of debate, but one classification places it in the order Enterobacterales of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.[2][3][4][5] Enterobacteriaceae includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Shigella. Other disease-causing bacteria in this family include Enterobacter and Citrobacter. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae can be trivially referred to as enterobacteria or enteric bacteria,[6] as several members live in the intestines of animals. In fact, the etymology of the family is enterobacterium with the suffix to designate a family (aceae)-not after the genus Enterobacter (which would be Enterobacteraceae)-and the type genus is Escherichia. ...
Paper of the week: Orthopedic Implant-Associated Infection by Multidrug Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Pfang BG, García-Cañete J, García-Lasheras J, Blanco A, Auñón Á, Parron-Cambero R, Macías-Valcayo A, Esteban J. J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 8;8(2). pii: E220. doi: 10.3390/jcm8020220. Summary and Editorial by Sreeram Penna This is a retrospective observational study from a single institution. Researchers reviewed…
To characterize the genomic context of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), we sequenced 78 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Pakistan and the United States encoding KPC, NDM-1, or no carbapenemase. High similarities of the results indicate rapid spread of carbapenem resistance between strains, including globally disseminated pathogens.
The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae among residents living in nursing homes and to compare it with a corresponding group of elderly people living in their own homes. A total of 160 persons participated in the study between February and April 2014, 91 were residents in nursing homes (n = 10) and the remaining 69 were elderly living in their own homes. In addition to performing faecal samples, all participants answered a standardized questionnaire regarding known risk factors for ESBL-carriage. There was no significant difference between the groups, as 10 of the 91 (11 %) residents from nursing homes were ESBL-carriers compared with 6 of 69 (8,7 %) elderly living in their own homes. There was no significant difference between the groups. The total prevalence was 10 %. A univariate analysis revealed that the only studied risk factor significantly associated with ESBL-carriage was recent ...
About 21% of international travelers-and 37% of travelers with diarrhea who had taken antibiotics-may be colonized with drug-resistant bacteria, according to a study yesterday in Clinical Infectious Diseases.. Researchers collected stool samples from 430 Finns before and after they traveled outside of Scandinavia. They tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), two drug-resistant superbugs.. They found that 90 of the travelers, or 21%, became colonized by ESBL-PE after traveling, but none by CPE. For travelers to South Asia, the prevalence rose to 46%.. The rate of ESBL-PE was 11% in those without travelers diarrhea (TD) or antimicrobial use, 21% for those with TD and no antimicrobial use, and 37% in those with both TD and antimicrobial use.. Those numbers climbed to 14%, 37%, and 69%, respectively, in travelers to Southeast Asia, and to 23%, 47%, and 80% in travelers to South Asia.. More than 300 ...
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae(CPE) is a global health issue due to their hasty dissemination through the transfer of carbapenemase genes. Hence, rapid detection is necessary to take relevant control measures against CPE infections/colonization. We established a rapid and multiplex CPE detection system - Single Tag Hybridization Printed Array Strip (STH-PAS) by targeting the four different major carbapenemases. STH-PAS is a DNA-DNA hybridization technique where the oligonucleotide tag in the primer of PCR product hybridizes to its probe imprinted on a chromatographic strip without denaturation. Further, the efficacy of STH-PAS in detecting CPE directly in clinical samples is evaluated. Methods: STH-PAS was tailored to detect various alleles of the four carbapenemase genes - NDM, KPC, IMP, and OXA-48 like in a single reaction. Then, the efficiency of hybridization in STH-PAS for detection of carbapenemases was compared with conventional PCR. The efficiency of carbapenemase ...
What are carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)? Enterobacteriaceae are a group of bacteria normally found in the human gut. Common types include E. coli and Klebsiella species. Carbapenems are a class of antibiotics that were developed to treat bacteria that are resistant to other drugs. Due to the overuse of these antibiotics, some types of Enterobacteriaceae have developed resistance to carbapenems; these bacteria are called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE).. Who gets CRE? Healthy people usually do not get CRE infections. In healthcare settings, CRE infections may occur among patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions. Patients whose care requires devices like ventilators (breathing machines), urinary (bladder) catheters, or intravenous (vein) catheters, and patients who are taking long courses of certain antibiotics are most at risk for CRE infections.. How are CRE spread? CRE can be transmitted via direct person-to-person contact with an infected person or ...
