Trelagliptin, an oral DPP-4 inhibitor, which is administered once per week and characterized by a long half-life in blood. The effects of trelagliptin on vascular endothelial functions have not been clarified to date. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of trelagliptin on vascular endothelial functions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), adiponectin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as evaluation indicators. This study was a preliminary single-arm prospective pilot study. The subjects of this study were type 2 DM patients aged 20-74 years, who visited our outpatient department. The patients were treated with trelagliptin, and their FMD, adiponectin, and ADMA levels were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks after initial treatment to determine the changes during the study period. A total of 27 patients, excluding three dropouts, were included in the population for analysis. Trelagliptin treatment showed no significant
This study will investigate the effects of vildagliptin compared with glimepiride on vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
This study investigated the effect of sitagliptin and vildagliptin (DPP-4 Inhibitor) on vascular endothelial function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial cell seeding on crosslinked collagen: effects of crosslinking on endothelial cell proliferation and functional parameters. AU - Wissink, M.J.B.. AU - van Luijn, M.J.A.. AU - Beernink, R.. AU - Dijk, F.. AU - Poot, A.A.. AU - Engbers, G.H.M.. AU - Beugeling, T.. AU - van Aken, W.G.. AU - Feijen, J.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Endothelial cell seeding, a promising method to improve the performance of small-diameter vascular grafts, requires a suitable substrate, such as crosslinked collagen. Commonly used crosslinking agents such as glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde cause, however, cytotoxic reactions and thereby hamper endothelialization of currently available collagen-coated vascular graft materials.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an alternative method for crosslinking of collagen, using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) in combination with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), on various cellular functions of human umbilical vein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular endothelium. AU - Daugherty, M. O.. AU - Rich, G. F.. AU - Johns, R. A.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Our understanding of the vital function of the vascular endothelium in circulatory physiology is rapidly expanding. Endothelium-derived vasoactive substances influence vascular tone, growth, inflammation, and haemostasis. Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. New pharmacological therapies are evolving from our understanding of the role of the endothelium.. AB - Our understanding of the vital function of the vascular endothelium in circulatory physiology is rapidly expanding. Endothelium-derived vasoactive substances influence vascular tone, growth, inflammation, and haemostasis. Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, ...
To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the largest to compare the effect on endothelial function, assessed by FMD, of different types of exercise training in post-myocardial infarction patients. Several interesting findings emerged from our trial.. First, in accordance with previous reports,19,24 an important degree of endothelial dysfunction (assessed by FMD) was found in a large, homogeneous group of patients 3 weeks after an acute myocardial infarction. In fact, the mean percent FMD was significantly inferior (4.2%) to a value considered normal in healthy subjects (≈10%).22. Second, in line with previous results,7,19 exercise helped to restore endothelial function as shown by the improvement in indexes of systemic endothelial function in all trained patients, whereas no significant changes in endothelium-independent vasodilatation were apparent. This adaptation appears to be predominantly endothelium dependent9; in fact, exercise increases shear stress, which is a strong ...
Endothelial cell dysfunction has been extensively associated with hypercholesterolemia and atherogenesis. However, most of the early work relevant to endothelial vascular function has focused on large conduit vessels (eg, the aorta, iliac arteries, large coronary arteries, etc), which are common sites of atherosclerotic lesions but are not generally involved in the direct regulation of tissue perfusion. Conversely, the microvasculature regulates tissue perfusion but does not usually develop overt atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, studies of the microvascular endothelium may be of importance in assessing the overall cardiovascular effect of atherosclerosis because it may represent an early marker of atherogenesis. Thus, endothelial function may be abnormal in this segment of the circulation, despite the absence of lesions in larger vessels in the setting of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. In the present article, we have shown that 1-week administration of a 0.5% cholesterol diet to rabbits ...
Aging stem cells may play a critical role in determining the effects of aging on organ function. With regard to vascular diseases, it has been postulated that circulating EPCs are involved in the repair mechanisms after endothelial damage (27,28). Ultimately, deterioration of endothelial or vascular function may be related to both quantitative and qualitative changes of stem cells.. We describe here the first comprehensive analysis of the association between age-related endothelial dysfunction and the number and function of circulating EPCs, defined by expression of CD34+/VEGFR2+ and CD133+/VEGFR2+. Although no quantitative differences in EPCs were observed, our data illustrate that culture-enriched EPCs from old but otherwise healthy subjects are impaired in terms of fundamental functional features like proliferation (important for amplifying the cellular pool), migration (critical for homing of circulating EPCs), and survival. We demonstrate a significant univariate correlation between the ...
Experiments of in vitro angiogenesis are important tools for studying both the mechanisms of formation of new blood vessels and the potential development of therapeutic strategies to modulate neovascularisation (e.g., screening of new pharmacological molecules). One of the most frequently used angiogenesis assays is the culture of endothelial cells on a reconstituted basement membrane named Matrigel, since the cells constitute a capillary-like network which can be quantified by image analysis. In this paper, a global, robust and fully automated methodology is proposed to segment and quantify in vitro endothelial cell networks from greyscale images using mathematical morphology operators. After extracting the established cell network by means of a top-hat transformation and separating the tubular structures and the cell aggregates by size and shape an interpolation algorithm yields a reconstituted closed network. Using these image data results different kinds of quantitative parameters are calculated:
Our work identifies AMPKα1 as a new kinase that phosphorylates Ser188 of RhoA and establishes a novel signaling cascade induced by estradiol. In VSMC, ER stimulation by E2 activates AMPK that phosphorylates RhoA thereby reducing Rho-Rock signaling pathway activity and limiting vasoconstriction. Our results also demonstrate that AMPKα1-RhoA pathway is constitutively active in female mice and could thus participate to the vasoprotective effect of estrogens.. AMPK is an ubiquitous heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein kinase activated by pathological stimuli, such as oxidative damage, osmotic shock, hypoxia, and glucose deprivation, as well as by physiological stimuli such as exercise and muscle contraction, and by hormones including leptin and adiponectin.27 In general, AMPK is activated in response to decreased cellular energy charge (increased in AMP/ATP ratio) and regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.28-30 Although there is a robust correlation between the activity of the AMPK and ...
