Looking for Houbara Bustard? Find out information about Houbara Bustard. a bird in the family Otididae of the order Gruiformes. Body length, 65-80 cm. The feathers are sandy gray with dark specks; it has a crest on the head and a... Explanation of Houbara Bustard
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service American Woodcock Population Status, 2001 Suggested citation: Kelley, J.R., Jr. 2001. American woodcock population status, 2001. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, Maryland. 15pp. 2 AMERICAN WOODCOCK POPULATION STATUS, 2001 JAMES R. KELLEY, JR., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management, BHW Federal Building, 1 Federal Dr., Fort Snelling, Minnesota 55111-4056 Abstract: Singing-ground and Wing-collection surveys were conducted to assess the population status of the American woodcock (Scolopax minor). Singing-ground Survey data indicated that the number of displaying woodcock in the Eastern Region was unchanged (P,0.1) from 2000 levels, although the point estimate of the trend was negative. In the Central Region, there was a 12.9% decrease in the number of woodcock heard displaying (P,0.01) compared to 2000 levels. Trends from the Singing-ground Survey during 1991-01 were negative (-2.6 and -2.5% per year for the Eastern and Central ...
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service American Woodcock Population Status, 2006 Suggested citation: Kelley, J.R., Jr., and R. D. Rau. 2006. American woodcock population status, 2006. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, Maryland. 15pp. All Division of Migratory Bird Management reports are available on our home page at: http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/reports/reports.html 1 AMERICAN WOODCOCK POPULATION STATUS, 2006 JAMES R. KELLEY, JR., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management, BHW Federal Building, 1 Federal Dr., Fort Snelling, MN 55111-4056 REBECCA D. RAU, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 11510 American Holly Dr., Laurel, MD 20708-4002 Abstract: Singing-ground Survey data indicated that the numbers of displaying American woodcock (Scolopax minor) in the Eastern Region in 2006 was unchanged from 2005; however, the Central Region experienced an 8% decline. There was no significant trend in ...
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.. Guo P. and Chen Y. 2000. A rare endemic snake species in China Thermophis baileyi. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 19(2): 79-80.. Huang S., Liu S., Guo P., Zhang Y. and Zhao E. 2009. What are the closest relatives of the hot-spring snakes (Colubridae, Thermophis), the relict species endemic to the Tibetan Plateau? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51: 438-446.. IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.. IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2014).. IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.. Li, J. 2007. Discussion of food and eating habit of Tibetan Hot Spring Snake: Thermophis baileyi. Journal of Tibet University 22(2): 85-90.. Liu S. and Zhao E. 2004. Discovery ...
The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems is a global standard for how we assess the conservation status of ecosystems. It is applicable at local, national, regio...
An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is widely recognized as the most comprehensive, objective global approach for evaluating the conservation stat...
Biology Assignment Help, Captive breeding - measures for species conservation, Captive Breeding - Measures for Species Conservation Species which are reduced to dangerous levels need more intensive management, and one strategy is their captive breeding. It means, the eggs from the nests of endangered birds are taken and ha
The Trump Administration is moving to weaken the Endangered Species Act. Thats the law credited with bringing back grey wolves and peregine falcons from the brink of extinction. Here in California those proposed changes might not matter. Thats because the states own endangered species act will apply, no matter what changes happen at the federal level. This story is part of Elemental: Covering Sustainability, a new multimedia collaboration between Cronkite News, Arizona PBS, KJZZ, KPCC, Rocky Mountain PBS and PBS SoCal.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Severe population collapses and species extinctions in multihost epidemic dynamics. AU - Maslov, Sergei. AU - Sneppen, Kim. PY - 2017/8/22. Y1 - 2017/8/22. N2 - Most infectious diseases, including more than half of known human pathogens, are not restricted to just one host, yet much of the mathematical modeling of infections has been limited to a single species. We investigate consequences of a single epidemic propagating in multiple species and compare and contrast it with the endemic steady state of the disease. We use the two-species susceptible-infected-recovered model to calculate the severity of postepidemic collapses in populations of two-host species as a function of their initial population sizes, the times individuals remain infectious, and the matrix of infection rates. We derive the criteria for a very large, extinction-level, population collapse in one or both of the species. The main conclusion of our study is that a single epidemic could drive a species with high ...
Dynamic redefinition of the 10 UGAs in human and mouse selenoprotein P (Sepp1) mRNAs to specify selenocysteine instead of termination involves two 3′ UTR structural elements (SECIS) and is regulated by selenium availability. In addition to the previously known human Sepp1 mRNA poly(A) addition site just 3′ of SECIS 2, two further sites were identified with one resulting in 10-25% of the mRNA lacking SECIS 2. To address function, mutant mice were generated with either SECIS 1 or SECIS 2 deleted or with the first UGA substituted with a serine codon. They were fed on either high or selenium-deficient diets. The mutants had very different effects on the proportions of shorter and longer product Sepp1 protein isoforms isolated from plasma, and on viability. Spatially and functionally distinctive effects of the two SECIS elements on UGA decoding were inferred. We also bioinformatically identify two selenoprotein S mRNAs with different 5′ sequences predicted to yield products with differen... ...
Frankham R, Bradshaw CJA, Brook BW, Genetics in conservation management: revised recommendations for the 50/500 rules, Red List criteria and population viability analyses, Biological Conservation, 170 pp. 56-63. ISSN 0006-3207 (2014) [Refereed Article ...
Birds species diversity and abundance are being threatened due to agricultural activities and anthropogenic practices which causes habitat destruction and fragmentation. Understanding how avian species respond to habitat destruction is important towards development of effective measures to ensure that the environment is protected. A study on avian abundance, diversity and conservation status was conducted in Etago Sub-County, Kisii County Kenya from September 2018 to February 2019. Point counts and time species counts were used to carry out birds survey to determine their abundance and diversity in the secondary forest, sugarcane plantations, human settlement and mixed firms. A total of 4992 individuals were observed and recorded in the entire study area. The human settlement had the highest density of 1.664 ± 0.18 birds/ha followed by sugarcane plantation with 1.092 ± 0.16 birds/ha and Nyangweta secondary forest was third with 0.0819 ± 0.13. Mixed firms had the least density of 0.95
We are seeking information on 13 species and one carrier for possible regulation under the Invasive Species Act, 2015. The information we collect in response to this proposal will help support Ministry in determining whether to develop a future regulation.
The proposed roads, sewers and other utilities would pave the way for the transformation of the 580-resident community of Tusayan, Ariz., from a quiet tourist town into a sprawling complex of high-end homes, retail stores and restaurants only a mile from the Grand Canyon National Park boundary. The development would threaten local groundwater supplies that feed the canyons creeks and springs, as well as some of the parks most important wildlife, including the Arizona wetsalts tiger beetle and Macdougals yellowtops (a flower in the aster family) -- both of which were included in a Center petition for Endangered Species Act protection last month ...
Thirty-five years ago our countrys leaders brought forth the most important environmental law ever created. The Endangered Species Act was grounded on two unique propositions: 1) society must not knowingly allow any species on our land or in our waters to go extinct; 2) the purpose of saving sp ...
The Endangered Species Act is among the most wasteful and counterproductive laws on the books. It started out as an innocent-sounding means of protecting plants and animals that were nearing extinction, but it has turned into a tool for exerting political leverage. Environmentalists should be happy when survival of the fittest is allowed to run its course, and the weak and vulnerable species die out!
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).. IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).. Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87-94.. Wilson, D.E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.. ...
Weinberg, P., Jdeidi, T., Masseti, M., Nader, I., de Smet, K. & Cuzin, F. (2008). Capra aegagrus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 31 March 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable. ...
Buy CSIRO List of Australian Vertebrates (9780643090750): A Reference with Conservation Status: NHBS - Edited By: Mark Clayton, CSIRO
A study found that, among other things, overfarming and pesticide use are major threats to the worlds key crops that are necessary to food security. Some o... Read More... ...
Shearwaters and petrels (hereafter petrels) are highly adapted seabirds that occur across all the worlds oceans. Petrels are a threatened seabird group comprising 120 species. They have bet-hedging life histories typified by extended chick rearing periods, low fecundity, high adult survival, strong philopatry, monogamy and long-term mate fidelity and are thus vulnerable to change. Anthropogenic alterations on land and at sea have led to a poor conservation status of many petrels with 49 (41%) threatened species based on IUCN criteria and 61 (51%) suffering population declines. Some species are well-studied, even being used as bioindicators of ocean health, yet for others there are major knowledge gaps regarding their breeding grounds, migratory areas or other key aspects of their biology and ecology. Here, 38 petrel conservation researchers summarize information regarding the most important threats according to the IUCN Red List of threatened species to identify knowledge gaps that must be ...
Over 700 newly recognised bird species have been assessed for the latest update of The IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM, and 11% of them are threatened with extinction. The update also reveals a devastating decline for the giraffe, driven by habitat loss, civil unrest and illegal hunting. The global giraffe population has plummeted by up to 40% over the last 30 years, and the species has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List ...
There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience. ...
We assessed the taxonomic diversity, geographic distributions, life history, ecology and fisheries of tarpons, ladyfishes and bonefishes (members of the subdivision Elopomorpha), which share many life history and habitat use characteristics that make them vulnerable to environmental and anthropogenic stresses in coastal environments. This assessment of Red List status for the International Union for the Conservation of Nature reveals three species considered near threatened or vulnerable, three species of least concern, and 11 data-deficient species. Although the taxonomy of tarpons appears stable, it is less so for ladyfishes and bonefishes. In aggregate, these species are distributed circumtropically and foray into temperate zones. Although they spawn in marine habitats, larvae of many species disperse into estuarine habitats, which are declining in area or degrading in quality. Several species support high-value recreational fisheries, or culturally important small-scale commercial and ...
ABSTRACT: The yellow-spotted mountain newt Neurergus microspilotus (Caudata: Salamandridae) is listed as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In spite of its conservation status and laws protecting it, the species continues to decline in the wild. A captive breeding program was successfully established to support the species recovery. To learn more about the species ecology and winter mortality, 24 juveniles reared in captivity were released on 4 occasions in a small spring enclosure from July to September 2012 and monitored until December, when they disappeared for overwintering. In 12 visits to the site before and after overwintering, a total of 31 individuals were identified. Based on an average diurnal detection probability for this newt (0.61 ± 0.19 SD), the observed newts during the pre-overwintering period were estimated to represent 6.5 to 41.0% of the reintroduced newts. The newts observed after overwintering were 13 to 28% of the reintroduced newts. This ...
Hawaiian Name: ʻUaʻu Scientific Name: Pterodroma sandwichensis Conservation Status: Federal Status: Endangered (listed in 1967) State Status: Endangered IUCN Red List: Vulnerable Population Size In the early 1990s, the statewide Hawaiian Petrel population was estimated at approximately 20,000 individuals, including 4,500 breeding pairs. Long-term population trends of Hawaiian Petrels vary on each island. …
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stéphane Chantepie, Alexandre Robert, Gabriele Sorci, Yves Hingrat, Anne Charmantier, Gwénaëlle Leveque, Frédéric Lacroix, Céline Teplitsky].
Members of The Alalā Project say that the reintroduction of captive-raised birds without the benefit of experienced Alalā already in the wild is very challenging. Biologists around the world say releases like this are usually marked with fits and starts, and that reintroduction success is not usually seen before multiple releases. Nēnē, the native Hawaiian goose, once had a population of only 30 birds and was part of a captive breeding program. The recovery of Nēnē took over five decades of conservation actions to achieve, and while there are now over 3,000 birds in the wild, Nēnē populations still require active management to persist, said Joey Mello, Hawaii Branch DOFAW Wildlife Program Manager (East Hawaii). ...
IUCN Latest Breaking News, Pictures, Videos, and Special Reports from The Economic Times. IUCN Blogs, Comments and Archive News on Economictimes.com
MAD & I arrived late at Brownstown on Saturday 14th. A brief seawatch at Helvick Head on the way had produced a Balearic Shearwater feeding close inshore (5-5:20 pm) so I was keen to check the sea at Brownstown too. But we didnt get to the cliffs until until 8:20 pm, and it was clear that Manxies were just milling about, back and forth between feeding flocks, so we checked through the flocks for Balearics rather than logging non-passage. Of 500+ Manx, 300+ were close enough to shore to be checked in detail, on an almost flat sea in reasonable light (mainly clear sky but western horizon obscured by cloud so sunlight wasnt direct and Manxies SE or directly S were still fairly black-&-white). Something about underwing on one flapping bird in the closest flock suggested to MAD that one bird might be interesting. It was, but not in expected way - a shearwater with an obvious mid-to-pale GREY nape / rear crown / hindneck (or upper hindneck) contrasting with but probably fading into an apparent ...
IUCN kennt ein weit verzweigtes System von gegen 10000 freiwilligen Experten aus verschiedenen Disziplinen. Auch Schweizer Spezialisten wirken in den sechs IUCN Kommissionen mit. Sie sind als Gäste zu den Sitzungen des Schweizer IUCN Komitees eingeladen ...
Abdala, S., Arzamendia, V., Fitzgerald, L., Giraudo, A., Kacoliris, F., Montero, R., Pelegrin, N., Scrocchi, G., Williams, J., Vidal, M., Tala, C., Ortiz, J.C., Nunez, H., Garin, C., Avilés, R., Mella, J., Nunez, J., Sallabery, N. & Victoriano, P. 2016. IUCN: Diplolaemus bibronii (Least Concern). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T203137A2761087. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T203137A2761087.en ...
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together. It harnesses the experience, resources and reach of its more than 1,400 Member organisations and the input of some 15,000 experts. IUCN is the global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it ...
There are a number of more recent conservation biology theories that probably arent included in the act. One is a focus on identifying and combatting threatening processes, and or course the introduction of invasive exotic organisms is a major one in many systems. However, Id stop short at reducing other native but non-endangered species without detailed understanding of the ecology, unless the common species are truly at unnatural, plague population levels (were quite happy to shoot kangaroos in Australia ...
A California judge has dismissed a lawsuit which claimed the registration by EPA of more than 380 chemicals without consultations with other agencies could negatively impact 214 endangered species in 49 states.
As more and more species are pushed to the brink of extinction, conservationists are increasingly relying on ex situ conservation strategies such as captive breeding programs as last-ditch efforts to save species. Captive breeding programs can be used to establish new populations of endangered species, bolster existing ones, and preserve species genetic diversity [24]. However, CDV not only impedes in situ conservation efforts described above, but has devastated various captive breeding programs as well. The African wild dog Lycaon pictus is a critically endangered species of Canidae native to sub-Saharn Africa. In 2000, a captive breeding program of African wild dogs in Tanzania experienced an outbreak of CDV, killing 49 of 52 animals in only two months [25]. The importance of a successful breeding programs is demonstrated by the rescue of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) from the brink of extinction. In 1964, scientists were redy to declare this species extinct when a small ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vaccination strategies to conserve the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). AU - Prager, K.C.. AU - Woodroffe, R.. AU - Cameron, Angus. AU - Haydon, Daniel T. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Pathogens such as rabies virus and canine distemper virus present a significant risk to the long-term survival of some endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) populations. Vaccination of wild dogs is one approach that might reduce population extinction risks; however clear guidelines for how best to do this are lacking. Hence, we developed a mathematical model of wild dog population dynamics that integrates a pathogen transmission model and a vaccination process. Simulations indicated that the most effective vaccination strategy includes all age classes (when pups are 2-months old), prioritizes the breeding pair, and vaccinates at least 4 animals per pack included in the vaccination effort. In addition, populations for which an Allee effect, high rates of pathogen introduction, or ...
African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus) Lying at Riverside, Tanzania Photographic Print. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed artworks and posters at Art.com. 100% satisfaction guaranteed.
For Immediate Release, February 22, 2012. Contact: Noah Greenwald, (503) 484-7495. Oregon Spotted Frog Closer to Endangered Species Act Protection. PORTLAND, Ore.- In accordance with a historic settlement agreement with the Center for Biological Diversity that will result in protection decisions for 757 species, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced today that it is evaluating whether to protect the Oregon spotted frog under the Endangered Species Act and requested information from experts and the public. The agency has recognized the need to protect the spotted frog since 1991, when it was designated a candidate species, but had failed to actually provide protection. Under the 2011 agreement with the Center, the agency is required to provide protection or determine it is no longer warranted in 2013. The Oregon spotted frog badly needs the help that only the Endangered Species Act can give it, so were glad to see that its one step closer, said Noah Greenwald, endangered species ...
Once numbering in the hundreds of thousands, the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is now one of the African continents most endangered animals. It is believed that fewer than 5,000 wild dogs currently exist in the wild, and their range has declined from 33 to 15 countries. The largest populations exist in Botswana, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. The initial population reduction came during the early part of the century as a result of a very successful extermination campaign led by ranchers who feared the loss of livestock. Today, the effects of diseases (e.g., rabies, canine distemper, and parvovirus) spread by domestic dogs are having an even more devastating effect on wild dog numbers. Of additional concern is inbreeding due to the formation of genetically distinct groups of dogs in the southern and eastern regions of their current range. Wild dogs are about the size of a German shepherd, have long legs, large ears and mottled fur of browns, black and white. They live in tightly bonded social groups ...
Taxonomy:. Phylum- Chordata. Class- Chondrichthyles. Subclass- Elasmobranchii. Super Order- Batoidea. Order- Rhinopristiformes. Common Name- Rays. Family- Pristidae. Common Name- Sawfish. Genus- Anoxypristis. Species- cuspidata. Status: IUCN Red List ENDANGERED. Average Size and Length: The Knifetooth sawfish reaches a length of 11 feet.. Teeth and Jaw: They have multiple rows of blunt teeth with rounded cusps and smooth surfaces, in both jaws.. There are 16-22 pairs of rostral teeth, but in some locations as many as 26. These teeth are short and flat and are roughly triangular in shape.. Head: It has a flattened head which is extended forward in a blade-like bony snout. The Knifetooth sawfish has a narrower rostral saw than the Longtooth sawfish. It has numerous teeth on the distal part and no teeth on the basal one-quarter (the toothless section is about one-sixth in juveniles). The blade does not taper towards its point and in adults the basal one-quarter is devoid of teeth. In juveniles ...
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA), enacted under President Richard Nixon, is perhaps one of the greatest pieces of environmental legislation in the world.. Six years ago, in 2014, four entities petitioned the US Fish & Wildlife Service (F&WS) to list monarch butterflies as threatened under the ESA. The groups were the Xerxes Society for Invertebrate Conservation, the late Professor Lincoln Brower, the Center for Biological Diversity, and the Center for Food Safety. The CFS is an anti-GMO organization. In any case, when the F&WS dragged its feet in making the decision, in part because it is so overwhelmed by petitions and protection of endangered species and chronically underfunded), this group sued the F&WS and the result was that they were required to make their determination by December 15th 2020.. This morning, the F&WS announced that the monarch will not be listed under the Endangered Species Act, although listing as threatened was warranted but precluded by work on higher-priority ...
Sawfish are marine shark-like cartilaginous fish in the family Pristidae in order Rajiformes. Sawfish are characterized by their long snout nose which has sharp teeth on each side. Like other rays, sawfish lurk to attack schools of prey fish with its long snout, and devour the injured fish. The long snout also serves as a defensive weapon, inflicting serious injury on any enemy attacking it. Sawfish have gill slits on the undersurface of the body on both sides, posterior to the mouth, as in other rays.. Sawfish are generally found in shallow waters in tropical seas, with some species occurring in brackish or fresh water. A population of sawfish lives in Lake Nicaragua, completely separated from the sea. Sawfish can grow to large sizes. The small tooth sawfish, Pristits pectinata averages 15 ft (5 m) in length, and specimens have been found up to 20 ft (6 m) long and weighing 800 lb (360 kg). This species lives in the warm waters of the Atlantic from the Mediterranean to Africa and across the ...
Common Names: Freshwater Sawfish, Largetooth Sawfish, Broadbill Sawfish.. Latin Name: Pristis microdon. Family: Pristidae. Identification: Overall flattened sharklike body. Elongated flattened rostrum (saw) with 18 to 23 pairs of evenly spaced rostral teeth. Anterior pair of rostral teeth angled forward. Base of rostrum wide hence vernacular: Broadbill Sawfish. First dorsal fin originates in front of pelvic fins. Distinct lower caudal lobe.. Size: Maximum length 5m. At birth approx 50cm.. Habitat: Sand and mud bottoms in mildly saline estuaries, rivers, and lagoons. Freshwater Sawfish is a misnomer. It spends its first 3-4 years in freshwater growing to about half its adult size. Adults penetrate from weakly saline estuaries into fresh water rivers(up to 100km from the sea) . Individual sawfish may be cut off in small ponds for years at a time between floods. In Australia it is confined to large freshwater river drainages.. Abundance and distribution: Considered critically endangered by the IUCN ...
Long-term management planning for conservation-reliant migratory songbirds is particularly challenging because habitat quality in different stages and geographic locations of the annual cycle can have direct and carry-over effects that influence the population dynamics. The Neotropical migratory songbird Kirtlands warbler Setophaga kirtlandii (Baird 1852) is listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and Near Threatened under the IUCN Red List. This conservation-reliant species is being considered for U.S. federal delisting because the species has surpassed the designated 1000 breeding pairs recovery threshold since 2001. To help inform the delisting decision and long-term management efforts, we developed a population simulation model for the Kirtlands warbler that incorporated both breeding and wintering grounds habitat dynamics, and projected population viability based on current environmental conditions and potential future management scenarios. Future management scenarios ...
Historically, the lowland European bisons range encompassed most of the lowlands of northern Europe, extending from the Massif Central to the Volga River and the Caucasus. It may have once lived in the Asiatic part of what is now the Russian Federation. The European bison is known in southern Sweden only between 9500 and 8700 BP, and in Denmark similarly is documented only from the Pre-Boreal.[15] It is not recorded from the British Isles nor from Italy or the Iberian Peninsula.[16] A possible ancestor, the extinct steppe bison, B. priscus, is known from across Eurasia and North America, last occurring 7,000 BC,[17] and is depicted in the Cave of Altamira and Lascaux. Another possible ancestor, the Pleistocene woodland bison, B. schoetensaki, was last present 36,000 BC.[4] Cave paintings appear to distinguish between B. bonasus and B. priscus.[18]. Within mainland Europe, its range decreased as human populations expanded and cut down forests. The last references (Oppian, Claudius Aelianus) to ...
The Idaho Fish and Wildlife Information System tracks species that are identified as having special conservation status in the following lists. ...
steller sea lion biology facts. All about steller sea lions from the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium.
The Garo Hills Elephant Reserve, created in 2001, has never developed an intergrated conservation action plan for elephants despite the fact that both elephant numbers and habitat have been in continous decline for the past twenty-five years.. This project will assist the Meghalaya Forest Department consolidate existing census and research information on elephants in the Garo Hills through consultation with stakeholders, identify conservation needs and knowledge gaps, and produce a Conservation Action Plan for Garo Hills Elephant Reserve.. IEF support will procure remote sensing imagery and produce maps that will be the basis for site specific management actions detailed in the action plan.. ...
Five-year Status Reviews of Sea Turtles Listed Under the Endangered Species Act of 1 973 January 1985 ,*,* OFc °, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration S ^H^ National Marine Fisheries Service Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 with funding from LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation http://www.archive.org/details/fiveyearstatusreOOmage rf, gggteg r/ Wf NT Of Five-year Status Reviews of Sea Turtles Listed Under the Endangered Species Act of 1 973 Prepared by Andreas Mager, Jr. National Marine Fisheries Service Protected Species Management Branch Duval Building, 9450 Kroger Boulevard St. Petersburg, Florida 33702 January 1985 ■ r U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Malcolm Baldrige, Secretary National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Anthony J. Calio, Acting Administrator National Marine Fisheries Service William G. Gordon, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries Jack T. Brawner, Southeast Regional Director CONTENTS Introduction 1 Acknowledgements 3 STATUS ...
Pacific Walrus Endangered Species Listing Act Decision by the USFWS. In 2011, an Endangered Species Act finding by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that listing the Pacific walrus as threatened or endangered was warranted but precluded by higher priority listing actions, placing the subspecies on the candidate list. Shortly thereafter, the USFWS agreed to a court settlement to decide whether to propose a listing rule or remove the Pacific walrus from the candidate list by September 2017. Ultimately, the USFWS decided that the Pacific walrus does not warrant listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). In the USGS Changing Arctic Ecosystems Initiative, the USGS undertook a suite of studies after the USFWS 2011 initial finding to refine forecasts of future status of the Pacific walrus population. These studies included tracking studies to understand walrus movements and activity budgets under differing ice conditions; development of population models and ...
The African wild ass (Equus africanus) is a species within the Equidae family that is thought to be that ancestor of the domestic donkey. This species resides in arid habitats in a range that includes the Horn of Africa, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Eritrea. This species hold four subspecies, including the Somali wild ass and the Nubian wild ass.. The African wild ass reaches an average body length of 6.6 feet, a height between 12.1 and 14.1 hands at the shoulders, and a weight between 510 and 610 pounds. Its fur is short and smooth and can vary from fawn to light grey in color, which fades into white on the legs and underbelly. All of the subspecies hold a thin, dark dorsal stripe. The Nubian wild ass holds a stripe along the shoulders and the Somali wild ass holds stripes on its lower legs, similar to those of zebras.. Because it lives in arid regions, the African wild ass is primarily active during the cooler hours of the morning and afternoon and rest in the shade of trees or rocks during the day. ...
The European bison (Bison bonasus), now found in Europe and the Caucasus, has been proposed to originate either from the extinct steppe/extant American bison lineage or from the extinct Bison schoetensacki lineage. Bison schoetensacki remains are documented in Eurasian Middle Pleistocene sites, but their presence in Upper Pleistocene sites has been questioned. Despite extensive genetic studies carried out on the steppe and European bison, no remains from the fossil record morphologically identified as Bison schoetensacki has been analyzed up to now. In this paper, we analyzed a 36,000-year-old Bison schoetensaki bone sample from the Siréjol cave (France) and a cave hyena coprolite (fossilized feces) found in a nearby cave and containing large amounts of Bovinae DNA. We show that the Bovinae mitochondrial DNA sequences from both samples, including a complete mitochondrial genome sequence, belong to a clade recently reported in the literature. This clade only includes ancient bison specimens without
Crop wild relatives, such as the Critically Endangered Beta patula, a primary wild relative of cultivated beets, are of vital importance for food security and agriculture as they can be used to produce new crop varieties. It is estimated that crop wild relatives contribute more than USD 100 billion worldwide towards increased crop yields. Production of at least one third of the worlds food, including 87 of the 113 leading food crops, depends on pollination carried out by insects, bats and birds. This ecosystem service is worth over USD 200 billion per year. According to the IUCN Red List 16% of Europes endemic butterflies are threatened. Bats, which are also important pollinators, are also at risk with 18% threatened globally. The latest IUCN Red List update shows that four members of the hummingbird family, which is known for its pollination services, are now at greater risk of extinction with the Pink-throated Brilliant (Heliodoxa gularis) listed as Vulnerable. In addition to their important ...
The eastern population of the Steller sea lion will be taken off the threatened species list, a federal agency announced Wednesday.
Conservation measures applied to sea turtle nesting sites have a beneficial effect on population trends and dynamics. Such measures aim to protect nesting females, increase nesting success (proportion of female emergences resulting in nests) and/or to improve hatching and hatchling emergence success. However, taking into account financial and time constrains it is important to identify those measures that have the most positive impact on the sea turtle population. The aim of this paper is to assess and compare the relative importance of the different factors that may influence the efficiency of conservation actions and to investigate which factors, those associated with decreased nesting success, or others leading to higher embryonic and hatchling mortality have a higher impact on overall hatchling recruitment. We developed a model that simulates the nesting activity of sea turtles. For model parameterization, we used data collected from nesting sites of the loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta ...
VIERA BARRETO, JESSICA N. y SANCHO, GISELA. Conservation status of the Argentinean species of Kaunia (Oxylobinae, Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).. Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. [online]. 2018, vol.53, n.1, pp.1-10. ISSN 1851-2372.. Conservation status of the Argentinean species of Kaunia (Oxylobinae, Eupatorieae, Asteraceae). The species of Kaunia represent ecologically important elements of the Andean subtropical forests and montane scrubs. Three species of this genus live in Argentina. Two of them, K. lasiophthalma and K. saltensis, are important components of the Yungas Phytogeographic Province. The third species, K. rufescens, lives in the Paranaense Province. The conservation status of the Argentinean species of Kaunia is herein presented for the frst time following the methodology proposed by IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). Based on the evidence obtained from populations of the species of Kaunia analyzed, we preliminary assign the conservation status ...
Vitex longisepala is a species of plant in the family Lamiaceae . It is a tree endemic to Peninsular Malaysia . References Chua, L.S.L. 1998. Vitex longisepala . 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 24 August 2007. Wikispecies has information related to Vitex longisepala Vitex longisepala is a species of plant in the family Lamiaceae . It is a tree endemic to Peninsular Malaysia . References Chua, L.S.L. 1998. Vitex longisepala . 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 24 August 2007. Wikispecies has information related to Vitex longisepala Express yourself. Organize your knowledge. Expand your mind. Discover the world. Revolvy connects you with interesting topics, lists and quizzes. Choose from hundreds of quizzes that test your knowledge. Search through millions of topics. Create a your personalized library of topics, and discover topics that others are following.
Moelman, P. D. (2002). Equids. Zebras, Assess and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Chapter 4. Status and Action Plan for the Plains Zebra (Equus burchelli). Mace A. Hack, Rod East and Dan J Rubenstein. pp. 43-57 ...
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This coral does best in an established tank. It prefers a high water current and a high light level (400 to 600PAR), so does best in the middle to upper regions of the tank depending on the lighting. Needs stable water parameters to thrive, and adequate calcium to grow ...
Caviar set up at Beverly Hills Caviar. How to eat caviar with caviar canape using mini cocktail blinis is easy to serve caviar at your events.
Caviar set up at Beverly Hills Caviar. How to eat caviar with caviar canape using mini cocktail blinis is easy to serve caviar at your events.
Matheny, A. M., L. B. Kimmel, P. A. Stone, and A. M. Fenwick. 2018. Comparative Population Genetics of Red Imported Fire Ants (Solenopsis invicta) at the University of Central Oklahoma and Lake Arcadia, Edmond, Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist (in press).. Rosen, P., and P. A. Stone. 2017. Kinosternon sonoriense ssp. longifemorale.The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T96710001A91328680.. Butler, C. J., B. D. Stanila, J. B. Iverson, P. A. Stone, and M. Bryson. 2016. Projected changes in climatic suitability for Kinosternonturtles by 2050 and 2070. Ecology and Evolution 6:7690-7705.. Peno, S. S., B. D. Stanila, M. E. B. Stone, and P. A. Stone. 2016. Inverse relationship between biting and head retraction in an ontogenetic series of Sonoran Mud Turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense). Journal of Herpetology 50:26-28.. Stone, P. A., K. J. Locey, S. Laverty, B. D. Stanila, and M. E. B. Stone. 2015. Conservation implications of male-biased movements in Sonoran Mud Turtles (Kinosternon ...
To genetically evaluate red pandas both in zoos and in Nepal. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a charismatic, beautiful but threatened flagship species addressing Himalayan conservation issues. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species lists the conservation status of red pandas as vulnerable, with an estimated population of less than 10,000 adult individuals surviving in the wild. This status is currently under review. The species is elusive and sightings are particularly rare due to its low densities, biology and inaccessibility of its habitat. Most of the previous work on their status has been based on counting their scats. Scats, but also hair or urine (in snow), are sources of DNA and enable conservationists and researchers to draw various valuable conclusions in assessing the status of a target species. Located at the conservation genetics group of the Senckenberg Research Institute, our international project aims to establish a non-invasive genetic monitoring scheme for the genetic ...
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the NOAA Fisheries are actively working to engage conservation partners and the public in the search for improved and innovative ways to conserve and protect imperiled species, even before they are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).. The agencies are committed to strengthening the delivery of voluntary conservation tools, such as Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances (CCAA), by making it easier to work together on conservation efforts, thus are soliciting public review and comment on whether to revise the existing CCAA policy and accompanying regulations.. Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances are designed to provide an incentive to landowners to implement specific conservation measures for declining species that are not currently listed under the ESA. To participate in a CCAA, non-federal property owners can voluntarily implement specific conservation measures that reduce or eliminate threats on their land to species ...
The powder sprite (Pseudagrion spernatum), also known as the powdered sprite, is a species of damselfly that can be found in Africa. Its range includes Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, and Tanzania, among other areas. It prefers to reside in montane habitats near streams and rivers.. The total population number of the powder sprite is unknown and it is threatened by habitat loss due to agricultural purposes, water drainage, and water pollution. No conservation efforts have been suggested for this species other than research and monitoring. The powder sprite appears on the IUCN Red List with a conservation status of Least Concern.. Image Caption: Male Natal Sprite, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Credit: Alandmanson/Wikipedia (CC BY-SA 3.0). ...
Howard Baker was a leading sponsor of an amendment to the Endangered Species Act that was passed into law in November 1978. The idea was to create a mechanism whereby a specific project could be excluded from the Endangered Species Act. If a controversy arose, the amendment called for the creation of a special committee consisting of various Cabinet level members and at least one member from the affected state where the project in question was located. It came to be known as the God Committee because if they exercised their power to exempt a project from the act, they were in effect acting like God and destroying an entire species. There was a fear in Congress that many projects in the country would be affected by litigation as biologists might set out to discover obscure species, including insects or even micro-biotic life forms. The proponents of the God Committee amendment saw it as a way of keeping the Endangered Species Act alive. According to the Burger opinion, U.S. Endangered Species ...
|p|As the trophy hunting industry has grown over the last few decades, governments, conservationists, and animal welfare advocates are keen to understand its global economic and conservation impacts with data as supporting evidence. Unfortunately, little credible research had been done to understand the global trophy industrys extent and impact..|/p| |p|This report is a result of a comprehensive analysis of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Trade Database. This analysis can serve as a baseline for more study on how trophy hunting is changing and how the global industry ultimately affects animals and their populations, both regionally and globally.|/p|
WD Caviar Green vs Black. Western Digital, or better known as WD, is one of the leaders in the Hard Drive industry. Western Digital has come out with many types of hard disks, and the more widely used ones are the Caviar Green and Black. Well, almost everyone is so confused when it comes to choosing WD Caviar Green and Black hard disks, as they have many differences.. Let us discuss some of the differences between WD Caviar Green and Black hard drives. When talking about their performance, the WD Caviar Blacks performance is better than the Greens. The WD Caviar Black is noisy, and also consumes more power. On the other hand, the WD Green is considered to be a hard drive for general use. The WD Green makes less noise, and has a more efficient power consumption rate.. Well, the WD Caviar Green hard drive starts at 86 mb/s, and comes to an end at 65 mb/s. Moreover, the WD Green has heavy NCQ optimisation, and is known to work well under many disk loads. On the other hand, the WD Black starts at ...
Monitoring of Delta Smelt Abundance and Distribution Contact Person: Dale Sweetnam (DFG) (209) 948-7800. The Summer Townet and Fall Midwater Trawl surveys (see Section II.D.) provide abundance and distribution information which has been incorporated into the USFWS Biological Opinion for the operation of the CVP and SWP and the recovery plan for delta smelt created by the Delta Native Fishes Recovery Team. The Suisun Marsh study is used to monitor delta smelt abundance in Suisun Marsh. The Bay Study and USFWS Chipps Island trawl surveys (see Sections II. D. and A., respectively) are additional surveys which provide information on delta smelt abundance. The USFWS beach seine survey (see Section II.A.) provides important distributional information during spawning migrations.. Delta Smelt Spawning Season Monitoring Contact Person: Dale Sweetnam (DFG) (209) 948-7800. Midwater Trawl Surveys (see Section II.D.) extended through the spawning season. The purpose of midwater trawling from January through ...
The Palerang Council, east of Canberra, says it plans to introduce a number of water conservation measures across the shire this summer.
Other articles where Smalltooth sawfish is discussed: sawfish: In 2015 the smalltooth sawfish (P. pectinata) was observed to have the ability to reproduce via parthenogenesis (a condition in which an unfertilized egg develops into an embryo). The species was one of the first vertebrate groups found to be capable of parthenogenesis in the wild. The strategy…
Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) (2015). Cygnus olor. Available from: http://www.unep-aewa.org/en/species/cygnus-olor [Accessed 7 March 2016]. BirdLife International (2004) b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Birdlife International, Cambridge, UK. Birdlife Conservation Series 12.. BirdLife International (2012). Cygnus olor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/22679839/0#end_uses [Accessed 7 March 2016]. Council of Europe (1979). Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Available from: http://www.unep.ch/seas/main/legal/lbern.html [Accessed 7 March 2016].. Day, D. D.; Beyer, W. N.; Hoffman, D. J.; Morton, A.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D. J.; Ottinger, M. A. (2003). Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to Mute Swans. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 44: 510-522.. del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. ...
The southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) were intensely exploited in the Southern Hemisphere between the 18th and 20th centuries. Although the species has been protected internationally from commercial whaling since 1935, some populations were further depleted by illegal catches until the early 1970s. Current estimates suggest that there are approximately 7,000 southern right whales, which is thought to represent a small fraction (about 5%) of its population size prior to commerical whaling. Although some populations have shown signs of recovery, the species is still vulnerable and cited under Appendix I of the International Trade of Endangered Species Fauna and Flora (CITES) and on the IUCN red list of endangered species at risk of extinction (IUCN 2000). Current genetic analyses, involving the use of mithocondrial and nuclear markers (e.g. microsatellites), has focused on the existent levels of genetic variability and extent of gene flow with other wintering grounds (e.g. Peninsula ...
The conservation of species listed in the Bern Convention and European Directive 1992/43/EEC (so-called policy species) is mandatory for European Union (EU) countries. We assessed the conservation status of Italian policy species, based on the IUCN categories and criteria, to evaluate the effectiveness of existing protection measures at the national level. Among the 203 vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens evaluated, 41.9% are categorized as threatened, and one is already extinct, indicating that the protection measures for policy species are inadequate. Our results for the Italian policy species are consistent with those of an assessment at the EU level. Conservation priorities should be established at both the national and regional scales. An effective conservation strategy is needed, and in situ and ex situ actions focused on threatened species should be promoted.. ...
Emmett, David; and Thandar Swe. 2007. Monitoring the release of 50 Geochelone platynota in Minsontaung Wildlife Sanctuary to support enforcement and zoning for conservation.. McGaugh, Suzanne. 2007. Conservation genetics of the endemic Cuatrociénegas slider Trachemys taylori.. Singh, Shailendra; and Horne, Brian. 2007. Development of green headstarting facilities in the National Chambal River Sanctuary, India: the last stronghold for the red crowned roof turtle, Batagur kachuga.. Walker, Ryan; and Woods-Ballard, Andy. 2007. Follow up study on the population density and conservation status of the Madagascar spider tortoise (Pyxis arachnoides).. Forero-Medina, German; and Moreno, Luis Eladio Renteria. 2007. Distribution and conservation status of the endemic mud turtle Kinosternon dunni in Colombia.. Niskanen, Leo; and Volahy, Anselme Toto. 2007. Survey of Pyxis planicauda in Andranomena Special Reserve, Western Madagascar.. Blanck, Torsten, Kremser, MMag. Tanja; and Ting Zhou. 2007. Population ...
Now the caviar grader comes to taste the caviar. There are three factors that the caviar is graded on. Each element is worth a point. First is the size of the eggs. Eggs between 3.2 -2.4 mm in diameter are given a point. Next are the pop and the taste. If the eggs pop well between your tongue and the roof of your mouth, they get a point. Then the taste will also receive a point - or not. The caviar now should have a grade of 0-3, which will determine the grade it receives: Classic, Royal, and if it is a Royal grade and is light in color, is graded as an Imperial,. Each tin will get a color dot that indicates what grade of caviar is in the tin. Even though color can vary from golden to black, it has nothing to do with quality and taste. Color is purely a preference of the individual, explains Struffenegger. ...
Photo credit: Kevin Schafer. The Maned Sloth, Bradypus torquatus, is classified as ENDANGERED on the IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM. It is only found in the remaining fragments of the Atlantic Forest of eastern and northeastern Brazil.. This slow-moving, arboreal mammal feeds on the leaves of a very limited number of plants. Its survival is threatened by the continued loss and fragmentation of suitable habitat. Maned Sloths are often killed out of curiosity, but may also be victims of subsistence hunting. There are three genetically distinct isolated populations across the Atlantic Forest, which represent independent targets for conservation efforts.. Halting deforestation is the key to saving the Maned Sloth from extinction. Research on the genetically divergent populations should be promoted to better understand their conservation needs. In view of their low genetic diversity, habitat restoration and corridors are needed to connect the subpopulations within the three main ...
Definition: The category is part of the IUCN 1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3), which is no longer used in evaluation of taxa, but persists in the IUCN Red List for taxa evaluated prior to 2001. It was assigned to species or lower taxa which were dependent on conservation efforts to prevent the taxon becoming threatened with extinction ...
Aug. 3, 2021--The Morton Arboretum and United States Botanic Garden (USBG) announce a new partnership to advance the conservation of threatened trees in the United States, with a special focus on native oak species. The partners will develop threat assessments, conduct field work to resolve taxonomic questions and collect seeds for planting in conservation collections, and advance the work of the Global Conservation Consortium for Oak (GCCO).. The partners are also working closely with Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) and NatureServe to identify and evaluate the extinction risk and conservation status of all trees in the continental U.S. to inform conservation priorities and actions. Oaks, one of the most ecologically and culturally important groups of trees in the U.S., will be a top priority for the partnership. The Red List of Oaks 2020 revealed that 31% of the worlds oaks, which are crucial to the environments in which they grow, are threatened with extinction.. Preventing ...
The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) has joined with two branches of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (IUCN/SSC) - the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) and the Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG) - to form the Amphibian Ark (AArk). Since 2006 the Amphibian Ark has been helping zoos and aquariums to address the captive components of the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan, saving as many species as possible by providing global coordination, technical guidance, training, necessary linkages to other IUCN groups, communications, and guiding publicity and capital campaigns.. The AArk vision is the worlds amphibians safe in nature, and the mission is ensuring the survival and diversity of amphibian species focusing on those that cannot currently be safe-guarded in their natural environments. The AArk coordinates captive programs implemented by partners around the world, with the first emphasis on programs within the countries where the species occur in the wild, and with a ...
US and Mexican conservation efforts may have boosted the number of mar...New research by the University of Exeter and Marine Environmental Moni...The data tells the story of the interaction between marine turtles an...A large majority of marine turtles that visit Northern European waters...The eggs of Kemps ridley turtles were harvested in huge numbers and t...,US,conservation,efforts,bring,more,marine,turtles,to,UK,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
LOS ANGELES - Time may be running out for Californias most infamous fish.Despite a decadeslong rescue effort, the tiny Delta smelt appears closer than ever to vanishing from its only natural home, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.Now, some worry it wont be long before the only place the once-abundant species exists is within the confines of an artificial tank.
Hundreds of Houbara bustards that were bred in captivity have been released in Abu Dhabi and Dubai as part of efforts to preserve the endangered species.
The Molecular Ecology Laboratory applies genetic and genomic technologies to address a variety of complex questions and conservation issues facing the management of the Nations fish and wildlife resources. Together with our partners, we design and implement studies to document genetic diversity and the distribution of genetic variation among individuals, populations, and species. Information from these studies is used to support wildlife-management planning and conservation actions. Current and past studies have provided information to assess taxonomic boundaries, inform listing decisions made under the Endangered Species Act, identify unique or genetically depauperate populations, estimate population size or survival rates, develop management or recovery plans, breed wildlife in captivity, relocate wildlife from one location to another, and assess the effects of environmental change. ...