CTX-M-15 was the dominant ESBL gene, followed by OXA, SHV, CTX-M-14, OXA-10, and VEB-1 in frequent order. This is consistent with the present antimicrobial resistance situation among Enterobacteriaceae where the CTX-M family has replaced TEM and SHV types and became the dominant ESBL in most parts of the world including Nigeria, where they are prevalent both in the hospital and community settings [6, 12, 13]. In Morocco, CTX-M was detected in 6 out of 7 ESBL-producing E. coli with a predominance of CTX-M-15 (6/6) [14], while in Cameroon all the ESBL-E. coli strains isolated from stool samples of women with UTIs contained group 1 CTX-M enzymes [15]. Similarly, CTX-M-15 dominated ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from environmental samples in a hospital in Tunisia [16]. The high distribution of CTX-M-15 type ESBLs among these isolates explains the high rate of resistance to cephalosporin such as cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime in our study.. CTX-M-15 co-existed with either OXA-10 or ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a concern in South Africa and worldwide. It is therefore important that these organisms be accurately identified for infection prevention control purposes. In this study 1193 suspected CREs from 46 laboratories from seven provinces in South Africa were assessed to confirm the prevalence of carbapenemase genes from our referral diagnostic isolates for the period 2012 to 2015. We compared the antimicrobial susceptibility testing method used in the reference laboratory to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which is used as the gold standard. Organism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using automated systems and DNA was extracted using a crude boiling method. The presence of carbapenemase-producing genes (blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOXA-48&variants, blaGES, blaIMP and blaVIM) was screened for using a multiplex real-time PCR. Sixty-eight percent (n = 812) of the isolates harboured a carbapenemase-producing gene; the three most
The protoplast-like forms produced from enteric bacilli by the effect of penicillin are capable of adsorbing phage, and are thus distinguished from the protoplasts produced through the use of lysozyme. The protoplast-like forms are capable of securing the reproduction of phage, although the phage production is ten times less than that from normal cells. The penicillin does not affect the amount of phage adsorption, but suppresses the intracellular phase of the phages development in the spherical bodies. Therefore, in a study of the given process it is necessary to remove the penicillin from the medium in which they are situated. Inasmuch as the protoplast-like formations are capable of securing phage development and at the same time, evidently, possess an increased permeability for the macromolecular substrates, their use seems expedient for the study of the reproduction mechanism of bacterial viruses.
Salloum N A, Kissoyan K A, Fadlallah S, Cheaito K, Araj G F, Wakim R, Kanj S, Kanafani Z, Dbaibo G, Matar G M (2015); Front Microbiol., 6:999. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00999. ...
Achaogen is a late-stage biopharmaceutical company passionately committed to the discovery, development, and commercialization of innovative antibacterial treatments for MDR gram-negative infections. Achaogen is developing plazomicin, its lead product candidate, for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The Food and Drug Administration has granted plazomicin Breakthrough Therapy designation for the treatment of bloodstream infections caused by certain Enterobacteriaceae in patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. The Companys second product candidate is C-Scape, an orally-administered product candidate for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Achaogens plazomicin program has been funded, and its C-Scape program is funded, in part with federal funds from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). Achaogen has ...
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are an emerging concern in public health. Antimicrobial use, hospitalization and foreign travel are associated with human carriage of ESBL-PE. Duration of carriage with ESBL-PE can vary. The main objective of this thesis is to provide an overview of the current scientific knowledge on persistence ... read more of ESBL carriage in humans. In addition, risk factors for duration of ESBL carriage will be described. After a literature search, 14 studies met the criterion that duration of ESBL-PE was assessed. Eight studies were conducted in patients, two in NICU patients, and four in non-patients (travelers, adopted children, medical students). Approximately half of adult (hospitalized) patients carried ESBL-PE after 6 months (range 33-53%). After 12 months, this percentage was around 25%. Median carriage time was reported from 98 days till more than 9 months. For a minority of patients carriage time was more than three years. ...
Original publication: RAHN (O.): New principles for the classification of bacteria. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1937, 96, 273-286. Note: The family name Enterobacteriaceae was omitted from the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980, but a footnote was inserted on page 236 indicating that the name was sub judice, referring to the proposal by Lapage. This has led to some confusion over the status of the name. The Judicial Commission has reviewed this question and concluded that the family name Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937 is valid and should have been incorporated in the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980 ...
The Enterobacteriaceae vial is a membrane vial, monitoring a change in color due to a pH shift as Enterobacteriaceae organisms ferment.
Rapid Test for Urease and Phenylalanine Deaminase Production: A rapid urea-phenylalanine medium was effective for the identification of Proteus and, with one ex
General characters of the family Enterobacteriaceae. •Gram negative rods •Motile or non motile •If motile with peritrichious flagella •Aerobic or facultative anaerobe •Catalase positive •Oxidase negative •Ferment glucose with or without production of gas • Reduce nitrates to nitrites •Morphology gram negative non sporing •Motility •Culture -Simple media they can grow very easily •Why the selective media are used then •To Knock out the normal flora. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of TonB homologs in the family Enterobacteriaceae and evidence for conservation of TonB-dependent energy transduction complexes. AU - Larsen, Ray A.. AU - Myers, Paul S.. AU - Skare, Jonathan T.. AU - Seachord, Carrie L.. AU - Darveau, Richard P.. AU - Postle, Kathleen. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - The transport of Fe(III)-siderophore complexes and vitamin B12 across the outer membrane of Escherichia coli requires the TonB-dependent energy transduction system. A set of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against an E. coli TrpC-TonB fusion protein to facilitate structure and function studies. In the present study, the epitopes recognized by these MAbs were mapped, and their distribution in gram-negative organisms was examined. Cross-species reactivity patterns obtained against TonB homologs of known sequence were used to refine epitope mapping, with some epitopes ultimately confirmed by inhibition experiments using synthetic polypeptides. Epitopes ...
