ESPOSITO-POLESI, NATALIA PIMENTEL... Investigation of Endophytic Bacterial Community in Supposedly Axenic Cultures of Pineapple and Orchids with Evidence on Abundant Intracellular Bacteria. Current Microbiology 74 n.1 p. 103-113 JAN 2017. Journal article.
Eco/o&y, 88(3), 2007, pp. 541-549 © 2007 by the Ecological Society of America DIVERSITY AND HOST RANGE OF FOLIAR FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES: ARE TROPICAL LEAVES BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS? A. ELIZABETH ARNOLD1 AND F. LUTZONI Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 USA Abstract. Fungal endophytes are found in asymptomatic photosynthetic tissues of all major lineages of land plants. The ubiquity of these cryptic symbionts is clear, but the scale of their diversity, host range, and geographic distributions are unknown.. To explore the putative hyperdiversity of tropical leaf endophytes, we compared endophyte communities along a broad latitudinal gradient from the Canadian arctic to the lowland tropical forest of central Panama. Here, we use molecular sequence data from 1403 endophyte strains to show that endophytes increase in incidence, diversity, and host breadth from arctic to tropical sites. Endophyte communities from higher latitudes are characterized by relatively few species ...
Plants have a diverse internal microbial biota that has been shown to have an important influence on a range of plant health attributes. Although these endophytes have been found to be widely occurring, few studies have correlated agricultural production practices with endophyte community structure and function. One agricultural system that focuses on preserving and enhancing soil microbial abundance and biodiversity is organic farming, and numerous studies have shown that organically managed system have increased microbial community characteristics. Herein, the diversity and specificity of culturable bacterial endophytes were evaluated in four vegetable crops: corn, tomato, melon and pepper grown under organic or conventional practices. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot, root and seed tissues and sequence identified. A total of 336 bacterial isolates were identified, and grouped into 32 species and 5 phyla. Among these, 239 isolates were from organically grown plants and
Endophytes are microbes that live within plants such as maize (corn, Zea mays L.) without causing disease. It is generally assumed that most endophytes originate from soil. If this is true, then as humans collected, domesticated, bred and migrated maize globally from its native Mexico, they moved the species away from its native population of endophyte donors. The migration of maize persists today, as breeders collect wild and exotic seed (as sources of diverse alleles) from sites of high genetic diversity in Mexico for breeding programs on distant soils. When transported to new lands, it is unclear whether maize permits only selective colonization of microbes from the Mexican soils on which it co-evolved, tolerates shifts in soil-derived endophytes, or prevents colonization of soil-based microbes in favour of seed-transmitted microbes. To test these hypotheses, non-sterilized seeds of three types of maize (pre-domesticated-Mexican, ancient-Mexican, modern-temperate) were planted side-by-side on
The endophytic niche offers protection from the environment for those bacteria that can colonize and establish in planta. These bacteria generally colonize the intercellular spaces, and they have been isolated from all plant compartments including seeds (Posada & Vega, 2005). Endophytic bacteria have been isolated from both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, ranging from woody tree species, such as oak and pear, to herbaceous crop plants such as sugar beet and maize. Classical studies on the diversity of bacterial endophytes have focused on characterization of isolates obtained from internal tissues following disinfection of plant surfaces with sodium hypochlorite or similar agents (Miche & Balandreau, 2001). A review by Lodewyckx et al. (2002) highlights the methods used to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from different plant species. A very comprehensive list of bacterial endophytes isolated from a broad range of plants is provided by Rosenblueth & Martinez-Romero (2006) ...
Rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) seeds as plant microbiome present both an opportunity and a challenge to colonizing bacterial community living in close association with plants. Nevertheless, the roles and activities of bacterial endophytes remain largely unexplored and insights into plant-microbe interaction are compounded by its complexity. In this study, putative functions or physiological properties associated with bacterial endophytic nature were assessed. Also, endophytic roles in plant growth and germination that may allow them to be selectively chosen by plants were also studied. The cultivable seed endophytes were dominated by Proteobacteria particularly class Gammaproteobacteria. Highly identical type strains were isolated from the seed endosphere regardless of the rice hosts physiological tolerance to salinity. Among the type strains, Flavobacterium sp., Microbacterium sp. and Xanthomonas sp. were isolated from the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant cultivars. PCA-Biplot ordination also
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As the need for new and more effective antibiotics increases, untapped sources of biodiversity are being explored in an effort to provide lead structures for drug discovery. Endophytic fungi from marine macroalgae have been identified as a potential source of biologically active natural products, although data to support this is limited. To assess the antibiotic potential of temperate macroalgal endophytes we isolated endophytic fungi from algae collected in the Bay of Fundy, Canada and screened fungal extracts for the presence of antimicrobial compounds. A total of 79 endophytes were isolated from 7 species of red, 4 species of brown, and 3 species of green algae. Twenty of the endophytes were identified to the genus or species level, with the remaining isolates designated codes according to their morphology. Bioactivity screening assays performed on extracts of the fermentation broths and mycelia of the isolates revealed that 43 endophytes exhibited antibacterial activity, with 32 displaying
Relationship between plant lipid bodies and fungal endophytes . Jerry R. Barrow ; Mary E. Lucero ; Ronald E. Aaltonen ;Terra Latinoamericana 2012, 30 (1). Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The Epichloëfungal endophytes that inhabit grasses have potentially large-scale consequences for macro- and micro-organisms and food chains in agriculture. Over 40 years of study on the benefits of...
Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These
Genotypic diversity of endophytes. This study was an attempt to isolate and characterize endophytes of six maize cultivars inhabiting young seedlings ger- minated from surface-sterilized maize seeds in vitro as well as from leaves of these cultivars cropped at two locations with culture-dependent approach. Our approach did not result in the isolation of cultivable endophytes from seedlings germinated from second generation of seeds of tested cultivars on organic medium (1/3 TSA) as well as on RC medium used for isolation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Th is may suggest that seeds did not harbour cultivable endophytic bac- teria colonizing seedlings. However, Johnston-Monje and Raizada (2011) isolated cultivable bacteria and identified several non-cultivable bacteria in seeds of wild ancestors (teosinte) and domesticated varieties of maize. Th ey pointed out that bacteria are transmitted with the seeds from one generation to another. Among investigated seeds Johnston-Monje and Raizada (2011) tested ...
I have read an ad for "max q" seed which states it is safe for broodmares and just wondering if anyone has an unbiased opinion this. I had heard that there is no such thing as safe fescue as it all will eventually become infected with the endophyte if grown next to infected fields. Rates of field infection in Virginia are as high as 90% I think.... so is this a new strain that will not become infected ...
Compared with plants and animals, large-scale biogeographic patterns of microbes including fungi are poorly understood. By the use of a comparative phylogenetic approach and ancestral state reconstructions, we addressed the global biogeography, rate of evolution and evolutionary origin of the widely distributed ectomycorrhizal (EcM) /sebacina lineage that forms a large proportion of the Sebacinales order. We downloaded all publicly available internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and metadata and supplemented sequence information from three genes to construct dated phylogenies and test biogeographic hypotheses. The /sebacina lineage evolved 45-57Myr ago that groups it with relatively young EcM taxa in other studies. The most parsimonious origin for /sebacina is inferred to be North American temperate coniferous forests. Among biogeographic traits, region and biome exhibited stronger phylogenetic signal than host family. Consistent with the resource availability (environmental energy) ...
Microscopic elucidation of abundant endophytic bacteria colonizing the cell wall-plasma membrane peri-space in the shoot-tip tissue of banana. Oxford Journal AoB PLANTS (2013) 5 : plt011 ...
Figures for paper - (Fig 1 would be pics of vine decline field, root lesions, grafted tomatoes, and soil amendment) (Figure 2- yield results from grafted plants and amended plants)(Figure 3 - TRFLP results from field) (Figure 4 - TRFLP results from growth room)(Figure 5 - Virtual TRFLP results of untreated vs pasteurized soil with overlay of sequencing)(Figure 6 - Going over field data with real time PCR to double check our leads ...
The Center for Genomic Gastronomy is an independent research institute engaged in exploring, examining and understanding the genomes and biotechnologies that make up the human food systems of planet earth.
Did NifH primer test, as gradient from 52 to 62 degrees, with 40 cycles, 2.5 minutes extension, 25 ul of reaction and Klebsiella pneumonii as a positive control, E. coli as negative, Methylobacterial cells as test and corn soil DNA as a test ...
Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Learn what is Epicoccum and what are known species that can cause allergies and adverse health effects to human. Epicoccum prevention and removal advice.
Major research interests are in the fields of fungal and plant evolutionary biology and life sciences. My core research activities deal with ascomycete biosystematics/phylogeography, and plant-fungus (mycorrhizae; root endophytes) and insect-fungus (insect pathogens) interactions. For the past few decades we have taken advantage of using a spectrum of microbial techniques and molecular and phylogenetic approaches in our studies ...
