The ultrastructure of the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic duct in the rat is described, following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anaesthetised and artificially respirated animals. The animals were fixed by means of a pressure feed-back controlled peristaltic pump and an isotonic perfusate-fixative containing glutaraldehyde and Dextran. The endolymphatic duct was isolated by microdissection after the perfusion-fixation, to omit the step of a demineralization procedure. The proximal, intermediate and juxta-saccular parts of the endolymphatic duct were embedded, sectioned and studied separately in the electron microscope. Postfixation in a solution containing OsO4 and potassium ferricyanide revealed a well-developed tubulo-cisternal endoplasmic reticulum (TER), not previously described. Serial sectioning and computerized three-dimensional reconstruction demonstrated a continuity of the TER through the cell from subsurface cisterns abutting on the apical cell membrane to subsurface ...
In this study, we have used a mouse monoclonal antibody to rat Ia (RT1-B or class II) antigens to demonstrate, by immunofluorescence on frozen sections, intensely Ia-positive dendritic cells in the interstitial connective tissues of every tissue we have examined (heart, liver, thyroid, pancreas, skin, kidney, ureter, and bladder) with the striking exception of brain. The characteristics of the interstitial dendritic cell found in heart were studied in detail, and this cell was shown to be negative for acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, and ATPase activity, and certainly some and probably all of the cells were negative for nonspecific esterase activity. Experiments with colloidal carbon suggested that the cell was either poorly or not at all phagocytic. The cells were negative for surface immunoglobulin and the W3/13 antigen, but positive for the leukocyte common antigen and the SD (Class I) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex. The cell was shown to be of bone marrow origin, and ...
Fig. 1. - Longitudinal section of the fr.imewoik encircling a kidney tubule digested in pancreatin, stained witli acid fuchsin, and differentiated with picric acid. Enlarged SiS times. The work of Eiihle, which is very accurate and extensive, shows quite conclusively that the fibrils obtained by his method, as well as by the freezing method, are identical with those which form the interstitial tissue as seen in ordinary sections. The observations given above have been confirmed by Disse, who states, however, that the basement membranes of the kidney which have been isolated by means of strong acids always appear to be homogeneous. This he explains by as.suming that pancreatic digestion resolves the membrane into fibrils by dissolving the cement substance between them. The strong acids, however, dissolve the interstitial connective tissue but do not affect those fibrils which are stuck together by the cement substance to form basement membranes. Von Ebner is of the opinion that the fibrillar ...
ECM of skeletal muscle consists of a basement membrane (BM) surrounding each myofiber and interstitial connective tissue (endomysium) between the myofibers. The attachment of myofibers to the BM is mainly mediated by integrins and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC; Mayer, 2003; Michele and Campbell, 2003). Integrins are expressed throughout the sarcolemma of myofibers but are highly enriched at two force-transducing and force-regulating structures, the myotendinous junctions (MTJs), which connect myofibers to tendons, and the costameres, which are focal adhesion-like structures that connect the sarcomeric z bands with the sarcolemma.. Integrins are a large family of α/β heterodimeric adhesion receptors (Bouvard et al., 2001; Hynes, 2002). Several β1 integrins were shown to play essential roles during myogenesis and muscle homeostasis (Mayer, 2003). Antibody perturbation studies and β1 integrin gene ablations in flies and mice demonstrated that β1 integrins regulate proliferation and ...
From the posterior wall of the saccule a canal, the endolymphatic duct, is given off; this duct is joined by the utriculosaccular duct, and then passes along the vestibular aqueduct and ends in a blind pouch, the endolymphatic sac, on the posterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, where it is in contact with the dura mater. Studies suggest that the endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac perform both absorptive and secretory, as well as phagocytic and immunodefensive, functions. Neoplasms of the endolymphatic sac are very rare tumors. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Grays Anatomy (1918) Schuknecht HF. Pathology of the Ear. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1993:45-47, 50-51, 62, 64, 101 Wackym PA, Friberg U, Bagger-Sjo¨ba¨ck D, Linthicum FH Jr, Friedmann I, Rask-Andersen H. Human endolymphatic sac: possible mechanisms of pressure regulation. J Laryngol Otol 1987; 101:768-779 Yeo SW, Gottschlich S, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Antigen ...