The endothelium serves as one of the main targets of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and endothelial dysfunction largely determines the pathogenesis and clinical outcome in COVID-19 (Teuwen et al., 2020). Pathophysiological studies demonstrated inflammatory activation of the endothelium, destruction of intercellular contacts, and disruption of contacts with the basement membrane in COVID-19 (Ackermann et al., 2020). Dysfunction of the endothelium, apparently, was one of the reasons for thrombosis, both of the pulmonary capillaries and deep veins. At the same time, there was a significant stimulation of angiogenesis (Teuwen et al., 2020), which was caused by damage to the endothelium and hypoxia in the affected areas of the lung. Signs of viral infection of endothelial cells were found not only in the vessels of the lungs, but also in the heart and other organs, and were also confirmed in vitro using a model of vascular organoids (Monteil et al., 2020). Mitochondria in endothelial cells do not play a large role in
Definition of endothelial-derived relaxant factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is endothelial-derived relaxant factor? Meaning of endothelial-derived relaxant factor as a legal term. What does endothelial-derived relaxant factor mean in law?
Fingerprint Entra nei temi di ricerca di (AS) TNF-alpha blockade induces a reversible but transient effect on endothelial dysfunction in patients with long-standing severe rheumatoid arthritis.. Insieme formano una fingerprint unica. ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mathematical modeling of vascular endothelial cell layer maintenance: the role of endothelial cell division, progenitor cell homing and telomere shortening. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The study of endothelial cells has provided unique insight into important cardiovascular diseases and the control of angiogenesis during tumour development. The control of new blood vessel formation, or angiogenesis, is orchestrated by vascular endothelium and endothelial cells respond to unique signals in their environment with a repertoire of cellular and molecular responses. Studies directed towards dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying alterations in genotype and phenotype are underway using prototypic endothelial cell gene products (e.g. endothelin-1, eNOS, CXCR4, adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1 or ICAM-1) and exciting models of cellular activation (hypoxia, shear stress and epigenetic modifiers). An excellent example of the applicability of this approach is our finding that shigatoxins, bacterial-derived exotoxins that cause severe inflammation of capillary beds in patients with E coli 0157:H7, regulate the expression of genes in vascular endothelium at the post-transcriptional ...
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) participates together with β-arrestins in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling, but emerging evidence suggests that GRK2 can interact with a growing number of proteins involved in signaling mediated by other membrane receptor families under various pathologic conditions. We tested the hypothesis that GRK2 may be an important contributor to vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to high glucose and high insulin (HG/HI) to mimic insulin-resistant diabetic conditions. GRK2 expression and membrane translocation were up-regulated under HG/HI conditions. HG/HI did not modify activation of Akt or endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), but GRK2 inhibitor or small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in an increase in Akt and eNOS activation in HUVECs exposed to HG/HI. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was increased after exposure to HG/HI, which ...
This prospective study demonstrated that impaired FMD of the brachial artery is a strong independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral arterial disease. The predictive value of FMD was independent of the extent of reactive hyperemia and the response to an exogenous source of nitric oxide (NTG), suggesting that the findings are not due to variation in the stimulus for vasodilation or the function of vascular smooth muscle. Thus, the study supports a pathophysiologic link between endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events.. Previous invasive coronary studies examined the relation between endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. During a 28-month follow-up of 157 patients, Suwaidi et al. (3)demonstrated that coronary endothelial dysfunction in the absence of obstructive lesions was associated with increased cardiovascular events. Schachinger et al. (4)reported that impaired vasodilator responses to both endothelium-dependent and -independent agonists ...
Clinical assessment of endothelial function involves the measurement of dilation of conductance arteries during periods of acute increases in shear stress, believed to be almost entirely mediated by NO release, or measurement of agonist-induced vasodilation.1-3 The magnitude of endothelial dysfunction is an important and independent predictor of future development of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes, and of cardiovascular events.4-8 Thus, assessment of endothelial function quantifies subclinical vascular damage and is a valuable prognostic tool.3,4 The available clinical techniques for estimating endothelial function require substantial expertise and are not suitable for use in routine clinical practice. There is, thus, a critical need for simpler tests, potentially biomarkers, that would provide an accurate index of vascular endothelial function.. The bioavailability of NO from the vascular endothelium is exquisitely modulated by reactive oxygen species that ...
OBJECTIVE--To assess a non-invasive test for endothelial dysfunction, an important early event in the atherogenic process. METHODS--Using high resolution ultrasound, the accuracy of detecting small changes in vessel diameter was assessed using phantom arteries, and the same equipment was then used to measure flow mediated dilatation in the brachial artery of 40 healthy adults aged 22-51 years, studied on four occasions; intervals between scans were 1-2 days, 1-2 weeks, and 2-4 months. RESULTS--Differences between pairs of phantom arteries with diameters 0.1-0.2 mm apart were correctly estimated in 162 of 264 cases (61%); no measurement by any of four independent observers was , 0.1 mm in error, and the mean error was 0.04 mm. For in vivo scans, the overall coefficient of variation for flow mediated dilatation was 1.8% (1.6% for women, 1.9% for men, P = 0.18). In 34/40 subjects (85%), all values for flow mediated dilatation were within 2.5% of the overall mean for each subject. A nested ...
Endothelium plays a critical role in maintaining healthy homeostatic properties of the vasculature. Endothelial dysfunction promotes atherosclerosis by creating a vasospastic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory milieu. Therefore, the assessment of endothelial function as a surrogate marker of arterial health has gained significant interest for clinical risk assessment beyond the risk conveyed by a structural impediment to flow (1). Furthermore, the observation that cardiovascular events may occur remotely from the site in which the endothelial dysfunction is detected prompted clinical studies in search for peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction as a predictor of cardiovascular events.. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by a paradoxical vasoconstriction or attenuated dilation due to reduced endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO) release. In earlier studies, the response of the epicardial arteries to infused acetylcholine was measured invasively to assess endothelial function in the ...
The endothelium is the lining of our arteries and consists of a single layer of tile-like cells. The endothelium is central to artery health and disease. Anything that compromises the health of the endothelium has an immediate effect on the flow of blood to every organ. Atherosclerosis, the obstruction of arteries by cholesterol, is merely the end result of repeated endothelial damage. Every fat and cholesterol laden meal causes an inflammatory storm within the arteries that lasts for many hours and has a measureable effect on endothelial function.. Endothelial cells are continually releasing nitric oxide and many other chemical messengers that control blood flow and blood clotting. Nitric oxide (NO) is the key player. It diffuses into the muscular layer of the artery wall and causes the muscle cells to relax a little. The physics of pipes and fluids dictates that a small increase in the diameter of the vessel results in a big increase in blood flow. This provides for minute to minute adjustment ...
