Endotoxin is a potent mediator of a broad range of patho-physiological effects in humans. It is present in all Gram negative (GN) bacteria. It would be expected that anti-endotoxin therapies, whether antibody based or not, would have an important adjuvant therapeutic role along with antibiotics and other supportive therapies for GN infections. Indeed there is an extensive literature relating to both pre-clinical and clinical studies of anti-endotoxin antibodies. However, the extent of disconnect between the generally successful pre-clinical studies versus the failures of the numerous large clinical trials of antibody based and other anti-endotoxin therapies is under-appreciated and unexplained. Seeking a reconciliation of this disconnect is not an abstract academic question as clinical trials of interventions to reduce levels of endotoxemia levels are ongoing. The aim of this review is to examine new insights into the complex relationship between endotoxemia and sepsis in an attempt to bridge this
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The long-term consequences of neonatal endotoxin exposure on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) function were assessed in adult female and male Long-Evans rats. At 3 and 5 d of age, pups were administered endotoxin (Salmonella enteritidis, 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) at a dose that provokes a rapid and sustained physiological response, but with no mortality. As adults, neonatally endotoxin-treated animals exhibited significantly greater adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to restraint stress than controls. In addition, dexamethasone pretreatment was less effective in suppressing ACTH responses to restraint stress in endotoxin-treated animals than in controls, suggesting decreased negative-feedback sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Neonatal endotoxin treatment elevated resting-state median eminence levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin in adult male animals, and arginine vasopressin in both adult males and females. Neonatal exposure to ...
The indoor environment in animal husbandry is inevitably contaminated with endotoxin. Endotoxin exposure associates with various inflammatory illnesses in animals. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between the degree of endotoxin exposure and the cellular and humoral immune profiles of fattening pigs. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 47 pigs from ten different pig farms in Korea. Whole blood cell counts and plasma immunoglobulin classes were measured. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with Concanavalin A for 48 hours and the cytokines released into the culture supernatants were measured. The barns in which the pigs lived were assessed for endotoxin levels in the total or respirable dust by using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic QCL method. Low and high endotoxin exposure were defined as ≤30 and ,30 EU/m3, respectively. Compared to pigs with low endotoxin exposure (n=19), highly exposed pigs (n=28) had higher ...
Skopinska, E, "Some effects of escherichia coli endotoxin on the graft-versus-host reaction in mice." (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 2753 ...
First paragraph: Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins produced by Gramnegative bacteria) are present on the surface of cigarettes and have been implicated in a number of diseases. Active smoking predisposes to periodontal disease which, in turn, facilitates gastrointestinal absorption of endotoxins. Serum endotoxin concentrations are higher among active smokers and are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition to being present on the surface of cigarettes, endotoxins are present in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke. Inhaled airborne endotoxins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease. In a guinea pig model, endotoxins have been shown to penetrate the lung barrier and be detectable in the blood. Similarly, non-smokers with occupational exposure to organic dust containing high levels of endotoxin have been shown to have increased plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide. However, no previous study has examined whether exposure to environmental ...
Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides or LPS, are cell membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., |em>E. coli|/em>). The lipid portion of the outer layer of the outer membrane is completely composed of endotoxin molecules (see figure |a href=/cn/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the envelope of e coli/>Schematic diagram of the envelope of |/a>|a href=/cn/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the envelope of e coli/>|em>E. coli|/em>|/a>). A single |em>E. coli|/em> cell contains about 2 million LPS molecules, each consisting of a hydrophobic lipid A moiety, a complex array of sugar residues and negatively charged phosphate groups (see figure |a href=/cn/resources/technologies/plasmid-resource-center/removal of bacterial endotoxins/images/schematic diagram of the endotoxin molecule/>Schematic diagram of the endotoxin molecule|/a>). Therefore,
Hoffman, J S. and Benditt, E P., "Changes in high density lipoprotein content following endotoxin administration in the mouse. Formation of serum amyloid protein-rich subfractions." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3343 ...
