John P. Blass ‡ ‖ ‡ and ... Oxidative energy metabolism is impaired in many neurodegenerative disorders . Search Menu. » Sign up / Log in Mathematical Models for Suspension Bridges av Filippo Gazzola Geliebt Joseph Walsers Maschine Inbunden, 1999. Pris 1433 kr. Köp Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Disorders (9781573312097) av John P Blass på Bokus.com ... Parkinsons disease, Lebers optic neuropathy and other neurodegenerative disorders ... oxidative energy metabolism ... of methylene blue in ... Search database ... ... Dakota in ePub Land of Golden Sunshine av J.Donald Walters Vuur van de engelen Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Disorders av John P. Blass … Pris 3587 kr. Köp Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease ... av John P Blass på Bokus.com. ... Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Dis... John P Blass Special issue dedicated to John P. Blass. ... a shift away from oxidative energy metabolism towards ... is a hallmark of ...
1. Our objectives were to measure total energy expenditure, the daily variation in total energy expenditure and the physical activity level in a group of HIV-positive subjects using the bicarbonate-urea method. The study also aimed to asses the practicalities of using the bicarbonate-urea technique in free-living conditions. 2. Total energy expenditure was measured with the bicarbonate-urea method over 2 consecutive days (1 day in one subject) in 10 male patients with HIV infection (median CD4 count = 30). Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity level (total energy expenditure/resting energy expenditure) was calculated from these measurements and from activity diaries. 3. Resting energy expenditure was found to be 7.46 +/- 0.87 MJ/day, 5% higher than predicted values. Total energy expenditure was 10.69 +/- 1.95 MJ/day with an intra-individual day-to-day variation of 6 +/- 6%. The measured physical activity level was 1.42 +/- 0.14, higher than the diary estimate
Physical activity is an important non-therapeutic tool in primary prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To improve activity-based health management, patients need to quantify activity-related energy expenditure and the other components of total daily energy expenditure. This review explores differences between the components of total energy expenditure in patients with DM and healthy people and presents various tools for assessing the energy expenditure in subjects with DM. From this review, it appears that patients with uncontrolled DM have a higher basal energy expenditure than healthy people which must be considered in the establishment of new basal energy expenditure estimate equations. Moreover, studies showed a lower activity energy expenditure in patients with DM than in healthy ones. This difference may be partially explained by patient with DMs poor compliance with exercise recommendations and their greater participation in lower intensity activities. These specificities of
Menopause transition is associated with detrimental changes in physical activity, body composition and metabolic profile. Although physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals at higher risk of CVD, the association is unknown in low-risk individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between PAEE and MetS (prevalence and severity) in inactive overweight or obese postmenopausal women with a low Framingham Risk Score (FRS:, 10%). Cross-sectional data of 126 participants were divided into quartiles based on PAEE (Q1= lowest PAEE) while fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA. MetS prevalence was significantly different between Q1 and Q4 (37.9% vs 13.3%, p= 0.03). After controlling for potential confounders, MetS severity was negatively associated with PAEE (B= -0.057, p, 0.01) and positively with FFM (B= 0.038, p, 0.001). Moderation analyses indicated that a greater FFM exacerbated the ...
Baak, M.A. van; Haan, A. de; Saris, W.H.M.; Kordelaar, E. van; Kuipers, H.; Vusse, G.J. van der, 1995: Beta -Adrenoceptor blockage and skeletal muscle energy metabolism during endurance exercise
The human body needs energy to sustain its various functions and help the individual perform his/her desired actions. This energy comes from the food we consume. When we consume food, we are said to be taking energy or assimilating energy or energy in, and when we work, exercise, or undertake any physical activity, we are said to be dissipating energy or giving out energy or energy out.. Since the rates at which we dissipate and assimilate energy are not the same always, the body is capable of storing energy for future use. The energy stored is generally in the form of fat or white adipose tissue. When the rates of energy intake and energy expenditure are reasonably healthy, there is less energy stored, which is considered a healthy energy balance. However, when these rates are largely different, the body is said to achieve an energy imbalance.. How does Energy Imbalance affect us?. There are two types of Energy Balance.. A Negative Energy Balance indicates that more energy is being expended ...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with abnormal mitochondrial capacity. While oxidative capacity can be increased in steatosis, hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) descreases in long-standing diabetes. However, longitudinal studies of diabetes-related NAFLD and its relationship to hepatic energy metabolism are lacking.This prospective study comprised volunteers with type 1 (T1DM, n=30) and type 2 (T2DM, n=37) diabetes. At diagnosis and 5 years later, they underwent 1H/31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy for measurements of hepatic lipid (HCL), γATP, inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations and imaging for adipose tissue volumes. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps.At diagnosis, T2DM individuals had higher HCL and adipose tissue volumes, but lower whole-body insulin sensitivity than T1DM, despite comparable glycemic control. NAFLD was present in 38% of T2DM and 7% of T1DM. After 5 years, only persons with T2DM had increased their visceral ...
The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those
Mechanical Engineering Online course and notes for Thermodynamics,Available Energy. Download Mechanical Engineering, Available Energy in Thermodynamics notes
In order to monitor their energy requirements, athletes may desire to assess energy expenditure (EE) during training and competition. Recent technological advances and increased customer interest have created a market for wearable devices that measure physiological variables and bodily movement over prolonged time periods and convert this information into EE data. This mini-review provides an overview of the applicability of the SenseWear armband (SWA), which combines accelerometry with measurements of heat production and skin conductivity, to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components such as exercise energy expenditure (ExEE) in athletic populations. While the SWA has been shown to provide valid estimates of EE in the general population, validation studies in athletic populations indicate a tendency towards underestimation of ExEE particularly during high-intensity exercise (|10 METs) with an increasing underestimation as exercise intensity increases. Although limited information
The overall goal is to determine whether any energy expenditure compensation in response to 16 weeks of aerobic exercise at a higher-dose is greater compared to a lower-dose intervention in older women, and to begin to investigate underlying physiological mechanisms that influence energy expenditure changes in older women. Changes in all components of energy expenditure, as well as concentrations of plasma leptin and serum free T3, in response to the two different exercise programs (14 and 8 kcal/kg body weight weekly, 60-65% VO2max, 4 days/wk) will be compared in older, non-obese women (60-75 yrs, BMI=18-30 kg/m2).. Specific Aim 1: To determine whether differential changes in total daily energy expenditure and its components occur in older women in response to two exercise programs of different doses. State-of-the-art methods will be used (total daily energy expenditure by doubly labeled water; non-exercise activity thermogenesis using Physical Activity Monitoring System; resting metabolic rate ...
The effects of intracellular edema and dehydration on energy metabolism in alveolar macrophages were studied. Intracellular edema increased lactate production and reversibly decreased oxygen consumption. Dehydration caused no significant change in lactate production but irreversibly decreased oxygen consumption. These phenomena may be applicable to a wide variety of clinical problems including lung and brain edema. ...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe form of depression. MDD can significantly interfere with an individuals thoughts, behavior, mood, and physical health. People who suffer from MDD often experience feelings of worthlessness; they may feel hopeless and may be unable to cope with problems in their life. In addition, they often experience sleep disruption, loss of appetite, and chronic pain.. Antidepressant medications are often prescribed for treating MDD; however, 30% to 40% of individuals fail to respond adequately to medication. Preliminary research has shown that lower levels of brain energy metabolism are often associated with MDD. No studies have yet shown whether there is a difference in brain energy metabolism between individuals who respond well to antidepressants versus those who do not. Escitalopram is an antidepressant medication often used to treat MDD. It causes a calming effect and reduces anxiety by increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain. This study will compare ...