Ventricular hypertrophy following chronic overload results from the hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and the hyperplasia of non muscle cells in the
Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathological process of coronary artery disease as well as an adverse event after coronary drug eluting stent (DES) implantation. In this review, an overview will be given of the evidence to date regarding the effects of coronary DES on endothelial function obtained from both clinical and experimental studies. Stenting in general and DES seem to impair several aspects of endothelial function: provision of a permeable barrier function; modulation of adhesion, thrombosis and inflammation; and regulation of vascular tone. However, new insights show that the effects of DES can extend beyond the stent and peri-stent area: the vascular bed distal to the stent, starting with the distal conduit vessels up to the distal microvasculature, might be at risk. In addition, insight into the mechanism of DES induced endothelial dysfunction has been gained. To finalize this review, clinical complications and solutions of DES associated endothelial dysfunction ...
Background: Water pipe (WP) tobacco smoking is gaining wide popularity among young and middle aged males and females. Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of 1st pipe water smoking on brachial Flow mediated dilatation% (FMD%) and Nitrate mediated dilatation% (NMD%) as markers of systemic endothelial function. Methods:...
Vascular endothelium is responsible for the secretion of several substances exerting anti-atherogenic effects. Endothelial damage is also crucial for the progress of atherosclerosis and risk factors for atherosclerosis represent crucial factors associated with endothelial dysfunction. Studies have shown that patients with cardiovascular disease are characterized by impaired endothelial function (EF). Therefore, several agents have been proposed as potential modulators of EF. Most of the available approaches include pharmaceutical agents routinely used such as statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, antioxidants, L-arginine, insulin sensitizers or others still under investigation such as tetrahydrobiopterin or folic acid (folate). Despite of the fact that there are several strategies aiming to improve endothelial dysfunction by enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability, it is still unclear whether they could be beneficial at a clinical level.
There are several invasive and noninvasive methods available to the clinical researcher for the assessment of endothelial function. The first investigations in humans involved invasive pharmacological vascular function testing, which have been used to gain a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis as well as novel targets for intervention. Techniques for endothelial function testing have evolved over time from these invasive methods, which, by their nature, are restricted to small studies in the research laboratory, to more standardized noninvasive methods, which are suitable for use in large prospective cohort studies and clinical trials. This paper describes currently available methods for assessment of endothelial function and their potential application in cardiovascular research and clinical practice.
Background: While diabetes is associated with diminished vascular NO levels, the precise mechanisms of diabetic endothelial dysfunction are not known. We hypothesized that deficient eNOS S1179 phosphorylation plays a key role in diabetic vascular abnormalities, and that increasing S1179 phosphorylation may improve endothelial function. To test this hypothesis, we created eNOS knock-in mice that carry a S1179D mutation in the eNOS gene, resulting in the generation of a phosphomimetic form of eNOS with increased enzymatic activity and NO generation. We bred these animals to db/db mice to obtain S1179D-db/db mice to test whether modulation of the S1179 phosphorylation site could overcome diabetic vascular dysfunction, and whether this could affect stroke size in vivo.. Experimental Procedures: Adult male mice were anesthetized by 30 % oxygen, 70 % nitrous oxide, and 1.5 % isoflurane. Body temperature was maintained at 36-37°C. Vessel reactivity studies were performed on isolated pressurized ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of diet on vascular reactivity. T2 - an emerging marker for vascular risk.. AU - West, S. G.. PY - 2001/11. Y1 - 2001/11. N2 - New technology for studying vascular activity in vivo has shown that the endothelium plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. The healthy endothelium is a metabolically active tissue that exquisitely regulates vascular tone via release of the powerful vasodilator, nitric oxide. Endothelial integrity reduces cell adhesion, lipid deposition, and other early steps in atherogenesis. There is compelling evidence that endothelial function can be altered within hours of eating certain foods, further affirming the role of dietary factors in the prevention and progression of cardiovascular disease. This article reviews recent work on dietary factors (fatty acids, L-arginine, antioxidants, polyphenols, and folic acid) that alter vascular tone, and critically evaluates two noninvasive measures (flow-mediated dilation and total peripheral ...
The results of our prospective study clearly demonstrate that endothelial function significantly influences the future development of diabetes, independently of age and several other well-known diabetes risk factors. In our opinion, this is a very important tool because it radically changes the way endothelial dysfunction is considered. Endothelial dysfunction is usually explained as being the consequence of the endothelium being exposed to damaging factors, e.g., high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, smoking, etc.-the response-to-injury theory (3). Our data revolutionize the concept because they indicate that endothelial dysfunction may influence the development of diabetes. The present results have been obtained by studying a population of postmenopausal women who represent a unique model of studying endothelial dysfunction consequences. In fact, the decrease in estrogens that physiologically follows menopause does in itself compromise the endothelial function in women, ...
Were stained with rat endothelial cell antigen. + pixels were counted in glomeruli and tubular fields working with ImageJ Application . To be able to evaluate
Vascular endothelium provides a selective barrier between the blood and tissues, participates in wound healing and angiogenesis, and regulates tissue recruitment of inflammatory cells. Nuclear factor (NF)- $$\kappa$$B transcription factors are pivotal regulators of survival and inflammation, and have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets in cancer and inflammatory diseases. Here we show that mice lacking IKK$$\beta$$, the primary kinase mediating NF-$$\kappa$$B activation, are smaller than littermates and born at less than the expected Mendelian frequency in association with hypotrophic and hypovascular placentae. IKK$$\beta$$ -deleted endothelium manifests increased vascular permeability and reduced migration. Surprisingly, we find that these defects result from loss of kinase-independent effects of IKK$$\beta$$ on activation of the serine-threonine kinase, Akt. Together, these data demonstrate essential roles for IKK$$\beta$$ in regulating endothelial permeability and migration, as ...