Connect and collaborate with James Mehl, with research interests in Endophytes and their biology and associative nature Epidemiology and novel plant-pathogen interactions Fungal-fungal interactions (including kin selection) and fungal succession Invasive plants, on Mendeley.
Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is a plant used by traditional cultures and also in modern health care products. Various chemical substances are derived from the plant and include, but are not limited to anthraquinone flavonol glycosides, iridoid glycosides, lipids glycosides and triterpenoids. Also commonly found on the plant are endophytic bacteria however, there are no reports on endophytic bacterial community of Noni. We collected samples from five sites of Noni plant (roots, branches, leaves, fruits and seeds) and performed 16S rDNA analysis. Results show that these five parts harbor a highly similar bacterial composition with the top four being Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Halomonas and Geobacillus. Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas were found to be widely distributed in plant endophytic biotope; while there are little reports on plant-associated Halomonas and Geobacillus, indicating distribution in the plant hosts. Unknown genus also is abundant in five sites of Noni, ranging from 26.70 to 33.66%,
Eclipta prostrata has been extensively studied for its promoting effect on human health. Previous study proved that E. prostrata possessed anti-osteoporosis function in SAMP6 mice via gut microbiota (GM). Endophytes are widespread in plants, especially in Chinese herbal medicines. However, little is known regarding the endophytes of E. prostrata. In this study, we focus on screening and identifying the endophytes from plant E. prostrata and exploring their roles in modulating GM. According to biochemical, physiological tests and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, ten endophytes were characterized in different locations of plant E. prostrata belonging to Lactococcus, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Exiguobacterium and Pantoea. The antimicrobial activity of endophytes EP01-10 was investigated via the oxford cup method. Furthermore, the acid and bile salt resistant ability of EP01-10 was detected to explore their survival ability in gastrointestinal tract. Results indicated that strains of Lactococcus,
Important findings The results showed that all endophytes significantly reduced the growth of pathogens fungi in vitro, and N. sibiricums had the strongest effect: its bacteriostasis rate to Curvularia lunata, B. sorokiniana and Cladosporium sp. were 47.8%, 40.1% and 39.4%, respectively. Culture filtration of three endophytes also effectively reduced pathogen spore germination, in which N. gansuensis showed the strongest impact. The germination rates of Curvularia lunata, B. sorokiniana and Cladosporium sp. were only 9.8%, 8.7% and 8.5%, respectively. Neotyphodium sibiricum and N. gansuensis could reduce lesion number and spore concentration of detached host leaves after the pathogens inoculation. Epichloë gansuensis reduced lesion number of detached leaves after inoculation with Curvularia lunata and Cladosporium sp., and decreased spore concentration of the pathogens fungi of Cladosporium sp. In the intact leaves, three endophytes reduced lesion number, lesion length and spore concentration ...
Plants and insects host a wide diversity of symbiotic fungi. It is increasingly recognized that such symbioses affect host success and can ultimately regulate host populations, and thus community composition and diversity (Hajek & St Leger 1994; Gilbert & Strong 2007). For example, mycorrhizae associate with plant roots and enhance plant growth, which may indirectly modify the plants success via interactions with competitors, foliar herbivores and pathogens (Bennett et al. 2006; Herre et al. 2007). While the reciprocal benefits of many host-fungal mutualisms have been studied, less understood are the interactions among the component members of different symbioses. Here, we address how leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungal cultivar interact with foliar endophytic fungi, cryptic micro-organisms that form symbioses with plant hosts.. Foliar endophytic fungi (hereafter endophytes) live most of their life cycle within plant leaves and other above-ground plant tissues without causing any ...
Plants and insects host a wide diversity of symbiotic fungi. It is increasingly recognized that such symbioses affect host success and can ultimately regulate host populations, and thus community composition and diversity (Hajek & St Leger 1994; Gilbert & Strong 2007). For example, mycorrhizae associate with plant roots and enhance plant growth, which may indirectly modify the plants success via interactions with competitors, foliar herbivores and pathogens (Bennett et al. 2006; Herre et al. 2007). While the reciprocal benefits of many host-fungal mutualisms have been studied, less understood are the interactions among the component members of different symbioses. Here, we address how leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungal cultivar interact with foliar endophytic fungi, cryptic micro-organisms that form symbioses with plant hosts.. Foliar endophytic fungi (hereafter endophytes) live most of their life cycle within plant leaves and other above-ground plant tissues without causing any ...