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5-hour Energy (stylized as 5-hour ENERGY) is an American made energy shot manufactured by Living Essentials LLC. The company was founded by CEO Manoj Bhargava and launched in 2003. The official website lists the active ingredients of 5-hour Energy as: vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12, sodium, taurine, glucuronolactone, malic acid and N-Acetyl L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, caffeine, and citicoline. The product is not U.S Food and Drug Administration approved. It contains no sugar, instead providing the stimulant caffeine and the psychoactive dopamine precursor amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. According to an article in Consumer Reports, 5-hour Energy should be avoided by children under the age of 12 and as well as nursing or pregnant women. In 2003 Manoj Bhargavas company, Living Essentials LLC, launched a product called 5-Hour Energy. By 2012, retail sales had grown to an estimated $1 billion. A March 2011 article in Consumer Reports reported that, according to a lab test, the ...
FIG. 1. Energy metabolism in response to sodium butyrate. Butyrate increased energy expenditure in C57BL/B6 mice. Energy expenditure was examined using the metabolic chamber at the 1st week and the 10th week on high-fat diet (16 weeks in age). In this study, sodium butyrate was used at 5% wt/wt in high-fat diet. A: Food intake. Food intake was monitored daily for 5 days at each time point. Average daily food intake (g) was converted into kilocalories and normalized with body weight (kg) and 24 h. B: Energy expenditure measured as kilocalories per kilogram lean mass per hour. C: Oxygen consumption measured as milliliters volume oxygen per kilogram lean mass per hour. D: Substrate utilization. This is expressed by respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which is the volume ratio of oxygen consumed versus CO2 exhaled. E: Body weight (BW). F: Body fat content in percentage of body weight. This was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. G: Body muscle content in percentage of body weight. H: Lipid in ...
The reliability of predictive equations versus indirect calorimetry in kidney injury patients has been assessed in this paper published in Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism Journal.
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OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the role of FGF21 in energy metabolism and to provide mechanistic insights into its glucose and lipid-lowering effects in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) model.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: DIO or normal lean mice were treated with vehicle or recombinant murine FGF21. Metabolic parameters including body weight, glucose, and lipid levels were monitored, and hepatic gene expression was analyzed. Energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity were assessed using indirect calorimetry and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques.. RESULTS: FGF21 dose dependently reduced body weight and whole-body fat mass in DIO mice due to marked increases in total energy expenditure and physical activity levels. FGF21 also reduced blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels and reversed hepatic steatosis. The profound reduction of hepatic ...
Results 62 critically ill children, 36 males and 26 females were included; mean age (±SD) was 21.5±20.6 months with a body weight and body size of 9.1±4.9 kg and 75.5±19.7 cm, respectively. Reasons for admission were mainly post surgery and respiratory illness. 337 measurements were performed. REEm was 55.4±11.6 kcal/kg/d (median: 55.3; IQ: 46.2 to 62.4 kcal/kg/d). EI was 50.1±26.0 kcal/kg/d with a strong negative balance during the first 2 days which became clearly positive after the 7th day. Schofield estimated REE correctly with a mean bias of -0.40±14.1 kcal/kg/d (ns; 95% CI -1.9 to 1.1). White equation overestimated REE with a mean bias of 40.6±75.7 kcal/kg/d (p,0.0001; 95% CI 32.5 to 48.7). ...
The present study demonstrates that overweight and obese Caucasians with type 2 diabetes have a 7% higher 24-h energy expenditure after adjustment for FFM, fat mass, SPA, sex, and age than overweight and obese individuals without diabetes. Our result is higher than earlier reports of 2-5% higher 24-h energy expenditure in diabetic Pima Indians (8,9). However, it has been reported that healthy Pima Indians have higher adjusted 24-h energy expenditure than Caucasians (23). Therefore, the relative increase in 24-h energy expenditure when developing type 2 diabetes may be less in Pima Indians. Thus, overall our findings are in agreement with other studies where individuals with type 2 diabetes under a strict but low physical activity level have a higher 24-h energy expenditure than healthy nondiabetic individuals (6-9,12,13).. It is notable that the nondiabetic subjects were younger than the type 2 diabetic subjects. However, this is unlikely to have any effect on the results, because age was not an ...
The average total daily energy expenditure is higher in obese than lean individuals when measured at stable weight. However, energy expenditure falls as weight is lost, due in part to loss of lean body mass and to decreased sympathetic nerve activity. When reduced to near-normal weight and maintained there for a while, (some) obese individuals have lower energy expenditure than (some) lean individuals. There is also a tendency for those who will develop obesity as infants or children to have lower resting energy expenditure rates than those who remain lean. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular evolution of aerobic energy metabolism in primates. AU - Grossman, Lawrence I.. AU - Schmidt, Timothy R.. AU - Wildman, Derek E.. AU - Goodman, Morris. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - As part of our goal to reconstruct human evolution at the DNA level, we have been examining Changes in the biochemical machinery for aerobic energy metabolism. We find that protein subunits of two of the electron transfer complexes, complex III and complex IV, and cytochrome c, the protein carrier that connects them, have all undergone a period of rapid protein evolution in the anthropoid lineage that ultimately led to humans. Indeed, subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase (COX; complex IV) provides one of the best examples of positively selected changes of any protein studied. The rate of subunit IV evolution accelerated in our catarrhine ancestors in the period between 40 to 18 million years ago and then decelerated in the descendant hominid lineages, a pattern of rate changes indicative of ...
Abstract: This Program Project Grant addresses the metabolic mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), and aims to identify novel metabolic approaches to prevent and treat HF. The consequences of metabolic dysfunction in HF are poorly understood, but there is strong evidence that energy metabolism can effect contractile function and progressive left ventricular remodeling. This translational research project uses sophisticated animal models of HF to evaluate novel mechanisms that link various aspects of cardiac metabolism to clinically relevant outcomes. This application will investigate fundamental questions about the pathophysiology of HF, and the effects of manipulating energy metabolism on cardiac function and HF progression. This Program Project is composed of four projects: Project 1: Impact of Macronutrient Intake in Heart Failure. The effects of dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate composition on progression of HF will be investigated. Project 2: Heart Rate ...
Abstract: This Program Project Grant addresses the metabolic mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), and aims to identify novel metabolic approaches to prevent and treat HF. The consequences of metabolic dysfunction in HF are poorly understood, but there is strong evidence that energy metabolism can effect contractile function and progressive left ventricular remodeling. This translational research project uses sophisticated animal models of HF to evaluate novel mechanisms that link various aspects of cardiac metabolism to clinically relevant outcomes. This application will investigate fundamental questions about the pathophysiology of HF, and the effects of manipulating energy metabolism on cardiac function and HF progression. This Program Project is composed of four projects: Project 1: Impact of Macronutrient Intake in Heart Failure. The effects of dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate composition on progression of HF will be investigated. Project 2: Heart Rate ...
The Department of Nutrition Sciences established the Energy Metabolism Research Unit (EMRU) in 1994 to provide comprehensive assessment of human body composition, energy expenditure, and substrate metabolism. Services offered were body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); body volume/density by underwater weighting; free-living energy expenditure by doubly-labeled water; 24-h energy metabolism using whole-room indirect calorimetry; and resting and exercise energy metabolism by portable metabolic monitor (indirect calorimetry). In 1997, the EMRU added the BodPod to supplement underwater weighing in response to investigator request for a simpler measure of body volume/density. In 2000, the EMRU became the Energy Metabolism / Body Composition Core of the NIDDK-funded Clinical Nutrition Research Center (CNRC). During the 2005 CNRC renewal, the name was changed to the Metabolism Core. The DXA was updated to a wider scanning bed and a table that could accommodate patients up to ...