Despite its known expression in both the vascular endothelium and the lung epithelium, until recently the physiological role of the adhesion receptor Gpr116/ADGRF5 has remained elusive. We generated a new mouse model of constitutive Gpr116 inactivation, with a large genetic deletion encompassing exon 4 to exon 21 of the Gpr116 gene. This model allowed us to confirm recent results defining Gpr116 as necessary regulator of surfactant homeostasis. The loss of Gpr116 provokes an early accumulation of surfactant in the lungs, followed by a massive infiltration of macrophages, and eventually progresses into an emphysemalike pathology. Further analysis of this knockout model revealed cerebral vascular leakage, beginning at around 1.5 months of age. Additionally, endothelial-specific deletion of Gpr116 resulted in a significant increase of the brain vascular leakage. Mice devoid of Gpr116 developed an anatomically normal and largely functional vascular network, surprisingly exhibited an attenuated ...
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The thin layer of cells that lines the interior of blood vessels, known as the endothelium, plays a complex role in vascular biology. The endothelium mediates blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil recruitment, hormone trafficking, and fluid filtration. Endothelial dysfunction, as defined by a lack of NO, has been linked to a variety of disease states, including atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Indeed, restoration of endothelial function is one of the earliest recognizable benefits of statin therapy. In 1995, James Liao and colleagues published a study in the ...
A discovery arose from growing human arterial endothelial cells in the lab, and scientists from the Morgridge Institute for Research couldn’t be more
The present invention relates to intercellular adhesion inhibitory factors produced by cytokine activated endothelial cells. These factors designated endothelial-derived IL-8 find use in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammation and in the protection of endothelial cells from neutrophil mediated damage.
In normal vascular physiology, nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in maintaining the vascular wall in a quiescent state by inhibition of inflammation, cellular proliferation, and thrombosis (1). What is generally referred to as endothelial dysfunction should more appropriately be considered endothelial activation. Such activation may be beneficial to humans in certain instances, such as during infection, and harmful in others, such as during obesity.. During infection, a reduction in NO may allow for activation of endothelial expression of chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules, designed to recruit and activate leukocytes and platelets. Endothelial activation (endothelial dysfunction) may be considered as a beneficial and physiological response to infection.. In the absence of an active infection, most cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, elevated lipids, hypertension, aging) reduce NO bioavailability-a maladaptive response that sets the stage for the development of atherosclerosis. The ...
My laboratory is interested in bi-directional crosstalk between vascular endothelium and cardiomyocytes that regulates cardiac size and function. As an alternative to myocyte-driven hypertrophy in response to hemodynamic stress we recently reported a cross-talk loop induction of myocardial hypertrophy by expanding vascular endothelium in the absence of traditional hypertrophy stimuli. This reveals a new and unexplored role played by the endothelium in regulation of adult organ growth and size that would be of great interest in formulating new therapeutic angiogenic approaches to the treatment of heart disease.. Our hypothesis is that an increase in vascular endothelium in the adult heart results in increased nitric oxide (NO) production that in turn drives the growth of cardiomyocytes by sustained ubiquitination of the negative regulator of G protein signaling subtype 4 (RGS4) and derepression of the hypertrophic program via heterotrimeric G protein signaling. To investigate this crosstalk we ...
Endothelium helps in maintaining vascular tone by regulating the vascular permeability. It selectively allows only certain molecules to cross the endothelial barrier. A large number of micro and macro vascular complications are associated with endothelial dysfunction in diabetes including cardiovascular disease, stroke and peripheral vascular diseases. Moreover, a series of
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Evidence for vasculoprotective effects of ET,sub,B,/sub, receptors in resistance artery remodeling in diabetes. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
1) The rate of NO release from endothelial cells increases when flow is enhanced. (2) Endothelial cells possess a high capacity for NO production, permitting a rapid adjustment of NO release to changes in flow. (3) The rate of NO release is not causally related to changes in perfusion pressure ...
The vascular endothelium comprises a dynamic interface with the blood and acts as an integrator and transducer of both biochemical (e.g. inflammatory cytokines)...
When the endothelial cells get affected, the walls of the arteries tend to lose their elasticity thereby becoming hard and thick. Many studies in the cardiovascular field point out that endothelial dysfunction is the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease.

Ease of Ang-2 from endothelia is mediated by Tlr4 [13] and we JI 101 site detected mRNA levels of Tlr4 on HUVECs (Figure 6A). Prior studies have shown that
Diabetes mellitus leads to endothelium dysfunction and an accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Vascular complications of diabetes mellitus can affect not only large and medium arteries resulting in coronary heart disease and peripheral arteries diseases, but also small vessels leading to retinopathy and nephropathy. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) are considered as markers of endothelium dysfunction. The aim of our study was to evaluate plasma levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and vWF in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin therapy and who had diabetic non-proliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy, or did not develop diabetic retinopathy. There were no statistically significant differences between studied groups in any of evaluated endothelium dysfunction markers. There was no statistically significant correlation between measured parameters and a period of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelium removal augments endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric vascular bed. AU - Iwatani, Y.. AU - Kosugi, K.. AU - Isobe-Oku, S.. AU - Atagi, S.. AU - Kitamura, Yoshihisa. AU - Kawasaki, H.. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Background and purpose: The vascular endothelium regulates vascular tone by releasing various endothelium-derived vasoactive substances to counteract excess vascular response. We investigated whether the vascular endothelium regulates vasodilatation via released endothelium-derived contracting factors (EDCFs), by examining the effect of endothelium removal on responses to periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) and various vasodilator agents. Experimental approach: The rat mesenteric vascular bed was perfused with Krebs solution. Vasodilator responses to PNS and 5 min perfusion of vasodilator agents in preparations with endothelium were compared with those in the same preparations without endothelium. The endothelium was removed by 30 s ...
During inflammation, neutrophils migrate from the vascular lumen into extravascular sites. In vitro assays have suggested that platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 [PECAM-1 (CD31)], a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is required for the transmigration of neutrophils across endothelial monolayers. Antibody to human PECAM-1, which cross-reacts with rat PECAM-1, was found to block not only in vivo accumulation of rat neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity and the alveolar compartment of the lung but also neutrophil accumulation in human skin grafts transplanted onto immunodeficient mice. On the basis of these findings in three different models of inflammation, it appears that PECAM-1 is required for neutrophil transmigration in vivo and may thus be a potential therapeutic target. ...