The Hallman et al. [8] definition of endophytic bacteria requires "surface-disinfested plant tissue" or extraction from the plant. "Disinfestation" by killing all the epiphytic bacteria may be effective when culture-dependent protocols are used, but is not appropriate in culture-independent protocols, such as the present one, since the DNA or RNA of dead epiphytes, if not removed, would still be amplified by bacteria-specific PCR. For those organs, like tubers, whose outer layers can be easily peeled off, endophytic bacteria can be isolated from inside of the plants unambiguously. However, peeling the epidermis off leaves, while possible, is not practical for a study like the present one. Therefore, to study leaf endophytic bacterial communities, it is critical to dislodge epiphytic bacteria from the leaf surfaces as far as possible. We have dislodged epiphytes using methods similar to those reported by others [13, 26-28]. Since we did not test the rinse water for rDNA amplicons, we cannot be ...
During a recent nematode survey in natural environments of the Los Alcornocales Regional Park narrow valleys, viz., the renowned 'canutos' excavated in the mountains that maintain a humid microclimate, in southern Spain, an amphimictic population of Xiphinema globosum was identified. Morphological and morphometric studies on this population fit the original and previous descriptions and represent the first report from Spain and southern Europe. Molecular characterisation of X. globosum from Spain using D2-D3 expansion regions of 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA and ITS1-rRNA is provided and maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within X. globosum and other Xiphinema species. A supertree solution of the different phylogenetic trees obtained in this study and in other published studies using rDNA genes are presented using the matrix representation parsimony method (MRP) and the most similar supertree method (MSSA). The results revealed a closer
Epichloë species (including former Neotyphodium species) are endophytic fungi that significantly affect fitness of cool‐season grass hosts, potentially by increasing nutrient uptake and resistance to drought, parasitism and herbivory
Epichloë species (including former Neotyphodium species) are endophytic fungi that significantly affect fitness of cool‐season grass hosts, potentially by increasing nutrient uptake and resistance to drought, parasitism and herbivory
Method of Immunization: Three 5- to 7-week-old female BALB/cJ mice were immunized via intraperitoneal (IP) injection with a 50:50 (v/v) emulsion of 25 mg of the purified recombinant C. globosum enolase protein and TiterMax Gold Adjuvant. Five subsequent booster IP immunizations containing 5 mg recombinant C. globosum enolase in sterile PBS were administered at biweekly intervals. The final boost w
Chaetomium globosum ATCC ® 66563™ Designation: 959-FM [UAMH 7763] Application: Biomedical Research and Development Material
Sometimes imizol and Voriconazole are used concurrently for anxiety treatment of cutaneous fungal endophyte infection. Our research data suggest that preparation to be used with care is taken for my dizziness, although it is m not approved for early this condition. We therefore believe they that our results, based solely on the use of D […]. Read More ». ...
When seeds are germinated to produce plants in-vitro (in sterile containers like test tubes) prior to engineering, they must be surface disinfested to remove those microbes which might grow quickly in test-tubes and compete with the plant for nutrients. In the laboratory, plants are typically disinfested with bleach, alcohols, or other antiseptic agents and maintained in an aspetic environment. Then they are exposed to growth regulators, chemically defined growth media, and artificial light. Many microbial species present on and in the plant when it is exposed to these treatments are permanently eliminated. Each microbe may have thousands of genes, and some of these have co-evolved with the host plant. Removing these microbes in order to insert a single gene may produce germplasms that can be patented and sold for a premium price, and indeed, with the exception of the inserted gene, these plants are not being treated differently from many transplants that are generated for large farms today. But ...
Annulohypoxylon multiforme Hypoxylon multiforme koivunsyyl bj rkdyna Birch Woodwart Foranderlig Kulb r Vergroeide kogelzwam koorik-padjands sik bj rkekullsopp Vielgestaltige ...
A fungal endophyte, Ramichloridium cerophilum, was identified as a Class 2 endophytes species obtained from the leaf of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L). This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized Chinese cabbage roots showed that the fungus penetrates through the outer epidermal cells, grows further into the inner cortex, and colonizes the cortical tissue. Isolates of R. cerophilum 28L-9 have shown the ability to increase biomass of a nonmycorrhizal plant, Chinese cabbage. This finding is the first report of R. cerophilum could help to improve nonmycorrhizal plant. Key words: Ramichloridium cerophilum, endophytic fungus, Chinese cabbage, plant growth promoting.
Endophytes (both fungi and bacteria) represent a treasure house for bioactive compounds such as anticancer, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiparasitic, insecticidal etc. for use in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Endophytic population is greatly influenced by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family that is usually used as spice and preservative. Traditionally it is used to treat various conditions and symptoms such as digestive disorders, arthritis, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, bacterial infections etc. In recent times, there have been different discoveries on endophytic fungi and their biological activity from C. longa. But there is no comprehensive review on endophytic fungi of C. longa. The aim of this review is to analyze the published report based on the endophytic fungi to provide for the first time an updated information about their isolation from
Beauveria bassiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), in preparation for subsequent evaluations of endophytic biological control. Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 108 conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. Two weeks later, the plants are harvested and their leaves, stems and roots are sampled to evaluate endophytic fungal colonization. For this, samples are individually surface sterilized, cut into multiple sections, and incubated in potato dextrose agar media for 20 days. The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the ...
In Argentina, where several outbreaks of D. maculipennis wreaked losses on ranches and farms between 2008 and 2011, a research team led by Sebastian Pelizza of CEPAVE (Central de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores, or Center for Parasitological and Vector Studies, part of the National University of La Plate), looked at the possibility of using the soil fungus Beauveria bassiana to combat D. maculipennis swarms and outbreaks. His study was published on line in April in the open-access Journal of Insect Science.. B. bassiana is an endophyte: It takes up residence in a host plant and thrives without harming the plant. It also is known to be parasitic to insects. Its often used for biological control of insect pests of agricultural plants, but Pelizzas study is the first to look at B. bassianas ability to resist D. maculipennis in corn. D. maculipennis is one of 18 species of grasshopper pests found in Argentina but is considered one of the most significant pests, especially in the grassland ...
Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is a mutualistic N2-fixing endophyte of salt-tolerant Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth), a grass gowing in the Punjab of Pakistan. Endophytes are bacteria that live within the tissues of plants without causing them any harm; Azoarcus resides within the roots of its host. Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is also capable of endophytic N2 fixation in rice and sugarcane. The bacteria has not been detected in root-free soil, although it is able to be cultured. It does not however excrete significant amounts of nitrogenous compounds in culture. The genome sequence has shown that Azoarcus has very few mobile genetic elements, or phage-related genes, suggesting its adaptation to a fairly stable, low-stress environment. The sec-dependent, SRP-mediated and Tat systems for protein secretion are all present, in addition to a type I, the type IIb secretion systems and an autotransporter. However it is lacking both type III and type IV secretion systems, suggesting it can not export ...
Fluconazole Bryopsis Treatment - Per Gallon (20mg). By purchasing a quantity of 1 (one) you are buying 20mg of Fluconazole Bryopsis Treatment that will treat 1 gallon of aquarium system volume. If your system is 37 gallons total, then you need to purchase a quantity of 37 of this product. If your system is 100 gallons total, then you need to purchase a quantity of 100 of this product. The Fluconazole Bryopsis Treatment will come pre measured and packaged in the quantity you order ready to be dissolved and added to the system. no measuring required on your part. If you are ordering multiple doses or for multiple systems please indicate in the order comments upon checkout the total number of gallons per package.. If your system is 100 gallons total, and you want 2 doses you need to purchase 200 of this product and in the comments section of the order checkout please indicate "Package in 2 x 100g doses". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) ...
Its name immediately makes you want to know more - exploding cucumber plant or squirting cucumber plant. So what are squirting cucumber plants? Where on earth does the volatile squirting cucumber grow? Click this article to learn more.
Endophytic fungi form mutualistic interactions with their host, the relationship therefore being beneficial for both partners [8]. Mutualism frequently leads to enhanced growth of the host. In current study, the presence of plant growth promoting metabolites in culture filtrates of our fungal strains were determined through a primary screening experiment on waito-c rice seedlings. Use of rice seedlings is beneficial as they easily grow under controlled and sterilized conditions, hydroponically, using autoclaved water-agar media. Since this media is devoid of any nutrient, the sole effect of culture filtrate can easily be estimated. Waito-c rice is a known dwarf rice cultivar with reduced GA biosynthesis. Treatment of its seeds with uniconazol, a GA biosynthesis retardant, further suppresses the endogenous GAs production by blocking its biosynthesis pathway in the plant. Shoot elongation of these seedlings can be easily attributed to the activity of plant growth promoting secondary metabolites ...
Citation: Clement, S.L. 2009. Variable effects of fungal endophyte-infected grasses on the performance of pestiferous aphids. Redia Journal of Zoology. 92:205-209. Interpretive Summary: The USDA, ARS seed bank at Pullman, Washington stores and maintains approximately 80,000 plant accessions of major agricultural crops. Among this material are approximately 20,500 accessions of forage and turf grass accessions, many of which are infected with microbes in the form of Neotyphodium fungal endophytes. Because some of these fungi in grass accessions have anti-insect properties, U.S. and foreign scientists and commerical grass breeders acquire endophyte-infected accessions from the Pullman seed bank for basic research and commercial development of new grass cultivars. Continued development of new cultivars with insect resistance traits linked to Neotyphodium infection is contingent upon more information on the effect of different endophyte-infected accessions on the survival of important grass pests. ...
Lolines are specialized metabolites produced by endophytic fungi, such as Neotyphodium and Epichloë species, that are in symbiotic relationships with cool-season grasses. Lolines are vital for the survival of the grasses because their insecticidal and antifeedant properties protect the plant from insect herbivory. Although lolines have various bioactivities, they do not have any concomitant antimammalian activities. Lolines have complex structures that are unique among naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Lolines have four contiguous stereocenters, and they contain an ether bridge connecting C(2) and C(7) of the pyrrolizidine ring. An ether bridge connecting bridgehead C atoms is unusual in natural products and leads to interesting questions about the biosynthesis of lolines in fungal endophytes. Dr. Pan, who was a graduate student in Dr. Schardl Lab at University of Kentucky, isolated a novel metabolite, 1-exo-acetamidopyrrolizidine (AcAP). She observed that AcAP was accumulating in naturally
Many diverse fungi are able to live part or all of their lives inside plants, and while they impact plant fitness, its not clear how they interact with plant cells. In this PLOS ONE paper, the authors propose that some of these endophytes are able to move from within the plant to within the plant cells, which could help to explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom [12]. Some aspects of the fungi lifestyle require cooperation and communication amongst similar individuals. This article published in PLOS Biology demonstrates how the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is able to recognize genetically similar individual via recognition of "greenbeard genes" [13]. Greenbeard genes allow the fungus to limit helpful behaviors to just those individuals that are most likely to perpetuate their own genetic make-up.. Given that fungi diverged from plants and animals hundreds of millions of years ago, they have acquired some unique features. Regulation of ...
article{e6f3984d-d4b7-414a-b859-b3c5eed5a286, abstract = {Phomol (1), a novel antibiotic, was isolated from fermentations of a Phomopsis species in the course of a screening of endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Erythrina crista-galli. For this Argentinean leguminosa anti inflammatory and neuroleptic activities have been described. The compound exhibits antifungal, antibacterial and weak cytotoxic acticity. The anti inflammatory activity was tested in different reporter gene assays (TNF-alpha, STAT1/STAT2 and NF-kappaB) and in an ear edema model in mice. In the reporter gene assays I exhibited no activity, whereas I showed interesting antiinflammatory activity in the mouse ear assay. The compound is a polyketide lactone and its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods.}, author = {Weber, D and Sterner, Olov and Anke, T and Gorzalczancy, S and Martino, V and Acevedo, C}, issn = {0021-8820}, language = {eng}, number = {9}, pages = {559--563}, publisher = {Japan Antibiotics Research ...
International Seed Testing Association (1976). International rules for seed testing. Seed Science Technology 4, 1-180.. Li ST, Zhou JM and Wang HY (2002). Research surveys of allelopathy in plants. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 10, 68-70.. Montrose I (1845). Fairy rings. Gard. Chron. 5, 722.. Mo MH, Ma HM and Xiao QF (2004). Study of the allelopathic effects of the ethanol-soluble extracts of Lactarius hatsudake on Oryza sativa and Echinoloa crusgall. Acta Ecologica Sinica 24, 2951-2954.. Mao XL (1992). Investigation of mushrooms in Hongkong. Edible Fungi of China 11, 3-5. Peng SL, Wen J and Guo QF (2004). Mechanism and active variety of allelochemicals. Acta Botanic Sinica 46, 757-766.. Rice E L (1984). In Allelopathy. Orlando Florida (Academic Press Inc) (2nd ed), pp.119.. Sturz AV, Christie BR and Matheson BG (1998). Associaciation of bacterial endophyte populations from red clover and potato crops with popential for beneficial allelopathy. Can-j-microbiol 44, 162-167.. Willamson GB ...
Recently, mutualistic endophytic F. oxysporum isolates were documented as candidates for biological control against plant parasitic nematodes. However, unders...