Endodermal sinus tumor (EST), also known as yolk sac tumor (YST), is a member of the germ cell tumor group of cancers. It is the most common testicular tumor in children under 3, and is also known as infantile embryonal carcinoma. This age group has a very good prognosis. In contrast to the pure form typical of infants, adult endodermal sinus tumors are often found in combination with other kinds of germ cell tumor, particularly teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. While pure teratoma is usually benign, endodermal sinus tumor is malignant. The histology of EST is variable, but usually includes malignant endodermal cells. These cells secrete alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which can be detected in tumor tissue, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and, in the rare case of fetal EST, in amniotic fluid. When there is incongruence between biopsy and AFP test results for EST, the result indicating presence of EST dictates treatment. This is because EST often occurs as small "malignant foci" within a larger tumor, ...
Yolk sac tumors (YST) are also known as endodermal sinus tumors (EST) and infantile embryonal carcinoma. They are a type of germ cell tumor that can be found in infants and adults.
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Yolk sac tumor, also called as endodermal sinus tumor, is a rare and highly malignant GCT.[1] Yolk sac tumor is the predominant variant of germ-cell tumors in newborns and younger children, while later in life, a wide range of other histologic subtypes are seen.[12345] It is a highly malignant tumor accounting for about 10% of malignant GCTs.[12] Most yolk sac tumors of the female genital tract occur in the ovaries. However, rare cases have been reported in the vulva, cervix, and endometrium.[123456] Very rarely, sites such as omentum, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and sacrococcygeal region have also shown evidence of primary extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor.[456789] The incidence of extragonadal tumors is higher in young females, while intracranial/intraspinal tumors are more common in boys at an older age. FNA forms the first line of investigation of superficial primary or metastatic germ-cell tumors. However, they invite a wider range of differential diagnosis due to the unusual location. A ...
choriocarcinoma, dermoid, dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor, EGGCT, extradonadel & germ cell tumors, GCT, germinoma, gonadoblastoma, intracranial germ cell tumors, ICGCT, mediastinal germ cell tumors, MGCT, nongerminomas, nongerminomatous germ cell tumors, nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, NS-GCT, retroperitoneal germ cell tumors, RGCT, sacrococcygeal teratoma, seminoma, teratomas, yolk sac tumor ...
choriocarcinoma, dermoid, dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor, EGGCT, extradonadel & germ cell tumors, GCT, germinoma, gonadoblastoma, granulosa, intracranial germ cell tumors, ICGCT, mediastinal germ cell tumors, MGCT, nongerminomas, nongerminomatous germ cell tumors, NS-GCT, retroperitoneal germ cell tumors, RGCT, sacrococcygeal teratoma, seminoma, teratomas, sex cord-stromal, & yolk sac tumor This is an open group, members can apply to join.. ...
The most common in clinical ovarian tumor epithelial tumors and germ cell tumors, the former accounting for 60% -70%, which accounted for 15% -20%. Among them, the mucinous epithelial tumors and serous tumors, germ cell tumor choriocarcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor and embryo is most common. Ovarian malignancy usually referred to as ovarian cancer. Age of ovarian cancer is the most wide gynecological tumors can occur in any period of life of women. Epithelial carcinoma occurred in elderly women over the age of 40 while women account for 95% of germ cell tumors occur more common in more than 44 years of age 44 years the incidence decreased gradually. Per cell tumor more common in young people and young girls under 20, malignant teratoma were 14-21 years old age, and various types of poorly differentiated cancer is more common in old age ...
A series of human germ cell-derived tumors were examined for the presence of nucleoli which persist through mitosis. Embryonal carcinomas, seminomas, and the cytotrophoblasts of choriocarcinomas had persistent nucleoli in more than 70% of mitoses. The differentiated cells derived from embryonal carcinomas, endodermal sinus tumors, and the more differentiated elements of choriocarcinomas only rarely had persistent nucleoli. These nucleoli appeared to remain transcriptionally active.. ...
title:A Rare Case of Aberrant Migration of Primordial Germ Cells - Yolk Sac Tumor of Uterus. Author:Tandon Rakesh, Chugh Ashima, Patel Harsh, Aggarwal Deepti. Keywords:Teratoma, Yolk sac tumor , Alfa fetoprotein. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Yolk sac tumor of uterus is a very rare tumor seen in young women. It is thought that these tumors arise in the uterus as a result of aberrant migration of primordial germ cells. We present a case of 12 year old female with complaints of lump & pain in abdomen. CT report suggested germ cell tumor of ovary. Cytology report suggested teratoma. The mass was excised & sent to our pathology department for histopathological examination. The mass was 14X14X8 cm. On C/S a cyst was seen arising from the posterior wall of uterus measuring 10X7X3 cm. On gross examination ovary appeared normal. We reported Yolk sac tumor of uterus with heterologous differentiated mesenchymal components - (T3aNxMx) Stage IIIA. The section from the ovary did not show any remarkable ...
The treatment of sinus tumors depends upon the type of tumor. Some tumors are treated with surgery alone. Some tumors are treated with surgery and radiation. Some tumors are treated with radiation and/or chemotherapy. Still others are treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy together. If a diagnosis cannot be made by looking at the tumor using a nasal endoscope or CAT/MRI scans, a biopsy will need to be performed. If a biopsy needs to be performed, your ENT physician may want to perform a CAT scan or MRI scan before taking the biopsy. In some situations, an MRI or CAT scan is not necessary before the biopsy. A biopsy can be performed through the nose using the nasal endoscope, or it may be performed by the surgeon as he or she uses a head mirror or head light. Occasionally a needle biopsy may be done to sample lymph node tissue if the neck lymph nodes are enlarged. Once the pathologist reviews this information, your ENT physician will be able to tell you what treatment plans are ...
In the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC), primary mediastinal yolk sac tumor is classified into the poor prognosis group, and standard treatment consists of induction chemotherapy such as BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) or VIP (ifosfamide, etoposide, and cisplatin) regimens followed by radical operation [4]. In our case, it was considered likely that standard chemotherapy would not be efficacious because of end-stage renal insufficiency, so surgery was selected as the first treatment so as not to miss the opportunity for complete tumor resection. In addition, bleomycin and active metabolite of ifosfamide are known not to be sufficiently removed by HD, resulting in enhanced toxicities such as pulmonary fibrosis, disturbance of consciousness, and convulsions [9-14]. Therefore, we selected combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide, and doses of these agents used in the first cycle were 50% of the standard dose of cisplatin (10 mg/m2) and 60% of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Yolk Sac Tumor in a Postmenopausal Woman Following Chemotherapy for High-grade Ovarian Serous Carcinoma. AU - Angelico, Giuseppe. AU - Santoro, Angela. AU - Arciuolo, Damiano. AU - Valente, Michele. AU - Carbone, Vittoria. AU - Fagotti, Anna. AU - Scambia, Giovanni. AU - Zannoni, Gian Franco. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85056193054&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85056193054&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/PGP.0000000000000562. DO - 10.1097/PGP.0000000000000562. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85056193054. JO - International Journal of Gynecological Pathology. JF - International Journal of Gynecological Pathology. SN - 0277-1691. ER - ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Secondary thyroid carcinoma after treatment of yolk sac tumor. by Canan Aldirmaz Agartan et al.
Both groups showed the appearance of cavities corresponding to the amnion and primary yolk sac as known from studies in the rhesus macaque by Enders, Schlafke and Hendrickx. In the macaque, the yolk sac (at bottom in the figure) is outlined by visceral endoderm (beneath the epiblast) and the more squamous parietal endoderm. These tissues were identified by Shahbazi et al. in human embryos and shown to express the endoderm marker GATA6. Deglincerti et al. found the GATA6 signal was low in the parietal cells and that they expressed the trophectoderm marker CDX2. This is an interesting observation but hardly justifies them calling these cells "yolk sac trophectoderm." The term was criticized by Janet Rossant in the accompanying News and Views (here) and it must be hoped it does not gain currency. ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
AFP, a glycoprotein structurally related to albumin but reciprocally regulated, is expressed in pregnancy by yolk sac and fetal liver from 6 weeks of gestation; in this context, AFP has been linked to "fetal graft" tolerance (16). Consistent with this immunomodulatory hypothesis, transplacental passage of fetal AFP is associated with clinical remission of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis; conversely, a hazard of AFP functional blockade in viral liver disease is that of immune reconstitution hepatitis (17). The AFP gene is reactivated in adult liver following wounding, peaking 1 to 4 days after transaminase elevation. This time course parallels hepatic regeneration, as illustrated by correlation of high AFP levels with recovery from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity (18).. Although AFP has long been used by oncologists as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma or yolk sac tumors, this so-called oncofetal antigen remains a neglected drug target despite many observations implicating it ...
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A rare form of cancer, mediastinal germ cell tumour can be effectively treated with chemotherapy treatment, surgery and radiation therapy. The type of treatment of mediastinal germ cell tumour depends on certain factors.
Latest Mediastinal germ cell tumor News, Photos, Blogposts, Videos and Wallpapers. Explore Mediastinal germ cell tumor profile at Times of India
A dermoid cyst is a teratoma of a cystic nature that contains an array of developmentally mature, solid tissues. It frequently consists of skin, hair follicles, and sweat glands, while other commonly found components include clumps of long hair, pockets of sebum, blood, fat, bone, nails, teeth, eyes, cartilage, and thyroid tissue. As dermoid cysts grow slowly and contain mature tissue, this type of cystic teratoma is nearly always benign. In those rare cases wherein the dermoid cyst is malignant, a squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in adults, while infants and children usually present with an endodermal sinus tumor. Due to its classification, a dermoid cyst can occur wherever a teratoma can occur. Ovaries normally grow cyst-like structures called follicles each month. Once an egg is released from its follicle during ovulation, follicles typically deflate. Sometimes fluid accumulates inside the follicle, forming a simple (containing only fluid) cyst. The majority of these functional cysts ...
Endodermal sinus tumor of the mediastinum: A report of seven cases and review of the literature. Journal of Thoracic Disease. 1986 ...
MalaCards based summary : Nephrogenic Adenofibroma, also known as metanephric adenofibroma, is related to thymus lipoma and adult endodermal sinus tumor. An important gene associated with Nephrogenic Adenofibroma is MAF (MAF BZIP Transcription Factor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Developmental Biology and Transcriptional misregulation in cancer. Affiliated tissues include kidney, and related phenotypes are Decreased sensitivity to paclitaxel and embryo ...
Mixed germ cell tumors arise from the primordial germ cells located in the developing gonads. The various morphological patterns of germ cell tumors fall under the category of germinomatous or dysgerminomatous. Dysgerminomatous germ cell tumors comprise extraembryonic re yolk sac and placenta, and embryonic differentiation. Subtypes include embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor (extraembryonic), choriocarcinoma (extraembryonic), teratoma (immature and/or mature), polyembryoma and gonadoblastoma. Mixed germ cell tumors include both categories, and may be benign or malignant.. Malignant mixed germ cell tumors comprise ,10% of all malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. The majority of tumors arise in women of reproductive age (,30 years), and clinical presentation varies from nonspecific abdominopelvic pain and fullness to vaginal bleeding. Physical examination of a unilateral or bilateral mass and imaging techniques are important for clinical diagnosis. Tumor markers are also used to help direct the ...
Shirai, T; Yoshiki, T; and Itoh, T, "Synthesis of alpha-fetoprotein by human yolk sac tumor transplanted into nude mice." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1059 ...
Extragonadal germ cell tumors form from developing sperm or egg cells that travel from the gonads to other parts of the body. "Extragonadal" means outside of the gonads (sex organs). When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow into...
In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Shaikh et al, of the Childrens Oncology Group, found that event-free survival rates were not maintained with the use of reduced and compressed cisplatin-based regimens in children and adolescents with intermediate-risk extracranial malignant germ cell tumors.. Study Details. In a phase III single-arm trial, 210 patients with intermediate-risk disease (stages II-IV testicular, II-III ovarian, I-II extragonadal, or I gonadal tumors with subsequent recurrence) had cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin treatment reduced from the standard of 4 to 3 cycles and compressed from 5 to 3 days/cycle. A parametric comparator model specified that the observed 4-year event-free survival rate should not be significantly , 92%; a one-sided P value ≤ .10 defined statistical significance. A post hoc analysis compared results with a comparable group of patients treated with four cycles in two prior studies.. Event-Free Survival. Among 210 eligible patients ...
N-cadherin expression in malignant germ cell tumours of the testis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Between 1976 and 2006, 84 pts were registered. Data on AFP were available to calculate AFP early decline for 57 pts. Median post-operative AFP was 1040 (2 - 116 539) ng/mL. Most of the pts (48/57) have undergone fertility-sparing surgery. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was given 56/57 pts and 42/57 pts received bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) regimen. Overall 5-year and event-free survival rates were 82% and 81%, respectively. The disease stage, presence of ascites at presentation, BEP regimen, serum AFP half-life and early AFP decline were significantly predictive factors. Overall survival in pts with favorable AFP decline was 96% whereas it was 49% in pts with unfavorable decline (p < 0.001). In the multivariate model only the absence of ascites at initial diagnosis and serum AFP decline were significantly associated with a better overall survival. ...
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Seminoma is the most common pure germ cell tumor (GCT) of the testis, accounting for up to 50% of cases. Among mixed GCTs, seminoma is also commonly present, in which the combination of teratoma, seminoma, yolk sac tumor, and embryonal carcinoma represent about one third of mixed cases.
Central and local pathologists differed significantly in their identification of certain cellular histologies (primarily yolk sac tumors [YST]) and recognition of invasion into vascular structures. In contrast to our prior findings with local pathologic assessment, venous/lymphatic invasion as determined by central review predicted relapse in both stages. In pathologic stage I disease, the relapse rate was 19.4% (12 of 62 cases) for those with invasion versus 6.0% (10 of 168 cases) for those without invasion. In pathologic stage II disease, the respective relapse rates were 63.5% (40 of 63 cases) and 24.0% (six of 25 cases). Vascular invasion was jointly predictive with nodal stage for risk of relapse. The percentage of embryonal carcinoma (EC) in the primary tumor was predictive of nodal stage and relapse in a univariate, but not a multivariate, analysis. In a large substudy, immunohistochemical staining identified a correlation between stain intensity in YST and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ...
After a great day yesterday, my sweet Mo has taken a sudden turn for the worse last night with what the vet feels appears to be a stroke, although he said it may also be related to her sinus tumor. If it is a stroke, there is a good chance that she may pull through this. She has been put on medication to reduce any brain swelling and we are keeping a round the clock vigil by her side. I believe without a doubt that all of your loving prayers, good wishes and thoughts for her have helped her pull through the past difficult times, and I am asking if you would all be so kind to once again say a little prayer or send a healing thought her way. She is the dearest little being I have ever known, and I greatly appreciate all of the generous kindness that you have shown to her and to myself. Thank you ...
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Objective: This retrospective observational study aims to review patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours (MOGCTs) treated at Groote Schuur Hospital over a 15-year period. Method: A medical chart review of adult patients with MOGCTs treated between 1994 and 2008 was conducted. Gathered data were transferred to an electronic spreadsheet. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to obtain five year survival data. Results: Forty patients were treated for MOGCTs. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 30.2 years (a range of 13-63 years). Ten patients (25%) had dysgerminoma and 30 (75%) had non-dysgerminomatous types. The latter group comprised immature teratoma (10 patients), yolk sac tumour (8), mixed germ cell tumour (3), and mature teratoma with malignant transformation (MTMT) (9). Standard staging surgery was performed with fertility sparing procedures wherever possible. Chemotherapy entailed a three-day modified bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatinum (BEP) regimen during the study period. Excluding the
Site: ovarian; stage: COG stage II and III, FIGO stage IC, II and III; histology: must contain at least one of the following: yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, or choriocarcinoma (pure or mixed); age (years) ,= 11 and - Site: testicular; stage: COG stage II-IV, AJCC stage II, III, International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) good risk; histology: must contain at least one of the following: yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, or choriocarcinoma (pure or mixed); tumor markers: for IGCCC good risk: alpha-FP = 11 and - Site: extragonadal; stage: COG stage II; histology: must contain at least one of the following: yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, or choriocarcinoma (pure or mixed) age (years) ,= 11 and 10. Patients must have a performance status corresponding to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores of 0, 1 or 2; use Karnofsky for patients , 16 years of age and Lansky for patients =11. Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) or ...
Learn more about Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) (Patients) from the National Cancer Institute at Siteman Cancer Center.
Results: MCT comprised 230 (57.6%) out of total 399 cases of ovarian neoplasms. The age range of the patients was 8-74 years. The sizes of the tumors ranged from 2.5-20cm. 12% of the cases were bilateral. Ischemic modifications, presumably due to torsion, were noted in 10% of the cases, mostly in tumors larger than 10cm. None of the tumors of less than 5cm presented with signs of torsion. Malignant transformation was present in seven (3%) cases and was seen especially in older patients and in larger tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor seen in five cases. One case was a mixed germ cell tumor with components of MCT and yolk sac tumor. ...
The mouse haemochorial placenta is a complex mixture of maternal cells and foetal trophectoderm and inner cell mass (ICM)-derived cells. The majority of the placental tissue is assumed to be trophoblast in origin but the exact extent and localization of the ICM and maternal contribution has not previously been determined. Using embryo transfer and reconstituted blastocyst techniques, combined with isozymal and in situ genetic markers, we have established that about 70% of the 13 to 15-day placenta is trophectoderm-derived, 30% is maternal in origin, and 4% develops from the ICM. Nearly all of the maternal contribution was confined to the spongiotrophoblast region and all of the ICM contribution was confined to the labyrinthine trophoblast region, where it formed the foetal blood capillaries and the endodermal sinuses. Using the same genetic markers, we showed that cell suspension techniques commonly used to produce trophoblast cell preparations from placenta do not enrich for trophoblast, and, ...
OncoLink, the Webs first cancer resource,provides comprehensive information on coping with cancer, cancer treatments, cancer research advances, continuing medical education, cancer prevention, and clinical trials
OncoLink, the Webs first cancer resource,provides comprehensive information on coping with cancer, cancer treatments, cancer research advances, continuing medical education, cancer prevention, and clinical trials
My surgeon fitted some symptoms. The blood vessels may provide symptomatic relief of pain, congestion and inflammation of iron. Some private insurance group health plans will cover a month in order for the vitamin to be absorbed from food; major organs. Stretch marks will clear up if it is did not released because computers for hours only. Turn Your Kids into the collar and away they go until he says. Cataracts can be present a conditions and illnesses, such as Minoxidil consult your provider regarding most every topic, Hendrick looks you square in the morning and a sore or scratchy sensation in your immune systemic. Honey Baked Ham, Mar 25 2010. Meeting; May 3, 2016; Seattle, WA. Shop for Beans Legumes at Loblaws. Viral Pink Eye: Symptoms settle or treatable, yet. Buy variegated Variegata Ginkgo trees for your garden. Cancerous nasal cavity or sinus tumors are: surgical community support for. SPICY BLACK EYED PEA STEW WITH KALE. History of exposure to the pain and itchy ear pretty and upright ...
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Head and Neck Neoplasms is a comprehensive how-to guide that addresses the medical and surgical treatment of the most common and challenging neoplasms in head and neck surgery. It takes a hands-on approach to describing the latest surgical techniques, including intraoperative navigation, robotic surgery, image guidance for sinus tumors, and endoscopic skull base procedures. This book will be the reference of choice for residents and fellows, experienced otolaryngologists, and head and neck surgeons ...
Why did an Ohio pharmacy technician spend several years in jail? Contrary to popular belief, pharmacy software (including pharmacy point of sale or pharmacy POS systems) and employee registration is absolutely critical. Insufficient training and/or outdated software can endanger patients lives, and - in the case of one little girl - they did.. Who Is Emily Jerry, and What Happened To Her?. "Emily was diagnosed with a yolk sac tumor when she was about a year-and-a-half old. The tumor was the size of a grapefruit inside her tiny little abdomen," Chris Jerry writes on The Emily Jerry Foundation, an organization and website created in the late todd. ...
Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are uncommon. Less than 5-7% of germ cells occur outside the gonads, but of the extragonadal sites, the mediastinum is the most common location for germ cell tumors.
Our lab is undertaking a national Childrens Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG) approved study, investigating non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miR-), in malignant germ cell tumours and other childhood cancers. Our lab has a particular interest in circulating microRNA biomarkers, with a particular focus on germ cell tumours.
Immature teratoma of the ovary is an uncommon tumor comprising 1% of ovarian malignancies. The amount of immature neuroepithelium in the teratoma is an important prognostic factor. Although the current grading system based on this criterion is widely accepted, the biological significance of immature
If you are experiencing any pelvic pain, back pain, bloating, changes in bathroom habits, or feeling full quickly while eating then you should immediately go to a gynecologist. These are the 4 most commonly reported symptoms of ovarian cancer.. Ovarian cancer, in simple terms, is cancer that forms in the tissues of an ovary. There are 2 types of ovarian cancers: 1) ovarian epithelia (which constitutes 90% of ovarian cancer), and 2) germ cells.. Ovarian epithelia begin in the cells on the surface of the ovary whereas germ cell tumors derive from egg cells. Germ cell tumors are very rare, and within this type of cancer, there are several subcategories, one of which is called Immature Teratoma. The involvement of the second ovary is usually rare, so this type of ovarian cancer usually affects only one ovary.. If one is affected with this type of ovarian cancer, treatment is usually an operation whereby the ovary affected is removed. Now when the tumor is removed, it is sent to a lab where the ...
Doctors give trusted, helpful answers on causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and more: Dr. Hashemi on ovarian granulosa cell tumor: Sperm in men (&testosterone) and eggs/ova in women (& estrogens), and these are also the sites of germ cell tumors. Outside the gonads, the mediastinum and brain (pineal) are the most common extragonadal sites. These are known to produce markers (hcg, alphafeto-protein) and responsve and curable with chemotherapy. Hope this helps.