In mouse embryos lacking sonic hedgehog (Shh), dorsoventral polarity within the otic vesicle is disrupted. Consequently, ventral otic derivatives, including the cochlear duct and saccule, fail to form, and dorsal otic derivatives, including the semicircular canals, endolymphatic duct and utricle, are malformed or absent. Since inner ear patterning and morphogenesis are heavily dependent on extracellular signals derived from tissues that are also compromised by the loss of Shh, the extent to which Shh signaling acts directly on the inner ear for its development is unclear. To address this question, we generated embryos in which smoothened (Smo), an essential transducer of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, was conditionally inactivated in the otic epithelium (Smoecko). Ventral otic derivatives failed to form in Smoecko embryos, whereas vestibular structures developed properly. Consistent with these findings, we demonstrate that ventral, but not dorsal, otic identity is directly dependent on Hh. The role of ...
In the anatomy of the human ear, the perilymphatic duct is where the perilymphatic space (vestibule of the ear) is connected to the subarachnoid space. This works as a type of shunt to eliminate excess perilymph fluid from the perilymphatic space around the cochlea of the ear. Perilymph is continuous with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space. CSF pressure abnormalities do not generally have clinical impact on the inner ear which is explained physically by the bore diameter and length of the perilymphatic duct. This duct goes through the skull and is parallel with but not directly associated with the endolymphatic duct. The duct is lined by an epithelium ...
Modiolus modiolus. As part of the UK Marine SACs project, development of appropriate survey and monitoring methods for Modiolus beds/reefs is already underway. CCW is the lead organisation in this work and one of the authors (E I Rees) is involved. For this reason this section is more detailed than other sections in this chapter. Those beds of the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus that build up bioherms are likely to be persistent features in the long term. Evidence for this comes mainly from the scale of build up, the ages of the older animals (30 - 40+ years), the wide range of size individuals usually present and anecdotal history. As a working hypothesis, Modiolus beds are considered to be more naturally persistent than beds of Mytilus and less likely to be renewed following catastrophic events. In the absence of more specific information, sometimes inferences here have to be drawn from Mytilus monitoring for commercial stock assessment purposes. Monitoring strategies do however need to be ...
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In superior canal dehiscence syndrome, conductive hearing is better than normal. When combined with a sensorineural hearing loss, this pattern may look superficially like a conductive hearing loss, because there is an air-bone gap. The treatment of SCD may eliminate the air-bone gap. Practically, this is a very uncommon situation, of much more interest to diagnosticians than patients. In the Large Vestibular Aqueduct syndrome there is enlargement of the endolymphatic duct that connects the endolymphatic compartment to the endolymphatic sac (which lies just under the dura of the posterior fossa, ES above). Persons with LVAS may develop hearing loss as well as be unusually vulnerable to inner ear disease associated with head injury. Merchant et al (2007) have reported that conductive loss is common in LVAS, and that it has a mechanism similar to the conductive loss in SCD (see above). ...
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Enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct and its contents is the most common component of congenital inner ear dysplasias. It is more often bilateral than unilateral and is associated with the Mondini malformation of the cochlea in about 8% of case...
Associated Fauna Epifaunal biodiversity Infaunal biodiversity. Preliminary indications are that there are a range of variations in the mix of associated species associated with the mound forming types of Modiolus beds. Thus the appearance of samples dredged from off the south of the Isle of Man, before that bed declined, was rather different from samples taken at the same time from beds only less than 30 miles away in apparently similar situations NW of Anglesey. The most obvious difference was that the Manx one had substantial numbers of the very large barnacle Balanus hameri growing on the mussels, while off Anglesey they were absent.. Temporal changes are to be expected that are in no way related to the long-term structural integrity of the persistent Modiolus beds. Ophiothrix fragilis is often abundant in Modiolus beds at present, but examining long-term records from the English Channel, Holme (1983) showed that there had been major changes to brittle star beds off Plymouth apparently linked ...