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a hormone considered to be an important regulator of intravascular fluid volume, has been shown to bind specifically to receptors on endothelial cells. In this study, the role of ANP-specific binding was investigated by examining the effect of ANP on the morphology and macromolecular permeability of monolayer cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). ANP alone (10-9 -10-6 M) had no observable effect on the morphology of the monolayers. However, incubation of the endothelial monolayers with ANP (10-8 -10-6 M) antagonized the characteristic thrombin-induced (1 unit/ml) cell shape changes and the formation of intercellular gaps. Since chemically and enzymatically generated oxidants have also been shown to alter endothelial cell shape and increase macromolecular permeability, the effect of ANP on oxidant-induced injuries was investigated. Treatment of endothelial monolayers with glucose oxidase (1.4 unit/ml) elicited changes in cell shape characterized by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of vascular endothelial barrier function by Epac, a cAMP-activated exchange factor for Rap GTPase. AU - Cullere, Xavier. AU - Shaw, Sunil K.. AU - Andersson, Lorna. AU - Hirahashi, Junichi. AU - Luscinskas, Francis W.. AU - Mayadas, Tanya N.. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. N2 - Endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins and cortical actin are of central importance for regulating vascular permeability. Rap1, a member of the Ras family of GTPases, is enriched at endothelial cell-cell contacts and activated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) through a PKA-independent pathway. Activation of a cAMP-inducible gua nine-exchange factor for Rap, Epac, results in markedly enhanced basal endothelial barrier function by increasing cortical actin and subsequent redistribution of adherens and tight junctional molecules to cell-cell contacts. Activation of Epac also counteracts thrombin-induced hyperpermeability through down-regula tion of Rho GTPase activation, suggesting cross-talk between Rap and ...
The adherence and migration of leukocytes through the endothelium of blood vessels is an important early event which occurs in normal tissues following ionizing irradiation but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD31 are membrane proteins of endothelial cells, mediate this process when the vasculature is exposed to other inflammatory stimuli. In this study, expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD31 on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) at 72 hours post-irradiation using flow cytometry and northern analysis was determined. Dose-dependent increases in the surface expression and mRNA of ICAM-1 and CD31 were observed. In contrast VCAM-1 was practically undetectable on both control and irradiated HDMECs but was strongly expressed in TNF-alpha activated positive control HDMECs. The upregulation in ICAM-1 and CD31 was independent of radiation-induced changes in cell size, number and cell cycle stage. We suggest that ICAM-1 is active over a prolonged ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thrombin-induced gap formation in confluent endothelial cell monolayers in vitro. AU - Laposata, Michael. AU - Dovnarsky, D. K.. AU - Shin, H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - When thrombin is incubated with confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro, there is a change in the shape of the endothelial cells that results in gaps in the monolayer disrupting the integrity of the endothelium and exposing the subendothelium. Using a grid assay to measure this phenomenon, we observed that up to 80% of the surface area once covered by cells was uncovered after a 15-min incubation with 10-2 U/ml (10-10 M) thrombin. The effect was apparent within 2 min and did not remove cells from the surface of the culture dish. The gaps in the monolayer completely disappeared within 2 hr after exposure to thrombin. The effect of thrombin was inhibited by preincubation of thrombin with hirudin or antithrombin III plush heparin or by preincubation of the monolayers with dibutyryl ...
Endothelial activation is an integral component of inflammatory rheumatic diseases, and also of atherosclerosis. Leukocytes emigrate from the blood into inflamed tissues through a series of adhesion events (the adhesion cascade), each of which is dependent upon the state of endothelial cell activation. Initial rolling of neutrophils on vascular endothelium is mediated by transient interactions between selectins (L-selectin on leukocytes, E-selectin on cytokine-activated endothelial cells (EC) and P-selectin on both activated EC and activated platelets) and carbohydrate-bearing counter-structures on the opposing cell. Whilst rolling, leukocytes become exposed to activating signals (such as chemokines), resulting in an upregulation of the capacity of b2 integrins (eg LFA-1, Mac-1) to bind ligands (eg ICAM-1, -2) on EC. This integrin-mediated secondary adhesion results in leukocyte arrest and is followed by their transmigration into the tissues. In the case of mononuclear cells, adhesion of a4 ...
Statins Nonlipid Effects on Vascular Endothelium through eNOS Activation Curator, Author,Writer, Reporter: Larry Bernstein, MD, FACP Categories of Research: Disease biology, Cell Biology and Cell Signaling, Biological Networks and Gene Regulation, Pharmacotherapy of Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide, HMG Co A inhibitors, Endothelial Receptor, Hypertension, Therapeutic Targets Introduction Statins have an effect on the…
HIV infected patients treated with abacavir might have a higher risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. At time of writing of this protocol the underlying mechanism is not yet elucidated, however some studies find impaired endothelial function and elevated markers of chronic inflammation in these patients,suggesting a higher lever of chronic inflammation. Recently maraviroc (Celsentri®), a CCR5-receptor antagonist, became available for treatment of patients infected with HIV-1.. Improvement of endothelial function may be a potential beneficial side effect of treatment with maraviroc, due to the potential reduction of immune activation and chronic inflammation as a result of blocking the CCR5-coreceptor. Moreover, treatment intensification of HAART with maraviroc in patients with suppressed plasma HIV_RNA may decrease plasma HIVRNA below the cut-off of 50 copies/ml as well.. The investigators hypothesize that maraviroc intensification therapy in patients on an abacavir-containing ...
Ferrara and Henzel (1989) determined that purified bovine Vegf was mitogenic to adrenal cortex-derived capillary endothelial cells and to several other vascular endothelial cells, but it was not mitogenic toward nonendothelial cells. Leung et al. (1989) demonstrated that culture media conditioned by human embryonic kidney cells expressing either bovine or human VEGF cDNA promoted proliferation of capillary endothelial cells. VEGF, a homodimeric glycoprotein of relative molecular mass 45,000, is the only mitogen that specifically acts on endothelial cells. It may be a major regulator of tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Millauer et al. (1994) observed in mouse that its expression was upregulated by hypoxia and that its cell surface receptor, Flk1 (KDR; 191306), is exclusively expressed in endothelial cells. Folkman (1995) noted the importance of VEGF and its receptor system in tumor growth and suggested that intervention in this system may provide promising approaches to cancer therapy. VEGF and ...