Human Plasma Proteome Analysis Following Endotoxin Challenge Identifies New Proteins that Contribute to Molecular Phenotype of Innate Immunity
Author: Weatherman Kara D, Augustine Samuel, Christoff Jeffrey, Galbraith Wendy, Year: 2013, Abstract: The objective of this study was to establish benchmark rates for microbial and bacterial endotoxin contamination rates for radiopharmaceutical preparations compounded in commercial nuclear pharmacies. Radiopharmaceutical samples were obtained between November 2006 and June 2010 from seven commercial nuclear pharmacies. Preparations were compounded per the compounding protocols of each radiopharmacy, and each kit was used for unit-dose dispensing of patient-specific doses. Samples for testing wer
Inflammation and coagulation are closely linked, and both can be triggered by endotoxin. Thrombelastometry and impedance aggregometry are of diagnostic and predictive value in critically ill patients. In this observational study we investigated the correlation of endotoxin activity with thrombelasometric and aggregometric variables in patients with systemic inflammation. Based on a daily screening on a tertiary academic surgical ICU, patients, as soon as they fulfilled two or more criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), were included. In whole blood we performed endotoxin activity (EA) assay, thrombelastometry (ROTEM®) and impendance aggregometry (Multiplate®). In total, 49 patients were included with a broad spread of EA levels of (median (minimum to maximum)) 0.27 (0.01 to 0.72), allowing expedient correlative analysis. Clot formation time (CFT) (263 s (60 to 1,438 s)) and clotting time (CT) (1,008 s (53 to 1,481 s)) showed a significant negative correlation with EA level (r =
The letter from Hansen et al. (1) raises an interesting question regarding the complexity of metabolic endotoxinemia and inflammation in vivo. Hansen et al. suggest endotoxin activity should induce an inflammatory response in our cohorts, as noted in a previous in vivo study, where healthy patients were inoculated with endotoxin (1,2). This has two elements to consider: firstly, the impact of endotoxin on inflammation in subjects, and secondly, the measurement of circulating endotoxin.. Firstly, in understanding the inflammatory response, it is often tempting to directly compare in vivo situations, but the context is key (1-3). Our article (3) examined circulating endotoxin derived from the gastrointestinal tract, which induced a physiological meal-related response, whereas Taudorf et al. (2) inoculated endotoxin, which bypasses such gut-related processes. From this, direct comparison of endotoxin levels, across the two studies, examining the two healthy groups showed a differential response ...
Endotoxin detection in human patients has been a difficult challenge, in part due to the fact that the conserved active portion of the molecule (lipid A) is a relatively small epitope only amenable to binding by a single ligand at any one instance and low levels (pg/ml) are capable of stimulating the immune system. The endotoxin activity assay, a bioassay based on neutrophil activation by complement opsonized immune complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has allowed the specific detection of the lipid A epitope of LPS in a rapid whole blood assay format. This review summarizes diagnostic studies utilizing the endotoxin activity assay in a variety of hospital patient populations in whom endotoxin is postulated to play a significant role in disease etiology. These include ICU patients at risk of developing sepsis syndrome, abdominal and cardiovascular surgery patients and patients with serious traumatic injury. Significant features of these studies include the high negative predictive value of the assay
Intravenous injection of endotoxin from Escherichia coli in dogs is characterized by an immediate and precipitous decline in blood pressure with a simultaneous elevation of portal vein pressure. This reaction is abolished by hepatectomy or exclusion of the liver from the circulation and is believed due to trapping of blood in the liver. The reactions observed suggest that the profound biological effects of endotoxin are at least partially the result of anaphylaxis. The lethal effects of endotoxin are enhanced by removal of the liver.. ...
en] OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of the endotoxin level in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and to propose to the clinician a guide in the diagnosis of gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective studies to investigate the relation between endotoxin level and quantitative bacterial culture of BAL and to test the predictive value of a defined threshold. SETTING: University hospital general intensive care unit. PATIENTS: In the first part of the study, 77 consecutive ventilated patients with clinical suspicion of nosocomial pneumonia between January 1995 and January 1996. In the second part of the study, 93 consecutive ventilated patients studied prospectively between February 1996 and April 1997. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Quantitative cultures for aerobic bacteria were performed directly from the fluid. Bacterial species were determined with standard techniques. The detection of endotoxin in BAL was made using a quantitative chromogenic Limulus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction between syntoxic and catatoxic steroids on endotoxin lethality in relation to liver metabolism in mice. AU - Lazar, G.. AU - Sekiya, S.. AU - Agarwal, M. K.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017402889&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017402889&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 330853. AN - SCOPUS:0017402889. VL - 22. SP - 13. EP - 20. JO - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. JF - Journal of Leukocyte Biology. SN - 0741-5400. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insights into endotoxin-mediated lung inflammation and future treatment strategies. AU - Chakraborty, Amlan. AU - Boer, Jennifer C.. AU - Selomulya, Cordelia. AU - Plebanski, Magdalena. AU - Royce, Simon G.. PY - 2018/11/2. Y1 - 2018/11/2. N2 - Introduction: Airway inflammatory disorders are prevalent diseases in need of better management and new therapeutics. Immunotherapies offer a solution to the problem of corticosteroid resistance. Areas covered: The current review focuses on lipopolysaccharide (Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin)-mediated inflammation in the lung and the animal models used to study related diseases. Endotoxin-induced lung pathology is usually initiated by antigen presenting cells (APC). We will discuss different subsets of APC including lung dendritic cells and macrophages, and their role in responding to endotoxin and environmental challenges. Expert commentary: The pharmacotherapeutic considerations to combat airway inflammation should cost-effectively ...
Myocardial circulation during septic shock is often characterized by an inappropriately high coronary flow.14 15 NO plays an important role in the regulation of myocardial flow.9 10 11 12 13 Therefore, we investigated the role of NO in the hyperdynamic changes of coronary flow in hearts of endotoxin-treated rats. The data in the present study indicate that these vascular changes are predominantly due to the vasodilatory action of NO. However, inhibition of the NO pathway can result in focal areas of ischemia in endotoxin-treated hearts, suggesting an imbalance of local oxygen supply to demand.. A rat model of endotoxemia using a sublethal low dose of endotoxin was selected; this model produced a hyperdynamic coronary circulation36 that is also seen in human sepsis.14 15 Comparable to human sepsis, the model resulted in raised temperature,36 reduced blood pressure, and increased levels of plasma lactate37 and nitrate plus nitrite. The 12 hours needed to establish this model provides sufficient ...
Endotoxins are derived from the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, and are very heat resistant. It is possible to have something that is microbiologically sterile but which contains endotoxin, example, an autoclaved suspension of E. coli will be sterile but will be packed with endotoxin. When carrying out endotoxin tests, tubes and pipettes are generally made from glass which can be sterilised in a hot air oven at 200C. This is capable of destroying endotoxin, preventing false positives. Pipette tips etc are normally purchased from manufacturers specifying their products are endotoxin free. If you use water for making dilutions or for controls it is imporatnt to use water guaranteed to be free of endotoxin, autoclaving and filtersterilising cannot be relied on to produce endotoxin free water. Hope this helps Derek Law Company Microbiologist LAB M R Burgess ,rburgess_1997 at yahoo.com, wrote in message news:20010131012105.14992.qmail at web1105.mail.yahoo.com... , I am new to the medical ...
The typical febrile response of normal rabbits given bacterial endotoxin intravenously may be modified by prior administration of plasma or, less effectively, serum of endotoxin-tolerant donors. This altered response is characterized by disappearance of the second rise in fever and by a striking reduction in fever index. It thus resembles the course of fever shown by rabbits made tolerant to endotoxin by one or more previous daily doses. This transfer of tolerance by plasma or serum depends critically upon the manner in which tolerance is induced in the donors.. The plasma of donor rabbits made tolerant, then given an RES-blocking dose of carbon, still confers tolerance upon normal recipient rabbits. Such donors have lost their tolerance and are highly sensitive to endotoxin at the time their blood is taken.. The implications of these findings for endotoxin tolerance and for transfer of this phenomenon are discussed. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that both tolerance and its ...