The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli is on the rise worldwide, posing a major public health threat. Previously, this was mostly a problem in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, but during the last decade, carbapenem resistance has escalated in medically important species such as K …
Introduction. An epidemiological study addressed to identify gram-negative bacteria, isolated from laboratories in a Northern area of Italy, and their antibiotic resistance patterns was conducted. Methods. Twelve laboratories distributed on Ligurian territory or neighbouring areacollected all consecutive gram-negative isolates belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenter group for 2 months and sent them to a reference laboratory. Results. A total of 1880 pathogens were collected, including 899 and 981 strains isolated from nosocomial- and community-acquired infections, respectively. Escherichia coli (63.3% of total) was the most frequently isolated pathogen followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.6%), Proteus mirabilis (8.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.4%). Nosocomial samples were collected mainly from patients in general medicine wards (19.9%) and healthcare settings (14.1%). Urine was the most common clinical sample (79.9% of the total). Other samples were sputum and ...
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in urine or feces is a substantial risk factor for subsequent EPE-bloodstream infection.
A trial of the Enterotube system for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae and a comparison with the methods at present in use in the Tygerberg Hospital Microbiology Laboratory, were carried out.
The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (E-ESBL) is a major public health problem. It leads more frequent prescription of penems with the risk of emergence and spread of strains producing carbapenemases, which may be resistant to all known antibiotics. A policy of savings of penems is desirable. Among the alternatives to penems, amikacin is in the foreground. It remains active on the majority of E-ESBL strains. Some risk factors for E-ESBL emergence are known: recent antibiotic therapy (particularly quinolones and cephalosporins third generation), previous hospitalization or residence in a high endemic country.. In pediatrics, E-ESBLs are primarily responsible for urinary tract infection. In France, E-ESBLs represent about 10% of the strains responsible for urinary tract infections. The Pathology Group Pediatric Infectious (GPIP) of the French Society of Pediatrics (SFP) and the Society of Infectious Pathology French Language (SPILF) have proposed different ...
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Pulmonary drug delivery offers several advantages in the treatment of respiratory diseases over other routes of administration. Inhalation therapy enables the direct application of a drug within the lungs. The local pulmonary deposition and delivery of the administered drug facilitates a targeted treatment of respiratory diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), without the need for high dose exposures by other routes of administration. The intravenous application of short acting vasodilators has been the therapy of choice for patients with PAH over the past decade. The relative severity of side effects led to the development of newprostacyclin analogues and alternative routes of administration. One such analogue, iloprost (Ventavis® ), is a worldwide approved therapeutic agent for treatment of PAH. Inhalation of this compound is an attractive concept minimizing the side effects by its pulmonary selectivity. Unfortunately, the short half-life of iloprost requires frequent ...
There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of blood stream infections (BSI) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (MDR GN), which cause increased morbidity and mortality. For this reason, recent studies have focused on risk factors of acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. However, there is limited data on risk factors for BSI caused by AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (AmpC EC), especially in low prevalence settings such as Australia. This study was performed to identify risk factors for acquisition of AmpC E. coli, using a retrospective matched case control design over a 3-year period. Patients with BSI caused by AmpC E. coli were matched with controls (third generation cephalosporin susceptible E. coli) by age and site of infection (n = 21). There was no significant difference in age, sex, clinical outcome, time to onset of BSI, recent antibiotic use (last 3 months), comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus,
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
Understanding local susceptibility patterns is important when selecting antimicrobials for initial empirical antibiotic-therapy of bloodstream infections. Because the determination of susceptibility is dependent on the breakpoints used, the aim of the study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility results to different classes of antibiotics of 512 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (200 ESβL positive) isolated from bloodstream using CLSI 2013 and current EUCAST 2013 guidelines to evaluate the impact of break-point discrepancies. The results of the study showed that statistically significant discrepancies (p ≤ 0.001) were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin alone or with tazobac-tam, imipenem, meropenem, cefepime (only ESβL negative isolates), amikacin and gentamicin using current CLSI or EUCAST interpretive criteria. Further harmonization of CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints is warranted. This study could give useful information to physicians for managing bloodstream
Historically, a variety of organisms have been used as indicators of fecal contamination but many of them have been questionable because they can be found naturally in environmental samples, even in the absence of fecal contamination. Example of this is the bacteria included in categories such as fecal Streptococci, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. are bacteria that occupy the gut of warm blooded animals, including humans, thus their presence can be considered an indication of some kind of fecal contamination.. E. coli is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes many genera, including known pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia. Microscopically the cells of these organisms generally appear as Gram-negative cocobacilli; or straight rods with rounded ends. Enterobacteriaceae ferment glucose, grows on MacConkey agar, is oxidase-negative, and, with rare exceptions, reduces nitrates. Although most strains of E. coli are not ...