Ferrara and Henzel (1989) determined that purified bovine Vegf was mitogenic to adrenal cortex-derived capillary endothelial cells and to several other vascular endothelial cells, but it was not mitogenic toward nonendothelial cells. Leung et al. (1989) demonstrated that culture media conditioned by human embryonic kidney cells expressing either bovine or human VEGF cDNA promoted proliferation of capillary endothelial cells. VEGF, a homodimeric glycoprotein of relative molecular mass 45,000, is the only mitogen that specifically acts on endothelial cells. It may be a major regulator of tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Millauer et al. (1994) observed in mouse that its expression was upregulated by hypoxia and that its cell surface receptor, Flk1 (KDR; 191306), is exclusively expressed in endothelial cells. Folkman (1995) noted the importance of VEGF and its receptor system in tumor growth and suggested that intervention in this system may provide promising approaches to cancer therapy. VEGF and ...
The endothelium is an important regulator of the cardiovascular system by releasing nitric oxide, prostacyclin, endothelin-1, and other endothelium-derived constricting factors which are able to profoundly affect vascular tone and the function of circulating blood cells such as Format: Paperback.. Endothelium and Cardiovascular Diseases: Vascular Biology and Clinical Syndromes provides an in-depth examination of the role of endothelium and endothelial dysfunction in normal vascular function, and in a broad spectrum of clinical syndromes, from atherosclerosis, to cognitive disturbances and eclampsia.. The endothelium is a major participant in the pathophysiology of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes. Endothelium and Cardiovascular Diseases: Vascular Biology and Clinical Syndromes provides an in-depth examination of the role of endothelium and endothelial dysfunction in normal vascular function, and in a broad spectrum of clinical syndromes, from atherosclerosis, to cognitive disturbances ...
Mechanical forces have long been known to be potent regulators of vascular endothelial function.3 Endothelial cells have evolved sophisticated sensory and regulatory ability to maintain vascular homeostasis through adaptive remodeling.20 This study addresses the question of how endothelial cells respond to mechanical strain to control the growth of the underlying VSMCs. Previously, it was known that endothelial cells can regulate VSMC proliferation.21 In particular, heparin and endothelial cell HSPGs are potent inhibitors of VSMC proliferation and FGF-2 induced mitogenesis.13,22-24 This regulation is growth state dependent, with subconfluent cultures of endothelial cells stimulating VSMC growth and postconfluent cultures inhibiting VSMC growth.12,25-28 Similarly, perlecan and endothelial-derived HSPGs have been shown to be essential in inhibiting the neointimal response to vascular injury.14,29-31 Our study adds a new dimension to these results, demonstrating that the regulation of perlecan by ...
Results KLF2 upregulation profoundly ameliorated HSC phenotype (reduced α-smooth muscle actin, procollagen I and oxidative stress) partly via the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Coculture experiments showed that improvement in HSC phenotype paracrinally ameliorated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells probably through a vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated mechanism. No paracrine interactions between hepatocytes and HSC were observed. Cirrhotic rats treated with simvastatin or Ad-KLF2 showed hepatic upregulation in the KLF2-Nrf2 pathway, deactivation of HSC and prominent reduction in liver fibrosis. Hepatic KLF2 overexpression was associated with lower portal pressure (-15%) due to both attenuations in the increased portal blood flow and hepatic vascular resistance, together with a significant improvement in hepatic endothelial dysfunction. ...
4610 Tumor endothelial marker 7 (TEM-7) mRNA has been previously shown to be elevated in human colorectal cancer endothelium compared to normal adjacent colorectal endothelium (St. Croix et al., Science, 2000), and is a possible therapeutic target for antiangiogenic intervention in colorectal cancer.. We evaluated TEM-7 mRNA expression in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and endothelial precursor cells (EPC). We found that TEM-7 was not expressed in either HMVEC or HUVEC but was present in EPC. We stimulated HMVEC, HUVEC and EPC with 100 nM of the phorbol ester PMA and found that TEM-7 mRNA was induced by PMA in EPC but not in HMVEC or HUVEC. Given that EPC are closer, at the molecular level, to tumor endothelium than they are to normal quiescent endothelium (Bagley et al., Cancer Research, 2003) and that PMA is a potent transcriptional activator of cancer-associated genes, the induction of TEM-7 by PMA in EPC suggests that TEM-7 may ...
Hematogenous metastasis requires the arrest and extravasation of blood-borne tumor cells, possibly involving direct adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Cytokine activation of cultured human endothelium increases adhesion of melanoma and carcinoma cell lines. An inducible 110-kD endothelial cell surface glycoprotein, designated INCAM-110, appears to mediate adhesion of melanoma cells. In addition, an inducible endothelial receptor for neutrophils, ELAM-1, supports the adhesion of a human colon carcinoma cell line. Thus, activation of vascular endothelium in vivo that results in increased expression of INCAM-110 and ELAM-1 may promote tumor cell adhesion and affect the incidence and distribution of metastases.. ...
The recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and their migration through the endothelium are critical to immune responses. Transendothelial migration is essential for leukocytes to respond to foreign microorganisms, but if uncontrolled, can cause autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to evaluate the transmigration of leukocytes, we have developed a kinetic, label-free in vitro assay to automatically acquire and analyze transendothelial migration, with the added ability to monitor monolayer integrity.. Using primary T cells and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial cells (HUVEC), we evaluated the ability of this novel assay to quantify leukocyte transmigration in the absence of cell labeling. Briefly, endothelial cells were grown to confluence on a physiological surface. Leukocytes were added to the monolayer, and the upper chamber was placed into a reservoir plate containing chemoattractant. Live cell images were captured at regular ...