Three main projects are included in this dissertation. Though seemingly broad in scope, this research afforded a unique opportunity for comprehensive study of urban and rural environmental inhalation exposures to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide - LPS) and the associated immune response. In the LA PM10 Endotoxin Study, ambient concentration of LPS in PM (particulate matter) was quantified through analysis of air samples collected in Southern California. Endotoxin concentrations measured were lower than recognized thresholds for adverse health effects in occupational exposures, but in the same range as for indoor effects. This study provides the first extensive characterization of endotoxin concentration across a large metropolitan area in relation to PM10 and other pollutant monitoring, and supports the need for studies of the role of endotoxin in childhood asthma in urban settings. The Mouse Whole Blood Assay (WBA) Study replicated LPS-induced airway inflammation in a laboratory model. Presently, ...
Endotoxin tolerance reprograms cell responses to LPS by repressing expression of proinflammatory cytokines, while not inhibiting production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial effectors. Molecular mechanisms of induction and maintenance of endotoxin tolerance are incompletely understood, particularly with regard to the impact of endotoxin tolerization on signalosome assembly, activation of adaptor-kinase modules, and expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in human cells. In this study, we examined LPS-mediated activation of MyD88-dependent and Toll-IL-1R-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent pathways emanating from TLR4 and expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in control and endotoxin-tolerant human monocytes. Endotoxin tolerization suppressed LPS-inducible TLR4-TRIF and TRIF-TANK binding kinase (TBK)1 associations, induction of TBK1 kinase activity, activation of IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3, and expression of RANTES and IFN-beta. Tolerance
Endotoxin neutralization in human plasma is an excellent indicator of chronic immune activation, which is the most accurate predictor of mortality in HIV. Recen...
The objective of the present longitudinal study was to investigate the effects of occupational endotoxin exposure on respiratory health and atopic sensitization in adults. Health outcomes and personal endotoxin exposure estimates were determined for 234 farmers and agricultural workers both at baseline and 5 years later. A questionnaire was used to assess respiratory symptoms, spirometry tests were performed and total and specific IgE levels were measured in serum. A twofold increase in personal endotoxin exposure was associated with less hay fever (OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.54-0.87) and grass IgE positivity (OR 0.81, 95%CI 0.68-0.97) at both time points (
Kaori Maeda, Luke O. Schoeniger, Masahiko Shimada, Richard A. Winchurch, Timothy G. Buchman, James L. Robotham; Regulation of Acute Phase Gene Expression Following Surgery and Endotoxin Administration in the Anesthetized Pig. Anesthesiology 1993;79(6):1324-1337. Download citation file:. ...
Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins play a key role in respiratory disease affecting more than one million U.S. agricultural workers. This project uses a novel Recombinant Factor C (rFC) assay and GC/MS to evaluate the role of endotoxin exposures and genetis in respiratory outcomes among agricultural workers. Pre-work shift measurements included spirometry, symptoms, and blood collection for TLR4 g
HyClone™ Water, Cell Culture Grade (Endotoxin-Free) 1000mL; Cell Culture Grade Water HyClone™ Water, Cell Culture Grade (Endotoxin-Free) Cell Culture Grade...
Endotoxin-induced and vaccine-induced systemic inflammation both impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but not pulse wave reflection Lars Lind,1 Johannes Hulthe,2,3 Annika Johansson,3 Ewa Hedner31Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, 2Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, 3AstraZeneca Research and Development, Mölndal, SwedenBackground: Inflammation induced by either endotoxin or vaccination has previously been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) in healthy young individuals. However, the vascular effects of these two mechanisms of inducing inflammation have not been compared in the same individuals.Methods: Twelve young healthy males were studied at the same time of the day on three occasions in a random order; on one occasion 4 hours following an endotoxin injection (Escherichia coli endotoxin, 20 IU/kg), on another occasion 8 hours following vaccination against Salmonella typhi, and on a third occasion 4 hours following a saline control injection. EDV and
It was shown that although intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin caused extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of four different syngeneic murine tumors, only two of these tumors subsequently underwent complete regression: the two that were shown to be immunogeneic as classically defined. An immunologic basis for endotoxin-induced regression was further indicated by the additional findings that regression, but not hemorrhagic necrosis, of the two immunogenic tumors failed to occur in mice that were immunodepressed by whole-body gamma-irradiation, or that were made T-cell deficient by thymectomy and irradiation. That endotoxin-induced regression is T-cell mediated was suggested by the findings that tumor regression was followed by a state of long-lived immunity to a tumor cell challenge implant, and with the possession by the host of T cells that were capable of passively transferring this state of immunity to normal recipients. It is concluded that although parenteral injection of endotoxin ...
EndoTrap HD® manufactured by Hyglos GmbH (former Profos AG) is a new revolutionary tool especially designed to meet the needs of pharma and biotech industry for the efficient removal of endotoxins in biomanufacturing processes. EndoTrap® HD fulfils all requirements for industrial applications, and it can easily be integrated in/at early or late-stage purification processes of biological substances such as proteins, drugs, antibodies, or vaccines.. Background. Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) are major contaminants found in commercially available proteins or biologically active substances. LPS are highly potent immune stimulators able to cause side effects in host organisms such as endotoxin shock, tissue injury, and even death. Due to these reactions, it is essential to remove LPS from injectable drugs and other biological as well as pharmaceutical products (1, 2).. Purification very often represents the most time consuming and cost intensive step of the whole production process. ...
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the physiologic and inflammatory response following inhalation of corn dust extract (CDE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) solutions in normal subjects. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind crossover design. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen healthy, nonatopic, nonasthmatic, never-smoking volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: On separate visits, subjects underwent a series of four inhalation challenges to LPS or CDE, each containing either a high (6 micrograms/mL) or low (0.9 microgram/mL) endotoxin concentration, and administered at equal Xolumes. RESULTS: Chest tightness, cough, dyspnea, and sputum production were experienced following both LPS and CDE exposures and with similar frequency at both high and low endotoxin concentrations. LPS and CDE inhalations caused acute declines in FEV1, and the changes in FEV1 from baseline following exposure to both inhalants were not significantly different at both high and low endotoxin concentrations. Following exposure to the high-endotoxin LPS and CDE, no
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal (HFHC) with that of a high-fiber and fruit meal on the concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), LPS-binding protein (LBP), the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) in mononuclear cells.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Healthy lean subjects were given 910 calories of either an HFHC meal (n = 10) or an American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended meal rich in fiber and fruit (n = 10) after an overnight fast. Blood was collected before and at 1, 2, and 3 h after the meal. Cellular indexes of oxidative and inflammatory stress; the expression of SOCS-3, TLR2, and TLR4 in mononuclear cells; and plasma concentrations of LPS and LBP were measured.. RESULTS HFHC meal intake induced an increase in plasma LPS concentration and the expression of SOCS-3, TLR2, and TLR4 protein, reactive oxygen species generation, and nuclear factor-κB binding activity (P , 0.05 for all). ...
BACKGROUND Inhalation of endotoxin (LPS) induces a predominantly neutrophilic airway inflammation and has been used as model to test the anti-inflammatory activity of novel drugs. In the past, a dose exceeding 15-50 μg was generally needed to induce a sufficient inflammatory response. For human studies, regulatory authorities in some countries now request the use of GMP-grade LPS, which is of limited availability. It was therefore the aim of this study to test the effect and reproducibility of a low-dose LPS challenge (20,000 E.U.; 2 μg) using a flow- and volume-controlled inhalation technique to increase LPS deposition. METHODS Two to four weeks after a baseline sputum induction, 12 non-smoking healthy volunteers inhaled LPS on three occasions, separated by at least 4 weeks. To modulate the inflammatory effect of LPS, a 5-day PDE4 inhibitor (Roflumilast) treatment preceded the last challenge. Six hours after each LPS inhalation, sputum induction was performed. RESULTS The low-dose LPS inhalation
This study clearly demonstrates significant relationships between household endotoxin and diagnosed asthma, recent asthma symptoms, current use of asthma medications, and wheezing," said Dr. Thorne. "No effect was observed of allergy status on the relationship between endotoxin and asthma outcomes. This suggests that current endotoxin exposure may have little impact on allergy status and that airway inflammation is the most significant effect of endotoxin exposure in a cross-section of the population ...
OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high-saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Subjects (n = 54) were given a high-fat meal (75 g fat, 5 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein) after an overnight fast (nonobese control [NOC]: age 39.9 +/- 11.8 years [mean +/- SD], BMI 24.9 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2), n = 9; obese: age 43.8 +/- 9.5 years, BMI 33.3 +/- 2.5 kg/m(2), n = 15; impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]: age 41.7 +/- 11.3 years, BMI 32.0 +/- 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 12; type 2 diabetic: age 45.4 +/- 10.1 years, BMI 30.3 +/- 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 18). Blood was collected before (0 h) and after the meal (1-4 h) for analysis.. RESULTS-Baseline endotoxin was significantly higher in the type 2 diabetic and IGT subjects than in NOC subjects, with baseline circulating endotoxin levels 60.6% higher in type 2 diabetic subjects than in NOC subjects (P , 0.05). Ingestion of a high-fat meal led to a significant rise in endotoxin ...
Endotoxins are released during the replication or lysis of bacteria. In healthy animals, the gut acts as a barrier to endotoxins entering the blood. Yet in times of environmental, nutritional or metabolic stress, gut permeability can increase, allowing endotoxins to enter the blood stream, weakening the immune system and impairing animal performance. Mycofix® included in the diet can combat the negative impact of endotoxins.
While studies have clearly shown a link between antibiotics and the release of endotoxins and the effect of endotoxins and cytokines in precipitating an inflammatory response as well as septic shock, it has remained to be seen if this correlates with clinical outcome. There have been few prospective human studies into the administration of different antibiotics in the treatment of gram negative sepsis. One pertinent randomized study by Prins and colleagues of urosepsis patients treated with imipenem compared to ceftazidime found a more rapid defervescence with the administration of imipenem. Endotoxin and cytokine release also increased after administration of ceftazidime compared to no increase in the imipenem group. However in other physiological measures and mortality, there were no differences between the two study groups. Another study by Byl and colleagues examined again the difference between imipenem and ceftazidime in human septic patients. While both antibiotics did appear to induce ...
Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioural processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is well established, studies in wild animals on multiple parameters during an immune response are lacking. It also remains to be tested whether and how immune responses correlate with baseline values that vary, for example, over the course of an annual cycle. We studied immunological responses to an endotoxin challenge in skylarks (Alauda arvensis), a partial migrant bird breeding in temperate zones. We compared birds injected with the endotoxin LPS with un-injected controls, characterizing immunological responses with leukocyte profiles, titres of lytic enzymes and natural antibodies, and concentrations of haptoglobin and heat shock proteins. We did ...
Endotoxin is part of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall and can start some of the processes that lead in the end to organ failure and death. Higher levels during critical illness, surgery and...
In the US cotton industry, airborne cotton dust levels are regulated, and other countries are moving to specify safety limits for airborne endotoxins. There is concern about potential respiratory health hazards associated with agricultural and other organic dusts. In laboratories, ranking which samples have high and low levels of endotoxin is usually in good agreement between laboratories. When di
Abstract: Immunomodulation has become a focal point in the treatment of critically ill patients, as clinicians seek to manage the delicate balance between the necessity and potential hazards of inflammation in infection containment and healing. Modeling of inflammation is emerging as a desirable approach in designing effective immunomodulatory strategies, with most computational work focused on modeling molecular and systemic mechanisms of inflammation with increasing biological fidelity. Yet, there is still much to be done in the area of identifying successful strategies to combat excessive and pervasive inflammation. In the first part of the talk, a four dimensional differential equation model of the acute inflammatory response is presented in the context of repeated endotoxin administrations. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin can induce an acute inflammatory response comparable to a bacterial infection. In experiments with repeated endotoxin administration the observation that a ...
Injection of endotoxin into animals or humans causes systemic arterial15 and venous27 dilation and a fall in blood pressure. These effects are similar to the changes seen in patients with septic shock. The results of the present study provide direct evidence for a local vascular action of endotoxin in human veins in vivo and demonstrate that this effect is suppressed by a glucocorticoid. Using a system in which drugs are given into a single superficial vein in very low doses sufficient only to produce changes in the study vessel, we found that endotoxin attenuates the constrictor response to norepinephrine, causing a shift in the dose-response curve and suppressing the maximal constriction achieved. This effect was greatest 1 hour after exposure to the endotoxin and had waned by 4 hours, by which time the norepinephrine response had fully returned. Pretreatment with oral hydrocortisone abolished the endotoxin-induced hyporesponsiveness to norepinephrine; however, the local vasoactive mediators ...
In article ,9812169138.AA913859109 at stratagene.com,, scott_basehore at stratagene.com wrote: , Hello, , I am looking for Mammalian Cell lines that exhibit inhibition to , transfection in the presence of endotoxins, namely, E.coli cell wall , Lipopolysaccharides. I will be studying the transfection efficiency , of plasmids with and without endotoxins. Are there particular cell , lines that you know of that are difficult to transfect? Please E-mail , me at ,Scott_Basehore at Stratagene.com,. I will compile answers and post , the results here. Hi, surely the problem with endotoxins is not that they inhibit transfection per se, but rather that they kill the transfected cells, thereby reducing apparent transfection efficiency? So any cell line will exhibit this effect if theres enough LPS knocking around? So Stratagene is working on an endotoxin-free maxi-prep kit, now? :) What are you using? -- Richard P. Grant MA DPhil , rgrant at cmtech.co.uk Senior R&D Scientist , work: www.cmtech.co.uk ...
The EndoCab ELISA was originally devised to screen blood donor plasma for high titre antibodies to endotoxin core which are cross reactive with endotoxins of a number of Gram negative bacterial species and strains. The initial aim was to recruit a panel of EndoCab high titre donors for plasmapheresis for hyperimmune antiendotoxin gammaglobulin preparation, used in passive immunotherapy of Gram negative sepsis. The final form of the EndoCab ELISA was comprised of an equimolar cocktail of an incomplete core rough LPS (R-LPS) from each of four species (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, andSalmonella typhimurium). Each R-LPS preserved an intact inner core but did not express complete outer core. Complexing each R-LPS with polymyxin B increased the sensitivity of the ELISA considerably.17 IgG EndoCab is present at birth, and is probably maternal (transplacental). This gradually diminishes over the first three months; endogenous IgG EndoCab then begins to increase. The ...
Septic shock is the bodys inflammatory response to an infection, and is usually associated with gram negative bacteria. It is characterized by hypotension and hypoperfusion, despite adequate fluid resuscitation, and can lead to multiple organ failure. At these advanced stages there is a high morbidity and mortality rate associated with it. One mediator of this inflammatory response is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or endotoxin, found in the gram negative bacterial cell wall. Besides having effects on the body as a whole, there are many cellular processes affected by endotoxin. In the body, there is a family of enzymes, the cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are the bodys drug metabolizing enzymes. Although found in all tissue types, the P450 enzymes are mainly located in the liver. There are many families and isoforms of these enzymes, of which several are inhibited by endotoxin. The regulation of the P450 enzymes is very complex. During the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin, many cytokine
1 Dogs treated with lidocaine (1 mg kg-1 h-1) or indomethacin (1.5 mg/kg) before and after an LD60 dose (1 mg/kg) of E. coli endotoxin survived for at least 72 h. 2 Although all dogs in both treated groups survived, only those treated with indomethacin were significantly protected again...read more ...
NucleoBond kits for plasmid miniprep, midiprep, maxiprep, and endotoxin-free purification are gravity columns based on a patented anion exchange technology. The plasmid DNA obtained is highly pure and suitable for a variety of downstream applications
Vaccigrade c-di-AMP is a synthetic cyclic di-nucleotide produced by InvivoGen. It is sterile, endotoxin-free, cell-culture tested on a STING cell-based assay. c-di-AMP VacciGrade™ is suitable for preclinical studies.
Hvordan fjerne Endotoxins fra glass Endotoxins er hydrofobe molekyler skur ved visse bakterier på vev eller cellen kulturer. Endotoxins seg sta til Glassvarer og ikke kan vaskes bort med såpe og vann. Mens en autoklav eller beholder sterilisere overflaten av glass, er endotoxins som kl
Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are highly toxic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and are often present in significant amounts in bacterial cell expression systems.