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Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016 Source:Neuroimaging Clinics of North America Author(s): Prashant Raghavan, Andrew Steven, Tanya Rath, Dheeraj GandhiTeaser Although tinnitus may originate in damage to the peripheral auditory apparatus, its perception and distressing symptomatology are consequences of alterations to auditory, sensory, and limbic neural networks. This has been described in several studies, some using advanced structural MR imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging. An understanding of these complex changes could enable development of targeted treatment. New MR imaging techniques enabling detailed depiction of the labyrinth may be useful when diagnosis of Meniere disease is equivocal. Advances in computed tomography and MR imaging have enabled n ...
Mr Speaker: Questions 2 and 11 have been withdrawn.. Strangford Lough: Modiolus Mussels. 1. Ms Lo asked the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development for an update on actions taken to address the problem of the depletion of modiolus in Strangford lough. (AQO 3560/11-15). Mrs ONeill (The Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development): Go raibh maith agat, a Cheann Comhairle. Modiolus modiolus, or horse mussel, biogenic reefs are a designated feature of the Strangford lough special area of conservation and are in an unfavourable condition. We are therefore required to restore the feature. My Department shares responsibility for the restoration of these reefs with the Department of the Environment (DOE). My officials met the European Commission in April 2012 and informally accepted a number of actions that the Commission felt necessary to address responsibilities under the habitats directive for the protection and restoration of modiolus in Strangford lough. Those included the strict ...
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DFNB4 with enlarged vestibular aqueduct is characterized by pre- or perilingual onset of sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, which may be fluctuating or progressive. The hearing loss is associated with temporal bone abnormalities, most commonly enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct, but it can also include the more severe Mondini dysplasia, a complex malformation in which the normal cochlear spiral of 2.5 turns is replaced by a hypoplastic coil of 1.5 turns (summary by Campbell et al., 2001 and Pryor et al., 2005). Enlarged vestibular aqueduct is the most common form of inner ear abnormality and can be associated with disequilibrium symptoms in a minority of patients (Valvassori, 1983; Jackler and de la Cruz, 1989; Levenson et al., 1989; Arcand et al., 1991; Belenky et al., 1993; Okumura et al., 1995). (600791) ...
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Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of streptomycin perfusion of the labyrinth (SPL) in the treatment of Menieres disease.Method:13 patients with Meniere′s disease and 3 patients with delayed endolymphatic hydrops (DEH) underwent SPL. The follow-up time was between 5 and 7 years (average 6.3 years). Result:Vertigo was completely controlled in 9 patients, substantialy controlled in 4, limitedly controlled in 2 and not controlled in 1.Hearing was improved in 1 patients, stabilized in 5 and worse in 10. Tinnitus was improved in 3 patients, stabilized in 5 and worse in 8.Conclusion:SPL is a safe and effective method in the treatment of Meniere′s disease and DEH, but the hearing may be insulted and tinnitus may be worse in some patients.
Semi-Quantitative vs. Volumetric Determination of Endolymphatic Space in Menieres Disease Using Endolymphatic Hydrops 3T-HR-MRI after Intravenous Gadolinium ...
Author Summary Mutations of SLC26A4 are the most common cause for hearing loss associated with a swelling of the inner ear. This human disease is largely recapitulated in a mutant mouse model. Mutant mice lack Slc26a4 expression and their inner ears swell during embryonic development, which leads to failure of the cochlea and the vestibular organs resulting in deafness and loss of balance. SLC26A4 is normally found in the cochlea and vestibular organs of the inner ear as well as in the endolymphatic sac, which is a non-sensory part of the inner ear. The multitude of sites where SLC26A4 is located made the goal to restore function through restoration look futile, unless some sites were more important than others. Here, we generated a new mutant mouse that expresses SLC26A4 in the endolymphatic sac but not in the cochlea or the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Fantastically, this mouse did not develop the detrimental swelling of the inner ear and even more exciting, the mouse developed normal hearing
Looking for Meniere's disease? Find out information about Meniere's disease. disorder of the inner ear characterized by recurrent vertigo vertigo , sensations of moving in space or of objects moving about a person and the resultant... Explanation of Meniere's disease
Menieres disease is a common cause of vertigo and dizziness. We created this infographics to highlight the most common symptoms, cause and treatment