The ability of lysoPC, either independently or as a component of oxidized LDL, to inhibit endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation is well established (Cowan and Steffen, 1995; Freeman et al., 1996). The effect of lysoPC to impair endothelium-dependent relaxation is generalized to a variety of endothelium-dependent vasodilators, including acetylcholine (Kugiyama et al., 1990), 5-hyroxytryptamine (Cox and Cohen, 1996a), thrombin (Murohara et al., 1994) and calcium ionophore A23187 (Mangin et al., 1993). However, the cellular pathways affected by lysoPC that ultimately result in endothelial vasomotor dysfunction remain unclear. LysoPC was recently documented to stimulate PLD activity in cultured human endothelial cells (Cox and Cohen, 1996c), although the role of this effect in the vasomotor actions of lysoPC was not addressed. The present study has demonstrated the ability of lysoPC to stimulate vascular PLD activity in isolated blood vessels and has documented a close association between the ability ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial cells regulate cardiac contractility. AU - Ramaciotti, Claudio. AU - Sharkey, Angela. AU - McClellan, George. AU - Winegrad, Saul. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels contain the receptors for many substances that alter the contractile tone of smooth muscle in the walls of the blood vessels. In response to their interaction with the signal substances, the endothelial cells release vasoactive factors that modify the contractile state of the vascular smooth muscle. This study was conducted to determine if endothelial cells can also modulate the contraction of cardiac muscle cells and contribute to the physiological regulation of the heart. The venous effluent from the coronary circulation of an isolated perfused working heart was reoxygenated and used to superfuse a trabecula isolated from the right ventricle of another heart. The peak tension and the duration of the contraction of the trabecula were reversibly altered by the ...
Objective: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists reduce blood pressure (BP) and vascular injury in hypertensive rodents and humans. Pparγ inactivation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)using a tamoxifen inducible Cre-Lox system enhanced angiotensin II-induced vascular injury. Transgenic mice overexpressing endothelin (ET)-1selectively in the endothelium (eET-1) exhibit endothelial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. We hypothesized that inactivation of Pparγ in VSMC(smPparγ-/-)will exaggerate ET-1-induced vascular damage.. Methods and Results: Elevenweek-old male control, eET-1, smPparγ-/-and eET-1/smPparγ-/- mice weretreated with tamoxifen (1 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 5 days and sacrificed 4 weeks later. Systolic BP was higher in eET-1compared to control (123±5 vs 109±2 mmHg,P,0.05)and unaffected by Pparγ inactivation.Mesenteric artery (MA) vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine were impaired only in smPparγ-/- (P,0.05) compared to ...
Inflammation and shear stress can upregulate expression of cellular adhesion molecules in endothelial cells (EC). The modified EC surface becomes a mediating interface between the circulating blood elements and the endothelium, and grants opportunity for immunotherapy. In photodynamic therapy (PDT), immunotargeting might overcome the lack of selectivity of currently used sensitizers. In this study, we hypothesized that differential ICAM-1 expression modulates the effects of a drug targeted to surface ICAM-1. A novel porphycene-anti-ICAM-1 conjugate was synthesized and applied to treat endothelial cells from macro and microvasculature. Results show that the conjugate induces phototoxicity in inflamed, but not in healthy, microvascular EC. Conversely, macrovascular EC exhibited phototoxicity regardless of their state. These findings have two major implications; the relevance of ICAM-1 as a modulator of drug effects in microvasculature, and the potential of the porphycene bioconjugate as a ...
This paper addresses the hypothesis that the expression of members of the NDST enzyme family can vary between different cell types and following stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The immortalized human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1 was used to model the effect of cytokine-mediated regulation of NDST expression on the abundance of sulphated domains within HS on the surface of the vascular endothelium. This was followed by an examination of changes in the potential of these cells to bind exogenous RANTES at their apical surface and subsequent analysis of changes in the biological activity of this chemokine. The HMEC-1 cell line was chosen for this work as it provides a reproducible system which has previously been validated to model aspects of the immunobiology of microvascular endothelium including the uniform response to pro-inflammatory cytokines (Goebeler et al., 1997) and the presentation of antigens to specific T cells (Bosse et al., 1993). In addition, HMEC-1 cells are ...
A stable, in vitro cardiac endothelial cell line could provide high cell numbers as needed for many epigenetic analyses and facilitate the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in endothelial cell biology. To test their suitability for transcriptomic or epigenetic studies, we compared the transcriptome of cultured immortalized mouse cardiac endothelial cells (MCEC) to primary cardiac endothelial cells (pEC). However, in MCEC we found a broad downregulation of genes that are highly expressed in pEC, including well-described markers of endothelial cell differentiation. Accordingly, systematic analysis revealed a downregulation of genes associated with typical endothelial cell functions in MCEC, while genes related to mitotic cell cycle were upregulated when compared to pEC. In conclusion, the findings from this study suggest that primary cardiac endothelial cells should preferably be used for genome-wide transcriptome or epigenome studies. The suitability of in vitro cell lines for ...
Aim: Evaluation of eNOS mRNA level in the endothelium of human coronary arteries upon opioids treatment (mediators of ischaemic preconditioning) and after incubation with proinflammatory cytokines (stress stimuli). Methods: Different concentrations of β-endorphin, endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 (alone or in combination with the opioid receptor blocker naloxone) as well as different concentrations of cytokines alone (IL-1β, TNF-α) or in combination were applied to in vitro cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). After 24 hrs incubation, the cells were harvested, mRNA extracted and relative quantification of eNOS mRNA was conducted using real-time PCR. ...
Purpose - To study the effect of eggplant on endothelium-dependent relaxation, and plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and to assess influence of this plant on the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of LDL particles and the arterial wall. Methods - Thirteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to control (C), hypercholesterolemic (H) and egg plant (E) treated groups (n=10 each). The H and Erabbits were fed a diet supplemented with cholesterol (0.5%) and coconut oil (10%) for 4 weeks. In addition, group E received 10mL of the fruit juice/day during the last 2 weeks. The animals were killed and the aorta removed to measure MDA content and the endothelium dependent relaxation responses. Total plasma cholesterol VLDL, LDL, HDL and triglyceride levels were determined using commercial kits. MDA was quantified in native and oxidized LDL and in the arterial wall. Results - After 4 weeks, the E group rabbits had a significantly lower weight, plasma cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride and aortic ...
The endothelium is the simple squamous epithelium that lines the innermost layer of the cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels and is continuous with the endocardial lining of the heart. Endothelial cells are active participants in a variety of vessel-related activities, including mechanical influences on blood flow, regulation of the transport of macromolecules and blood components from the interstitium to the lumen of the vessel, secretion of chemical mediators that influence the contractile state of the overlying smooth muscle, and contribution to capillary permeability. In addition, their smooth luminal surface facilitates efficient blood flow by reducing surface friction. The vascular endothelium is divided into arterial and venous endothelia, with additional differences between larger and smaller vessels.. The fenestrated endothelium, present in organs, such as the kidney and liver, that reabsorb water and small molecules or hormones, is characterized by the presence of circular windows in ...