Effect of Measured Energy Restriction and Age Intervals on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Parameters, Bone Characteristics and Stress in Broiler Breeders during the Rearing Period - Age;Energy Restriction;Broiler Growers;Performance;
The energy requirements of the brain are very high, and tight regulatory mechanisms operate to ensure adequate spatial and temporal delivery of energy substrates in register with neuronal activity. Astrocytes a type of glial cell have emerged as active players in brain energy delivery, production, utilization, and storage. Our understanding of neuroenergetics is rapidly evolving from a neurocentric view to a more integrated picture involving an intense cooperativity between astrocytes and neurons. This review focuses on the cellular aspects of brain energy metabolism, with a particular emphasis on the metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes.. Keywords: Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance ; Cerebral-Blood-Flow ; Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide ; Lactate-Shuttle Hypothesis ; Human Visual-Cortex ; Rat-Brain ; Glucose-Utilization ; Nitric-Oxide ; In-Vivo ; Oxidative-Metabolism. ...
2019 Body weight has been shown to be a predictor of clinical progression in Huntingtons disease (HD). Alongside widespread neuronal pathology, both HD patients and the R6/2 mouse model of HD exhibit weight loss and increased energy expenditure, providing a rationale for targeting whole-body energy metabolism in HD. Leptin-deficient mice display low energy expenditure and increased body weight. We therefore hypothesized that normalizing energy metabolism in R6/2 mice, utilizing leptin- deficiency, would lead to a slower disease progression in the R6/2 mouse. In this study, we show that R6/2 mice on a leptin-deficient genetic background display increased body weight and increased fat mass compared to R6/2 mice, as well as wild type littermates. The increased body weight was accompanied by low energy expenditure, illustrated by a reduction in respiratory exchange rate. Leptin-deficient R6/2 mice had large white adipocytes with white adipocyte gene expression characteristics, in contrast to white ...
In the present study, we found that individuals with COPD had higher REE and resting carbohydrate oxidation than the controls, regardless of body composition, since both groups had similar muscle mass.. Other studies have also found that patients with COPD have higher REE (approximately 15 to 26%) [6, 19]. The greater energy expenditure of individuals with COPD is probably due to increased respiratory muscle effort and inflammatory mediators, in addition to the effects of medication (oral or systemic corticosteroids, theophylline, hormones, benzodiazepines and antipsychotics) [19-21].. This study found that mean RQ and carbohydrate oxidation were higher in the COPD group, while fat oxidation was similar in both groups. Increased carbohydrate oxidation in the COPD group was probably caused by increased anaerobic metabolism due to reduced ability to capture oxygen [22]. When carbohydrates are oxidized in the absence of oxygen, only 2 ATP molecules per millimol of carbohydrates are generated, while ...
The accumulation of excess body fat appears to be fundamentally a problem resulting from inadequate fat oxidation relative to intake. An increase in body fat mass incrreases the concentration of free fatty acids in the blood, and this increased availability of lipid fuel is associated with increased fat oxidation. The increase in fat utilization that accompanies obesity helps re-establish a new equilibrium between fat intake and fat oxidation that serves to stabilize body weight, albeit at the cost of obesity. Because exercise can increase total daily energy expenditure and fat oxidation, chronic exercise can help prevent expansion of the adipose tissue mass, allowing the physically active individual to achieve fat balance at a lower body fat mass.
Low physical activity is known to be a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. With high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the Portuguese urban population, little is known about how sedentary this population is and what factors are associated to sedentary lifestyles. This studys objective was to examine sedentary lifestyles and their determinants through a cross-sectional study. 2134 adults (18 years and older) were interviewed using a standard questionnaire, comprising of social, behavioural and clinical information. Time spent in a variety of activities per day, including: work, household chores, sports, sedentary leisure time and sleep, were self-reported. Energy expenditure was estimated based on the related metabolic equivalent (MET) and time spent in each activity (min/day). Those with less than 10% of energy expenditure at a moderate intensity of 4 METs or higher were categorised as sedentary. The proportion of sedentary people and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated,
This study evaluated how different approaches to limiting energy availability (LEA) by 15% affected mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related signaling in mammary carcinomas. Female Sprague Dawley rats, injected with 50mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea per kilogram body weight, were randomized to a control or three LEA interventions: (i) sedentary and restricted rats fed to 85% of energy available to the control or motorized wheel running (37 m/min) for an average of (ii) 1621±55 (WRL) or (iii) 3094±126 (WRH) meters/day with food intake adjusted to provide the same net amount of available energy across LEA interventions. Under these conditions, LEA reduced overall cancer burden by 28% (P = 0.04) and down-regulated mTOR-related signaling (Hotelling multivariate, P = 0.002). Among the regulatory nodes assessed, reduced levels of activated protein kinase B (pAkt) and induction of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) were the most influential factors in distinguishing between sham control and LEA carcinomas. P-Akt was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic Ago2-mediated RNA silencing controls energy metabolism linked to AMPK activation and obesity-associated pathophysiology. AU - Zhang, Cai. AU - Seo, Joonbae. AU - Murakami, Kazutoshi. AU - Salem, Esam S.B.. AU - Bernhard, Elise. AU - Borra, Vishnupriya J.. AU - Choi, Kwangmin. AU - Yuan, Celvie L.. AU - Chan, Calvin C.. AU - Chen, Xiaoting. AU - Huang, Taosheng. AU - Weirauch, Matthew T.. AU - Divanovic, Senad. AU - Qi, Nathan R.. AU - Thomas, Hala Einakat. AU - Mercer, Carol A.. AU - Siomi, Haruhiko. AU - Nakamura, Takahisa. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - RNA silencing inhibits mRNA translation. While mRNA translation accounts for the majority of cellular energy expenditure, it is unclear if RNA silencing regulates energy homeostasis. Here, we report that hepatic Argonaute 2 (Ago2)-mediated RNA silencing regulates both intrinsic energy production and consumption and disturbs energy metabolism in the pathogenesis of obesity. Ago2 regulates expression of specific ...
We have done some solid research to provide you with an accurate guide on the types of Aloe pills out there that are effective and safe to take. Glass and Stainless steel are unaffected by coffee acids compared to latex rubber bags.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Energy intake and resting energy expenditure in adult male rats after early postnatal food restriction. AU - Remmers, F.. AU - Schreuder, M.F.. AU - Gemke, R.J.B.J.. AU - Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. U2 - 10.1017/S0007114507843546. DO - 10.1017/S0007114507843546. M3 - Article. C2 - 17925052. VL - 99. SP - 1149. EP - 1156. JO - British Journal of Nutrition. JF - British Journal of Nutrition. SN - 0007-1145. IS - 5. ER - ...
The effect of inorganic nitrate on systemic energy homeostasis in a setting of perturbed energy balance: implications for diabetes and obesity., School of Medicine, University of Leeds
TY - CHAP. T1 - Effects of cell-mediated immune response on energy metabolism in weanling piglets.. AU - Moon, H.K.. AU - Han, I.K.. AU - Parmentier, H.K.. AU - Schrama, J.W.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Chapter. SP - 143. EP - 146. BT - Energy metabolism in farm animals. Effects of housing, stress and disease. A2 - McCracken, K.. PB - CAB International. CY - Wallingford, UK. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lactate Is a Preferential Oxidative Energy Substrate over Glucose for Neurons in Culture. AU - Bouzier-Sore, Anne Karine. AU - Voisin, Pierre. AU - Canioni, Paul. AU - Magistretti, Pierre. AU - Pellerin, Luc. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - The authors investigated concomitant lactate and glucose metabolism in primary neuronal cultures using 13C-and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Neurons were incubated in a medium containing either [1- 13C]glucose and different unlabeled lactate concentrations, or unlabeled glucose and different [3-13C]lactate concentrations. Overall, 13C-NMR spectra of cellular extracts showed that more 13C was incorporated into glutamate when lactate was the enriched substrate. Glutamate 13C-enrichment was also found to be much higher in lactate-labeled than in glucose-labeled conditions. When glucose and lactate concentrations were identical (5.5 mmol/L), relative contributions of glucose and lactate to neuronal oxidative metabolism amounted to 21% and 79%, ...
Despite the fact that the ERRs were the first family of orphan nuclear receptors cloned, their biological function has remained uncertain (12, 13). Recent evidence has implicated ERRα and ERRγ in the transcriptional regulation of cellular energy metabolism. ERRα is enriched in adult mammalian tissues with high oxidative metabolic capacity, such as the heart, slow-twitch skeletal muscle, and brown adipose. ERRα and ERRγ have also recently been shown to serve as functional partners for the PGC-1 family of coactivators (17, 19, 21, 42), which have emerged as key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis (23, 37). We hypothesized that ERR isoforms serve as key regulators of heart and skeletal muscle energy metabolism downstream of PGC-1α. To this end, gene expression profiling experiments were conducted in cardiac myocytes. ERRα overexpression was shown to increase the expression of genes involved in multiple pathways involved in cellular fatty acid utilization, including fatty ...
Energy expenditure is therefore the key to the assessment of energy requirements. It may be measured by several different standard direct techniques. Direct in this context is not equivalent to the classical term direct calorimetry, which refers to the direct measurement of heat output in a calorimeter; in the present usage direct refers to the measurement of energy expenditure from O2 or CO2 output. It therefore includes the various classical techniques of assessing O2 consumption and CO2 output, as well as the doubly-labelled water technique and the use of a whole body calorimeter. Indirect methods of measuring energy expenditure comprise extrapolating from values of total energy intake in food and from heart-rate recording. A description of the techniques, together with a brief analysis of some of the problems, is given in Durnin (1992). 1. Timed record of activities and associated energy costs The method which has probably been used most frequently consists of a combination of a ...
Now-a-days, the focus on lactate is due to its being an oxidative substrate for energy metabolism in brain (and other tissues), rather than a useless end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Mounting evidence indicates that lactate does play a major role in aerobic energy metabolism in the brain, the heart, skeletal muscle and possibly in any other tissue and organ. Nevertheless, this evidence has challenged the old concept of lactate being an anaerobic waste product and ignited a fierce debate between the supporters of glucose as the major oxidative energy substrate and those who support lactate as a possible alternative to glucose under certain conditions. While researchers working on energy metabolism in skeletal muscle have taken great strides toward bridging between these two extreme positions, accepting lactate role as an oxidative energy substrate, neuroscientists appear to be somewhat more emotional about their differences and less agreeable. In this paper I have employed findings from ...
23 AVSD-repaired patients with NYHA class 1 and 2 (age: 20±8 years) and 23 healthy controls (age: 19±8 years) were included. All subjects (Table 1) underwent whole-heart 4D Flow MRI at 3T with free breathing, three-directional velocity-encoding of 150cm/s in all directions, spatial resolution 2.3×2.3×3.0-4.2mm3 and 30 retrospectively-gated phases reconstructed over one cardiac cycle. The LV cavity was manually segmented over diastolic phases from 4D Flow data. For each segmented phase, the kinetic energy within LV was computed as 1/2 mv2, with (m) as the mass representing the voxel volume multiplied by the density of blood (1.025 g/ml) and (v) as the 3-directional velocity from 4D Flow MRI. Total kinetic energy (KE) was then computed by integrating the computed kinetic energy over diastole. Using Navier-Stokes energy equations, non-turbulent viscous energy loss (EL) was evaluated in the LV as the integration of viscous energy dissipation over diastolic period as described previously [2] with ...
Energy metabolism is a sensitive indicator of cellular disorders. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate changes in cardiac and hepatic energ...
As part of the Governments commitment to greater transparency, there is a requirement to publish online central government expenditure over £25,000, this also applies to NHS bodies.. Expenditure is all individual invoices, grant payments, expense payments or other such transactions that are over £25,000. Credit notes over £25,000 are also included. Where amounts shown are less than £25,000 these will relate to invoices or credit notes that contain multiple lines but where the total invoice value exceeds £25,000.. In response to the Prime Ministers desire to improve transparency around how the public sector spends its money, and following guidance issued by HM Treasury in September 2010, Worcestershire Health & Care NHS Trust will publish monthly reports of expenditure over £25,000. For additional information about the publication scheme, see the HM Treasury guidance.. Over 25k March 2021. Over 25k February 2021. Over 25k January 2021. Over 25k December 2020. Over 25k November 2020. Over ...
The residual of the surface energy budget is represented as the linearized sum of energy losses due to storage, advection and flux underestimation. Individual contributions to the residual can be quantified through constrained multiple linear regression which identifies the site specific processes that are responsible for the lack of energy budget closure. This residual decomposition approach is applied to energy balance data from the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) site at the Dugway Proving Grounds in the Utah Salt Flats. In this case, energy storage in the soil and underestimation of the soil heat flux accounted for 89% of the residual variance. Underestimation of the sensible and latent heat fluxes had no apparent contribution to the residual, and the contribution of advection to the residual was not statistically significant. Citation: Higgins, C. W. (2012), A-posteriori analysis of surface energy budget closure to determine missed energy pathways, Geophys. ...
Energy-producing organelles are called mitochondria. Animal cells normally have 1000 to 2000 mitochondria. Cells with higher energy needs, such as fat and muscle cells, have more. Mitochondria are...
The current study was designed to examine potential mechanisms involved in the effects of dietary energy balance on cellular signaling and epithelial carcinogenesis. Numerous studies have examined the dietary energy balance-cancer link, although few have provided a mechanistic explanation for the observed effects. We employed commonly used regimens for dietary manipulation to examine alterations in steady-state cellular signaling that occur in multiple epithelial tissues. Body weight distribution data generated in the current study paralleled those reported in recent publications, thus validating the model systems used in the current investigation (5, 45-48). Consistent with the data published in earlier studies (5, 45), we also found that positive energy balance significantly increased, whereas negative energy balance significantly decreased, the levels of circulating IGF-I in FVB/N and C57BL/6 mice, relative to the respective controls. Similar effects of dietary energy balance on serum IGF-I ...
Gα12 belongs to the group of heterotrimeric G proteins that control various cellular responses, including growth, motility, proliferation, and transdifferentiation (7-11). So far, the impact of Gα12 on cellular energy metabolism has not been investigated. Our results revealed the role of Gα12 signaling in mitochondrial respiration for the control of lipid oxidation and the underlying basis of its regulation of SIRT1, as mediated by HIF-1α-dependent transcriptional induction of USP22. Since Gα12 and SIRT1 are ubiquitously expressed in most metabolic tissues (6), our results support the notion that Gα12 signaling plays a role in overall FA metabolism and, consequently, whole-body energy expenditure.. Moreover, we verified that fasting conditions increased the level of Gα12 in the liver in parallel with fat accumulation and that Gα12 ablation exacerbated fasting-induced liver steatosis along with decreasing circulating fat. These findings raised the contention that Gα12 signaling is ...
Looking for online definition of resting energy expenditure in the Medical Dictionary? resting energy expenditure explanation free. What is resting energy expenditure? Meaning of resting energy expenditure medical term. What does resting energy expenditure mean?
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is thought to convey many of the beneficial effects of exercise via its inhibitory effect on acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) and promotion of fatty acid oxidation. Hence, AMPK and ACC have become major drug targets for weight loss and improved insulin action. However, it remains unclear whether or how activation of the fatty acid oxidation pathway without a concomitant increase in energy expenditure could be beneficial. Here, we have used either pharmacological (administration of the AMPK agonist 5() aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside) or genetic means (mutation of the ACC2 gene in mice) to manipulate fatty acid oxidation to determine whether this is sufficient to promote leanness. Both of these strategies increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation without altering energy expenditure or adiposity. We conclude that negative energy balance is a prerequisite for weight reduction, and increased fatty acid oxidation per se has little, if any, effect to
Overweight, energy expenditure and caloric intake are associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. To measure resting energy expenditure and calculate caloric intake of overweight adolescents with asthma and compare results with those of groups of well-nourished adolescents with asthma and overweight adolescents without asthma. Cross-sectional study with 69 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years divided into three matched groups. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric and body composition measurements. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure energy expenditure; caloric intake was estimated from dietary recalls. In each group, there were 23 adolescents (10 girls) aged 12.39±2.40 years. Results for each group (overweight adolescents with asthma; well-nourished adolescents with asthma; and overweight adolescents without asthma) were, respectively: Body mass index = 24.83±2.73 kg/m2, 19.01±2.10 kg/m2, and 25.35±3.66 kg/m2; resting energy expenditure (REE) = 1550.24±547.23 ...
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying weight loss maintenance after gastric bypass surgery are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine the effects of gastric bypass on energy expenditure in rats. METHODS: Thirty diet-induced obese male Wistar rats underwent either gastric bypass (n=14), sham operation ad libitum fed (n=8) or sham-operation body weight-matched (n=8). Energy expenditure was measured in an open circuit calorimetry system. RESULTS: Body weight after 70 days was lower after gastric bypass compared to sham ad libitum fed rats (p,0.0001). Sham-operated body weight-matched controls ate less than gastric bypass animals to reach the same weight (16.2+/-0.5g vs. 27.5+/-0.8g, p,0.001). Twenty-four hour energy expenditure was increased after gastric bypass (4.50+/-0.04 kcal/kg/h) compared to sham-operated ad libitum fed (4.29+/-0.08 kcal/kg/h) and sham-operated body weight-matched controls (3.98+/-0.10 kcal/kg/h, p,0.001). Gastric bypass rats showed higher energy expenditure during the light ...
In islets from individuals with type 2 diabetes and in islets exposed to chronic elevated glucose, mitochondrial energy metabolism is impaired. Here, we studied early metabolic changes and mitochondrial adaptations in human beta cells during chronic glucose stress.Respiration and cytosolic ATP changes were measured in human islet cell clusters after culture for 4 days in 11.1 mmol/l glucose. Metabolomics was applied to analyse intracellular metabolite changes as a result of glucose stress conditions. Alterations in beta cell function were followed using insulin secretion assays or cytosolic calcium signalling after expression of the calcium probe YC3.6 specifically in beta cells of islet clusters.At early stages of glucose stress, mitochondrial energy metabolism was augmented in contrast to the previously described mitochondrial dysfunction in beta cells from islets of diabetic donors. Following chronic glucose stress, mitochondrial respiration increased (by 52.4%, p ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral energy metabolism in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. AU - Biessels, G.J.. AU - Braun, K.P.J.. AU - Graaf, de, R.A.. AU - Eijsden, van, P.. AU - Gispen, W.H.. AU - Nicolaij, K.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Aims/hypothesis. It is increasingly evident that the brain is another site of diabetic end-organ damage. The pathogenesis has not been fully explained, but seems to involve an interplay between aberrant glucose metabolism and vascular changes. Vascular changes, such as deficits in cerebral blood flow, could compromise cerebral energy metabolism. We therefore examined cerebral metabolism in streptozotocin-diabetic rats in vivo by means of localised 31P and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods. Rats were examined 2 weeks and 4 and 8 months after diabetes induction. A non-diabetic group was examined at baseline and after 8 months. Results. In 31P spectra the phosphocreatine:ATP, phosphocreatine:inorganic phosphate and ATP:inorganic phosphate ratios and intracellular pH ...
Looking for online definition of energy reserves in the Medical Dictionary? energy reserves explanation free. What is energy reserves? Meaning of energy reserves medical term. What does energy reserves mean?
The Marfan syndrome is an inherited multisystem disorder caused by mutations in fibrillin 1, with cardiovascular involvement being the most important feature of the phenoptype. Affected individuals have impaired flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of large arteries of a similar severity to patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Skeletal muscle bioenergetics were studied in patients with the Marfan syndrome in order to evaluate the impact of impaired flow-mediated dilatation on skeletal muscle metabolism. Skeletal muscle metabolism is abnormal in CHF and the aetiology is unclear.Thirteen patients and 12 controls were studied by phosphorus Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy of the calf muscle using an incremental exercise protocol and by Magnetic Resonance imaging.Metabolic variables measured at rest were normal in Marfan patients. For a similar total work output measured at end of the standardized incremental exercise, the total rate of energy consumption (EC) was significantly increased in patients (21.2 +/-
Although sleep deprivation interferes with biological processes essential for performance, health, and longevity, previous studies have failed to reveal any structural or functional changes in brain. We have therefore measured local rates of cerebral glucose utilization (ICMRglc) with the quantitative autoradiographic 2-14C-deoxyglucose method in an effort to determine if and, if so, where sleep deprivation might affect function in sleep-deprived rats. Sleep deprivation was maintained for 11-12 d, long enough to increase whole body energy metabolism, thus confirming that pathophysiological processes that might involve brain functions were evolving. Deep brain temperature was also measured in similarly treated rats and found to be mildly elevated relative to core body temperature. Despite the increased deep brain temperature, systemic hypermetabolism, and sympathetic activation, ICMRglc was not elevated in any of the 60 brain structures examined. Average glucose utilization in the brain as a ...
In an attempt to improve aerobic and anaerobic performance, athletes and fitness enthusiasts consume a variety of supplements. Because of this, energy drinks are quickly becoming more and more popular every day. Despite its highly addictive nature, caffeine, which is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, is gaining recognition as an ergogenic aid. However, due to the many factors that affects the action of caffeine, and because the research on caffeine and anaerobic performance is limited, the potential for studying energy drinks and anaerobic performance is quite large. PURPOSE: To determine if a commercially available energy drink has any ergogenic effects on lower body and upper body resistance exercise performance. METHODS: In a block randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study thirteen recreationally trained male and female volunteers (mean ± SD age = 22.5 ± 3.4 years) performed 4 sets of the leg press and 4 sets of the bench press exercises (at 80% of 1 RM with all sets
Define Blood circulation effects on energy level. Blood circulation effects on energy level synonyms, Blood circulation effects on energy level pronunciation, Blood circulation effects on energy level translation, English dictionary definition of Blood circulation effects on energy level. circulatory system Arteries carry blood rich in oxygen from the heart to tissues of the body. Veins carry blood low in oxygen back to the heart. n. 1.
www.MOLUNA.de Cellular Bioenergetics: Role of Coupled Creatine Kinases [4194320] - Preface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme Compartmentation. III: Creatine Kinases and Metabolic Integration. IV: Molecular Biology of Creatine Kinases. V: Developmental and Pathological Alterations of Creatine Kinases. VI: Metabolic Regulation: Theoretical Basis.InhaltsverzeichnisPreface. I: Muscle Energy Metabolism. II: Substrate and Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme
Unlike other energy drinks, 5-hour Energy is a 1.93 fluid ounce. 5-hour Energy Linked to 13 Deaths. 5-hour Energy has been.Energy drinks are generally safe, but like most things, you should drink them in moderation.Vigrx Plus is designed to be. did so on 3 separate occasions once even with a 5 hour energy shot for ...
The entire list of independent variables was used in the models involving the dependent variables of in-hone energy expenditures and in-home energy expenditures per capita. For the in-home energy expenditures per room per 1000 degree days, the number of rooms and the city variables were dropped from the list of independent variables.. For the car and truck fuel expenditures the house characteristics were, of course, not included as independent variables.. RESULTS. Tables 1 and 2 summarize the results of the testing of the regression models. Presented in these tables are all the significant variables in the models with the numerical values given for the estimates of the intercept terms and the total expenditures variable parameters. Also given are the adjusted R-squared values for the models.. TABLE 1. FACTORS EXPLAINING VARIANCE IN IN-HOME ENERGY EXPENDITURES OF URBAN CANADIAN HOUSEHOLDS, 1969-1982. In-Home Energy. In-home energy expenditure variances were well explained by the model elements . ...
A repeated 4×4 Latin square design was conducted with eight ileal cannulated castrates to examine the effect of source of starch and fiber on nutrient balance and energy metabolism. Pigs were fed on one of the four experimental diets: Control diet (C) mainly based on cooked rice; and diets P, S and W with the inclusion of either raw potato starch, sugar beet pulp or wheat bran supplementation, respectively. With the exception of an increased (p|0.05) energy loss from methane production with diet S observed, no significant differences (p|0.05) in the ratio of metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy, the utilization of ME for fat deposition and for protein deposition, energy loss as hydrogen and urinary energy were found between diets. The efficiency of utilization of ME for maintenance was lower (p|0.05) with diets P and S than with diet C. The inclusion of fiber sources (sugar beet pulp or wheat bran) or potato starch reduced the maintenance energy requirement. The fecal energy excretion was
The time course of energy metabolism has been studied in weight-stable and nongrowing mice with a transplantable methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma.. Daily oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in relation to the tumor growth from the time of tumor implantation. The time course of energy dynamics was related to the end-state changes in body composition. Freely fed sarcoma-bearing mice decreased their whole-body energy expenditure in proportion to the tumor growth. This was due to the accompanying anorexia. The alteration in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production was continuously evident 24 hr/day in sarcoma-bearing mice. The tumor-bearing mice lost body fat and had decreased respiratory quotient, while pair-fed controls maintained their body composition, and their respiratory quotients agreed with the food respiratory quotient. Loss of body lipids in freely fed sarcoma-bearing mice reflected a negative energy balance, accompanied with increased fat oxidation, ...
The central role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in cellular energy metabolism and signaling makes them important nodes that link the metabolic state of cells with energy homeostasis and gene regulation. NAD+NADH and from 50 to 100 for NADP+NADPH recognition. The assays are sturdy (Z worth 0.7) as well as the inhibitor response curves generated utilizing a known NAD biosynthetic pathway inhibitor FK866 correlate good using the reported data. Moreover, by multiplexing the dinucleotide recognition assays using a fluorescent nonmetabolic cell viability assay, we present that dinucleotide amounts can be reduced significantly ( 80%) by FK866 treatment before adjustments in cell viability are discovered. The utility from the assays to recognize modulators of intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide amounts was further verified using an oncology energetic compound collection, where book dinucleotide regulating substances were identified. For instance, the histone deacetylase inhibitor ...
AMP-activated protein kinase connects cellular energy metabolism to KATP channel function. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 Feb; 52(2):410-8 ...
Energy-Saving LED Street Lamp and Method for Saving Energy with the Same - The present invention provides an energy-saving LED street lamp and a method of saving energy with said LED street lamp. A energy-saving LED street lamp comprises lamp body, power supply adapters, constant current actuating device, and LED lamps. said constant current actuating device is connected in series with the output end of the Power supply adapter, supplying power to said LED lamps. Said energy-saving lamp also comprises auto light-dimmer energy-saving controller; the signal output end of said auto light-dimmer energy-saving controller being connected with constant current actuating device. Said LED lamps compose a plurality of working module; each of the said working module is connected with an independent Power supply adapter. Said auto light-dimmer energy-saving controller has a plurality of routes of output signal, and each of the route of signal output end is connected with a constant current actuating device, ...
This is the final paper in or series examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. In this paper the kinetic energy of the limbs and body relative to the centre of mass (EKE, tot of paper two) is combined with the potential plus kinetic energy of the centre of mass (ECM, tot of paper three) to obtain the total mechanical energy (excluding elastic energy) of an animal during constant average-speed locomotion. The minimum mass-specific power required of the muscles and tendons to maintain the observed oscillations in total energy, Etot/Mb, can be described by one equation: Etot/Mb = 0.478. vg 1.53 + 0.685. vg + 0.072 where Etot/Mb is in W kg-1 and vg is in m s-1. This equation is independent of body size, applying equally as well to a chipmunk or a quail as to a horse or an ostrich. In marked contrast, the metabolic energy consumed by each gram of an animal as it moves along the ground at a constant speed increases linearly with speed and is proportional to ...
This is the final paper in or series examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. In this paper the kinetic energy of the limbs and body relative to the centre of mass (EKE, tot of paper two) is combined with the potential plus kinetic energy of the centre of mass (ECM, tot of paper three) to obtain the total mechanical energy (excluding elastic energy) of an animal during constant average-speed locomotion. The minimum mass-specific power required of the muscles and tendons to maintain the observed oscillations in total energy, Etot/Mb, can be described by one equation: Etot/Mb = 0.478. vg 1.53 + 0.685. vg + 0.072 where Etot/Mb is in W kg-1 and vg is in m s-1. This equation is independent of body size, applying equally as well to a chipmunk or a quail as to a horse or an ostrich. In marked contrast, the metabolic energy consumed by each gram of an animal as it moves along the ground at a constant speed increases linearly with speed and is proportional to ...
The Science of Human Energy Expenditure - Part III In Part II of this series on energy expenditure, we turned our attention to the measurement of free
The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as c …
In eukaryotic cells AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating cellular energy balance. AMPK responds to changes in intracellular adenine nucleotide levels, being activated by an increase in AMP/ADP relative to ATP. Activation of AMPK increases the rate of catabolic (ATP-generating) pathways and decreases the rate of anabolic (ATP-utilising) pathways. In addition to its role in maintaining intracellular energy balance, AMPK regulates whole body energy metabolism. Given its key role in controlling energy homeostasis, AMPK has attracted widespread interest as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and, more recently, cancer. Here I review the regulation of AMPK and its potential as a target for therapeutic intervention in human disease ...
Neuroscience is a technology‐driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells. Energy metabolism is not just a necessity for proper cell function and viability but plays specific roles in higher brain functions such as memory processing and behavior, whose mechanisms need to be understood at all hierarchical levels, from isolated proteins to whole subjects, in both health and disease. To this aim, the field takes advantage of diverse disciplines including anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, bioenergetics, cellular biology, molecular biology,
Men use proportionately more carbohydrate and less fat during submaximal exercise than women and circulating hormones appear to play a role in mediating this difference. We have shown that circulating estrogen and progesterone have potent and opposing effects on the regulation of substrate use during exercise in women, but the role of testosterone in mediating exercise substrate use in men is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high concentrations of testosterone (T) would shift substrate use toward greater carbohydrate utilization. Nine healthy active men cycled at ∼60% of VO2peak for 90 min under 3 hormonal conditions: physiological T (no intervention), low T (pharmacological suppression of endogenous T with GnRH antagonist) and high T (supplementation with transdermal T). Total plasma testosterone was significantly different between physiological T, low T, and high T (mean±SEM, 5.5±0.4 ng/ml, 0.8±0.1, 10.9±1.0 (p , 0.0001), respectively). Despite the large change in plasma T, there ...
The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control), 20% caloric restriction (CR), 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF) or high fat/high glucose (HFG) diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to energy restriction diets in females, but not in males. Functional physiological pathway
Several hundred genes associated or linked to obesity have been described in the scientific literature. Whereas many of these genes are potential targets for the treatment of obesity and associated conditions, none of them have permitted the developement of an efficient drug therapy. As proposed by the `thrifty genotype theory, obesity genes may have conferred an evolutionary advantage in times of food shortage through efficient energy exploitation, while `lean or `energy expenditure genes may have become very rare during the same periods. It is therefore a challenge to identify `energy expenditure genes or `energy absorption genes, whose mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms do result in reduced energy intake. We submit that such `energy absorption or `energy expenditure genes (crucial genes) are potential new targets for the treatment of obesity. These genes can be identified in rare genetic diseases that produce a lean, failure-to-thrive, energy malabsorption or starvation ...
0009]Special embodiments of the present invention are [0010]the use of β-carotene for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0011]the use of β-cryptoxanthin for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0012]the use of lutein for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0013]the use of lycopene for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0014]the use of a combination of lutein and lycopene for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the energy production in skin or of skin of animals including humans; [0015]the use of a combination of lutein and β-cryptoxanthin for maintaining the energy metabolism, the energy flow and/or the ...
Lead (Pb2+) is a widespread pollutant and potent central neurotoxin. We have studied its effect on energetic metabolism of cerebellar granule cells (CGC) in pre- and postnatally intoxicated rats. Pregnant Wistar rats received 0.1% lead acetate in water. CGC were prepared from 8-day-old born rats according to a standard procedure. Pb2+concentration was measured in blood and in cerebellum homogenates by AAS. Intracellular Pb2+ concentrations in CGC was studied by fl uorescent microscopy, in neurons loaded with the Ca2+-sensitive indicator Oregon Green. Intracellular Pb2+ was evaluated from the fl uorescence intensity and estimate in μM range. Pb-induced decrease in Adenylate Energy Charge (by 10%) and ATP concentration (by 35%) in cerebellum homogenates (HPLC method) was observed at Pb concentrations in whole blood (7.05 ± 2.05 μg/dL).The function of mitochondria of neurons of Pb-treated and control rats were evaluated using: Mitotracker Green FM and JC-1. We observed active mitochondria ...
Obesity is a growing epidemic with no consensus regarding solutions. Thirty healthy overweight and obese female subjects (41.9 ± 12 years, 166 cm ± 7 cm, a 100.5 kg ± 19.6 kg, 46.0% ± 4.0% body fat, and BMI 37.4 ± 6.9) participated in the study. A 14-day dietary intervention examined acute effects of energy balance and macronutrient type on dietary intake, REE, body weight, body composition, and thyroid panel. Significant changes occurred in weight loss over time (p , 0.001); body fat mass over time (p , 0.001) and time x diet (p = 0.02); body fat percentage over time (p , 0.002) and time x diet (p = 0.023); REE over time (p = 0.03), and thyroid panel. Body weight continued to decrease during positive energy balance, yet metabolism rebounded. Results suggest energy balance has a greater overall effect on REE and weight loss than macronutrient type ...
Studies have demonstrated the role mechanical stress plays in regulating osteoblastic functions, such as cellular proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, signal transduction and apoptosis (14-16,26). Energy metabolism is essential to maintaining the biological activities of osteoblasts (17). In the present study, we revealed a novel mechanism in osteoblastic mechanobiology, through which cyclic stretch promotes osteoblastic energy metabolism by increasing the expression of enzymes associated with energy metabolism, partially through the Akt/mTOR/p70s6k signaling pathway. Firstly, cyclic mechanical stretch promoted energy metabolism in the MG-63 cells, which was evidenced by the increased glucose consumption, and the increased levels of lactate, intracellular ATP, and energy metabolism-related genes (ATP5B, ATP5F1, ATP5J, F1-ATPase α, LDHA and enolase 1), and ATP5B and ATP5J proteins. Secondly, cyclic mechanical stretch stimulated the activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70s6k pathway by prompting the ...
The inaccuracy of resting energy expenditure (REE) prediction formulae to calculate energy metabolism in children may lead to either under- or overestimated...
10 Hours Energy and Brain Power drink provides ingredients that are used to synthesize neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters include dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. This drink is chock full of vitamins, amino acids, fumaric acid and biotin. This beverage provides energy that lasts all day and doesnt generate afternoon crashes like some other energy drinks. This mixture naturally acts as an appetite suppressor to keep you on track and may help combat stress you experience during the day. Pure Health Trends touts that you get Double the energy at half the price of most energy drinks. 10 Hour Energy helps to keep your alert, increase concentration and memory. And, it has zero calories, zero carbs, zero fat, sweetened with Xylitol, and has a great lemonade flavor.. ...
Metabolic reprogramming in skeletal muscles in the human and animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be an important factor in the diseases progression. We hypothesized that swim training, a modulator of cellular metabolism via changes in muscle bioenergetics and oxidative stress, ameliorates the reduction in muscle strength in ALS mice. In this study, we used transgenic male mice with the G93A human SOD1 mutation B6SJL-Tg (SOD1,sup>G93A,/sup>) 1Gur/J and wild type B6SJL (WT) mice. Mice were subjected to a grip strength test and isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria were used to perform high-resolution respirometry. Moreover, the activities of enzymes involved in the oxidative energy metabolism and total sulfhydryl groups (as an oxidative stress marker) were evaluated in skeletal muscle. ALS reduces muscle strength (-70% between 11 and 15 weeks, p , 0.05), modulates muscle metabolism through lowering citrate synthase (CS) (-30% vs. WT, p = 0.0007) and increasing cytochrome c ...
The brain has high energy demands, which are met by the complete oxidation of glucose, the obligatory energy substrate for the brain under physiological conditions. Glucose oxidative metabolism consists of cytosolic processes that generate pyruvate, TCA cycle that provides reducing equivalents, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that converts energy to ATP. Consistent with the crucial role of energy metabolism in the maintenance of brain function, impaired glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathobiology of many brain disorders, including Alzheimers disease (AD) and diabetes. In this dissertation, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered glucose metabolism in the brains at genetic risk for AD and perturbed mitochondrial function in diabetes-associated brain dysfunction are studied. In the first study, the impact of human ApoE isoforms, which confer differential risk for AD, on brain glucose metabolism were investigated in human ApoE ...
The aim of the study was to assess the link between the metabolic profile and the proliferation capacity of a range of human and murine cancer cell lines. First, the combination of mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic efficiency measurements allowed the determination of different metabolic profiles among the cell lines, ranging from a mostly oxidative to a mostly glycolytic phenotype. Second, the study revealed that cell proliferation, evaluated by DNA synthesis measurements, was statistically correlated to glycolytic efficiency. This indicated that glycolysis is the key energetic pathway linked to cell proliferation rate. Third, to validate this hypothesis and exclude non-metabolic factors, mitochondria-depleted were compared to wild-type cancer cells, and the data showed that enhanced glycolysis observed in mitochondria-depleted cells is also associated with an increase in proliferation capacity. ...
Said study was conducted by Anne B. Loucks and Edward M. Heath who worked at the Derpartment of Biological Sciences and the College of Osteopathic Medicine at the Ohio University back in 1994. The purpose of their study was to characterize the functional relationship between energy availability and thyroid metabolism to gain insight into the extent of he dietary reform that might be necessary. The scientists expected to find a proportional relationship that would prove the necessity of dietary compensation for exercise energy expenditure to prevent reductions in T3 levels, scientists call low T3 syndrome ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial energy production and cation control in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. AU - Ferrari, R.. AU - Pedersini, P.. AU - Bongrazio, M.. AU - Gaia, G.. AU - Bernocchi, P.. AU - Di Lisa, F.. AU - Visioli, O.. PY - 1993/9. Y1 - 1993/9. N2 - In the heart mitochondria exert two roles essential for cell survival: ATP synthesis and maintainance of Ca2+ homeostasis. These two processes are driven by the same energy source: the H+ electrochemical gradient (ΔμH) which is generated by electron transport along the inner mitochondrial membrane. Under aerobic physiological condition mitochondria do not contribute to the beat to beat regulation of cytosolic Ca2+, although Ca2+ transient in mitochondrial matrix has been described. Increases in mitochondrial Ca2+ of μmolars concentration stimulate the Krebs cycle and NADH redox potential and, therefore, ATP synthesis. Under pathological conditions, however, mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and overload might cause a series of vicious ...
In part 1 of this topic, the levels of daily feed intakes typically achieved by Genesus nursery and finishing animals were covered along with a comparison to feed intake figures expected from other genotypes. Total daily energy consumption was also discussed.. This article will cover how daily energy consumption can be influenced through dietary manipulation to optimise income over feed costs.. Choosing the appropriate energy level is particularly critical for diets fed to pigs from 30 kg to market weight. Feed usage during this phase represents 75 percent of the total operational feed budget, and energy contributes at least 50 percent to the final diet costs. A key component of setting optimum energy specifications is an understanding of how various levels of daily energy intake affect pig performance and carcass characteristics.. Table 1 below provides the performance response of Genesus full programme pigs to a range of dietary energy levels. The diets in this trial were based on using a ...
The adipose tissue functions as the bodys main energy reservoir and plays a central role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis. The ability to modulate this tissues inherent endocrine and metabolic functions has promising implications in treating disease associated with adipose tissue dysfunction. This work revolves around two diseases where adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction drive the disease, obesity and cachexia. Both diseases impact a significant population of U.S. adults and substantially reduce patient quality of life. In this study, we first demonstrate the use of novel therapeutic platforms engineered to specifically target adipose tissue inflammation and lipid catabolism through localized drug delivery for the treatment of obesity. Specifically, we developed poly(lactide-coglycolide) scaffolds loaded with resveratrol, a small molecule with promising anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties, but one that suffers from poor bioavailability. Implant into the
The Annual Energy Outlook 2010 (AEO2010) reference case by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents updated projections for U.S. energy consumption and production through 2035.. Our projections show that existing policies that stress energy efficiency and alternative fuels, together with higher energy prices, curb energy consumption growth and shift the energy mix toward renewable fuels, said Richard Newell, EIA administrator. However, assuming no new policies, fossil fuels would still provide about 78 percent of all the energy used in 2035.. These reference case projections do not include the effects of potential future policies that have not yet become law and only include technologies that are commercially available or can reasonably be expected to become commercially available over roughly the next decade.. The report predicts total primary energy consumption to grow by 14 percent between 2008 and 2035, as the fossil fuel share of total U.S. energy consumption falls from ...
The central nervous system mediates energy balance (energy intake and energy expenditure) in the body; the hypothalamus has a key role in this process. Recent evidence has demonstrated an important role for hypothalamic malonyl CoA in mediating energy balance. Malonyl CoA is generated by the carboxylation of acetyl CoA by acetyl CoA carboxylase and is then either incorporated into long-chain fatty acids by fatty acid synthase, or converted back to acetyl-CoA by malonyl CoA decarboxylase. Increased hypothalamic malonyl CoA is an indicator of energy surplus, resulting in a decrease in food intake and an increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, a decrease in hypothalamic malonyl CoA signals an energy deficit, resulting in an increased appetite and a decrease in body energy expenditure. A number of hormonal and neural orexigenic and anorexigenic signaling pathways have now been shown to be associated with changes in malonyl CoA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Despite ...
Fowler , P A , Drake , A J , OShaughnessy , P J , Bhattacharya , S , Raab , A , Sinclair , K D , Feldmann , J & Meharg , A A 2016 , Comment on Effects of Arsenite during Fetal Development on Energy Metabolism and Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Diseases in Male Mice and Mechanisms Underlying Latent Disease Risk Associated with Early-Life Arsenic Exposure: Current Trends and Scientific Gaps Environmental Health Perspectives , vol 124 , no. 6 , pp. A99-A99 . DOI: 10.1289/ehp. ...
This dataset corresponds to the article published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface titled: The foot is more than a spring: human foot muscles perform work to adapt to the energetic requirements of locomotion Compare how step on level ground versus stepping up and down 26 cm platforms. Dataset consists of EMG activation of the Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) and Abductor Hallucis (AH) muscles in addition to dynamic data of the foot and leg joints such as mechanical work and moments, as estimated by performing inverse dynamics with force plate and motion capture data.
Barenys, M.; Recasens, M.A.; Martí-Henneberg, C.; Salas-Salvadó, J., 1993: Effect of exercise and protein intake on energy expenditure in adolescents
09.07.2019 - Important lessons can be learned from the two global frontrunners in the energy transition, Germany and California, a new report shows. Being the 4th biggest and 5th biggest economies worldwide, both jurisdictions draw more than 30 percent of their electricity from wind and solar and biomass, both have ambitious renewables targets of 80 and 100 percent by mid-century. An international team of scientists from Germany and the US now analyzed Californian and German policy pathways to draw conclusions for the way ahead. They find that market and renewable policy design adjustments in both jurisdictions to integrate the first 30 percent were small compared to the adjustments needed to integrate the second 30 percent. Importantly, strengthening CO2-pricing and policies to foster electrification must be an integral part of this.
The California Energy Commission said the rules it approved unanimously Thursday will raise the average cost of a new home by nearly $2,300.
In 1913 Niels Bohr proposed a model to describe how energy levels are organized around an atom. According to the theory, an electron travels from one energy level to the next, a bit like changing lanes in traffic and you overtake on the outer lane. If you want to travel slower, you go on the inside lane.. When an electron absorbs enough light energy, it travels up an energy level onto the faster lane. However, it may quickly becomes unstable and starts to loose energy. When this happens, the electron moves back down an energy level. Its called decay and the electron emits a photon of red light.. In this theory, energy levels are given as n=1, n=2, n=3 and n=4. If an electron moves from n=1 to n=3, the amount of energy aborbed is 2 energy level. If it goes from level 4 to 3, then it looses 1 energy level.. Dont confuse energy levels with orbitals. One energy level can cover over a few orbitals.. ...
Context/Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the regulation of the fuel partitioning and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle during lipid overfeeding in healthy men. Design/Participants/Intervention: Thirty-nine healthy volunteers were overfed for 56 days with a high-fat diet (3180 kJ/d). Energy metabolism (indirect calorimetry) was characterized in the fasting state and during a test meal before and at the end of the diet. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at day 0 and day 56. Main Outcome Measures: Change in gene expression, mitochondrial respiration, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content, and acetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) in skeletal muscle was measured. Results: Overfeeding increased body weight (+2.6 kg) and fat mass concomitantly with a shift in the use of substrates as energy fuel toward preferential oxidation of carbohydrates instead of lipids. Changes in lipid metabolic gene expression supported this