In the past two decades, normal endothelial function has been identified as integral to vascular health. The endothelium produces numerous vasodilator and vasoconstrictor compounds that regulate vascular tone; the vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO), has additional antiatherogenic properties, is probably …
Emerging evidence indicates that brain microvascular endothelial cells play a critical role in brain development, maturation, and homeostasis. Acute or chronic insults, including oxidative stress, oxy
In the past two decades, normal endothelial function has been identified as integral to vascular health. The endothelium produces numerous vasodilator and vasoconstrictor compounds that regulate vascu
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Rat Endothelial Cell Antigen 1. Native purified from peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes preparation. (MAB5196) - Products - Abnova
PeproTech offers three separate endothelial cell culture media formulations developed for the in vitro cultivation of: endothelial progenitor
Our data show that F-actin-anchored focal adhesions distinguish endothelial phenotypes of human arteries from veins. We conclude that the biomechanical properties of the vascular extracellular matrix determine this endothelial characteristic.
Supplementary MaterialsS1 Fig: COL6 does not enhance lung epithelial cell proliferation. pone.0209095.s004.docx (17K) GUID:?95A94D62-D70D-4D93-9A88-360DB426C86A S2 Text: Methods: buy BMS-354825 Human being lung fibroblast culture. (DOCX) pone.0209095.s005.docx (17K) GUID:?EF3D80B0-1A99-4F45-B95B-40D29CA9082E S1 Appendix: Minimal underlying dataset. (ZIP) pone.0209095.s006.zip (14K) GUID:?D1BC5B89-D8C4-4638-9E81-975B89B3496B Data Availability StatementAll relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information documents. Abstract Basement membrane (BM) … [Read more…]. ...
Summary. Endothelium was »discovered« as a separate organ in the last decades of the previous century. For a long time endothelial cells were considered as a very passive monolayer of cells just covering the inner part of vascular walls. The role of these cells was thought to be only a mechanical barrier between circulating blood and vascular structures. Nowadays, after a series of biochemical and experimental studies, one can name endothelium as an organ, covering approximately 700 sqaure meters, weighing about 1.5 kilos in an average male with weight of 70 kg. Not only its quantity, but also its function is amazing. The most prominent and first well studied function of endothelial cells is vasodilatation and vasoconstriction. Normal cells, which are intact and in function produce regularly one of the most important protecting agent in circulation: NO. Normal endothelial cells produce NO as a result of higher blood pressure or growing demand for oxygen. It is produced from aminoacid ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Hiroko Mori, Takashi Otsuka, Mayuko Kawaguchi, Megumi Matsuda, Fumi Kuno, Kei Sugai, Satomi Sonoda, Maiko Hajime, Kenichi Tanaka, Tadashi Arao, Yoshiya Tanaka].
The endothelium is a thin mono-cellular layer which covers the inner surface of the blood vessels, separating the circulating blood from the tissues and also has the responsibility for uninterrupted maintenance of circulation to all the vital tissues. Endothelium is a very active organ, it works as a receptor-effector organ and responds to each physical or chemical stimulus with the release of the appropriate substance with which it may maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. It has the property of producing, independently, both agonistic and antagonistic substances that help to keep homeostasis and its function is not only autocrine, but also paracrine and endocrine. In this way it modulates the vascular smooth muscle cells producing relaxation or contraction, and therefore vasodilatation or vasoconstriction.. The vascular endothelium is vulnerable to maximum wear and tear due to its positioning and requires prompt regeneration of the cells. Whenever the imbalance between ...
Its been eight years since I first put together research on MS as a disease connected to blood flow and the vascular system. What I saw in Jeffs blood results when he was diagnosed during his first severe flare---hypercoagulation, high c reactive protein, high inflammatory markers---looked to me like a vascular reaction caused by endothelial dysfunction. I sent the research I compiled to university researchers, and created a nutrition and lifestyle program for Jeff, to address this issue. My hope was that he could find stability in his disease process, by reducing the impact of vascular endothelial dysfunction. I saw that cardiovascular researchers, like Dr. John Cooke, were having great success with their heart patients, and that encouraged me! And sure enough, after three months on the Endothelial Health Program, Jeffs serum markers of endothelial dysfunction were lowered, and his MS stayed in remission ...
The endothelium is the single-cell-thick interior lining of all blood vessels in the body. Dilation of blood vessels is enabled by endothelial cells, which release vasodilators like nitric oxide (NO) in response to increased blood flow. The percentage difference in diameter between fully dilated and resting blood vessels is known as flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Healthier vessels release more NO, leading to a higher FMD and a lower risk of CVD and atherosclerosis. The AngioDefender™ system measures these sensitive changes, then calculates and converts them into an FMD score. The process behind FMD is illustrated below.. ...
The endothelium is the single-cell-thick interior lining of all blood vessels in the body. Dilation of blood vessels is enabled by endothelial cells, which release vasodilators like nitric oxide (NO) in response to increased blood flow. The percentage difference in diameter between fully dilated and resting blood vessels is known as flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Healthier vessels release more NO, leading to a higher FMD and a lower risk of CVD and atherosclerosis. The AngioDefender™ system measures these sensitive changes, then calculates and converts them into an FMD score. The process behind FMD is illustrated below.. ...
Specific Aims Transforming growth factor (TGF-?) superfamily signaling in endothelial cells regulates essential components of angiogenesis and vascular morphoge...
In a study that could point to novel therapies to prevent cancer spread, or metastasis, researchers have targeted a sugar that supports blood vessel growth in the tumor.
Endothelial Dysfunction - Old Concepts and New Challenges. Edited by: Helena Lenasi. ISBN 978-1-78984-253-1, eISBN 978-1-78984-254-8, PDF ISBN 978-1-83881-339-0, Published 2018-10-24
Es are in constant physical contact with the EC surface. Additionally, in the brains of both mice and human with CM, leukocytes (monocytes and T cells) become
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration ...