The VEEV virus strains designated enzootic are those belonging the ID and IE varieties. The reasons for excluding ID and IE VEEVs from the select agent list are: (1) No subtype ID and IE VEEV have ever been documented to cause large equine epizootics; (2) While ID strains are the ancestral forms of the IC variety, inclusion of ID viruses because they might be precursors to IC viruses is not sufficient justification for making ID viruses select agents. The possibility of a ID virus mutating to a IC virus following a bioterrorism event is unlikely because ID viruses are unlikely to establish epidemic or epizootic transmission cycles in the U.S. Natural transmission cycles requiring specific mosquito vectors would likely be needed for any evolution from ID to IC to occur in nature in the US; and (3) The currently available humanized or human anti-VEEV monoclonal antibodies that could be produced for emergency use could also have prophylactic, and possibly therapeutic efficacy for all VEEV subtype 1 ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus was isolated in 1993, 1994, and 1995 from human cases of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Two virus isolates were recovered in 1994 from Peruvian soldiers at a jungle outpost near Pantoja in northern Peru, and 10 isolates were obtained from military personnel and civilians in 1993-1995 in Iquitos, an urban center in northeastern Peru. The genetic relationship of these isolates to other VEE virus strains was determined by sequencing 856-867 nucleotide reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction fragments derived from the PE2 glycoprotein gene. The sequences were compared with those of other VEE virus strains, including representatives of the IAB, IC, ID, IE, II, and IIIC subtypes. The two Pantoja isolates were most closely related to subtype IC and ID viruses previously isolated in Colombia and Venezuela, and to the ID viruses isolated during the 1970s in Iquitos. All of the recent Iquitos isolates were similar to one
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging arboviral pathogen that affects the Americas. Outbreaks can involve hundreds- of- thousands of equines and humans, spread over large geographic regions, and can last several years. The principal vector in most major coastal outbreaks is the mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus. This species is more susceptible to most epidemic than to enzootic strains, and the adaptation of VEEV to this vector may be an important determinant of epidemic transmission. However, studies on the infection, dissemination, and transmission of VEEV regarding this important vector are lacking. \r\nThe major determinant of Ae. taeniorhynchus infection with VEEV is the E2 envelope glycoprotein, which interacts with cellular receptors. I therefore hypothesized that differential interactions of VEEV with receptors on midgut epithelial cells determine the ability of a representative epidemic versus a representative enzootic strain to infect this mosquito. In support of this ...
Quantifying the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes is essential for designing pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection of vertebrates. Titration of saliva collected in vitro from infected mosquitoes may not accurately estimate titers transmitted during blood feeding, and infection by needle injection may affect vertebrate pathogenesis. We compared the amount of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus collected from the saliva of Aedes taeniorhynchus to the amount injected into a mouse during blood feeding. Less virus was transmitted by mosquitoes in vivo (geometric mean 11 PFU) than was found for comparable times of salivation in vitro (mean saliva titer 74 PFU). We also observed slightly lower early and late viremia titers in mice that were needle injected with 8 PFU, which represents the low end of the in vivo transmission range. No differences in survival were detected, regardless of the dose or infection route.
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Induction and Characterization of Immune Responses in Small Animals Using a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE) Replicon System, Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope ...
Abstract The P-676 and MF-8 epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus were found to contain a minute plaque (MP), different from the predominant small plaque (SP) present in these virus strains. The MP and SP were stable after passages in Vero cells, mice, or horses. Equines were inoculated with the SP or MP of the P-676 and MF-8 strains. Inoculation of either P-676 SP or MP into horses induced high fever and viremia but no signs of encephalitis or death. Four horses infected with MF-8 SP became very ill, with high fever and viremia; three of the inoculated animals died. Four horses were infected with MF-8 MP; only two showed viremia but appeared asymptomatic and afebrile. Neutralization tests with immune sera from the infected equines showed that the P-676 SP and MP appear distinct, while a clear difference cannot be observed with MF-8 SP and MP.
COPENHAGEN, Denmark, January 24, 2019 - Bavarian Nordic A/S (OMX: BAVA, OTC: BVNRY) reports further progress in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against the equine encephalitis virus - a rare, but potentially deadly illness. The program, which is funded by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Project Management Office for Medical Countermeasure Systems (JPM-MCS) through a multi-year agreement of up to USD 36 million, aims to develop a vaccine against three separate strains of the equine encephalitis virus, Eastern (EEEV), Venezuelan (VEEV), and Western (WEEV), for which there are currently no preventative vaccines available. The vaccine is based on Bavarian Nordics proprietary, poxviral MVA-BN® platform, which due to its large genome is able to encode multiple antigens, thus providing the potential to protect against multiple diseases. Since award of the contract in March 2018, Bavarian Nordic has received incremental funding to support the preclinical development, GMP ...
The U.S. and Soviet Union both weaponized Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis during the Cold War, prompting VEEV to be added to the Select Agent list.
a. Clinical Syndrome. (1) Characteristics. Eight serologically distinct viruses belonging to the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex have been associated with human disease; the most important of these pathogens are designated subtype 1, variants A, B and C. These agents also cause severe disease in horses, mules, and donkeys (Equidae). Natural infections are acquired by…
The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential antibody escape mutations identified. The specific aims of this study were as follows: Aim 1: Generate mutant virus stocks containing the identified ...
Read "Role of angiotensin II in experimental Venezuelan equine encephalitis in rats, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In 1993, an outbreak of encephalitis among 125 affected equids in coastal Chiapas, Mexico, resulted in a 50% case-fatality rate. The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death. To better understand the ecology of this VEEV strain in Chiapas, we experimentally infected 5 species of wild rodents and evaluated their competence as reservoir and amplifying hosts. Rodents from 1 species (Baiomys musculus) showed signs of disease and died by day 8 postinoculation. Rodents from the 4 other species (Liomys salvini, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, Oryzomys couesi, and Sigmodon hispidus) became viremic but survived and developed neutralizing antibodies, indicating that multiple species may contribute to VEEV maintenance. By infecting numerous rodent species and producing adequate viremia, VEEV may increase its chances of long-term persistence in nature and could increase risk for establishment in disease-endemic areas ...
REFERENCES 1. Figueiredo LT. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2007; 40:224-229. [ Links ] 2. Figueiredo ML, Figueiredo LT. Emerging alphaviruses in the Americas: Chikungunya and Mayaro. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop2014; 47:677-683. [ Links ] 3. Ortiz DI, Kang W, Weaver SC. Susceptibility of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtypes ID, IIIC, IIID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses. J Med Entomol 2008; 45:1117-1125. [ Links ] 4. Aitken TH, Anderson CR. Virus transmission studies with Trinidadian mosquitoes II. Further observations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1959; 8:41-45. [ Links ] 5. Alencar CHM, Albuquerque LM, Aquino TMF, Soares CB, Ramos Júnior AN, Lima JWO, et al. Potencialidades do Aedes albopictus como vetor de arboviroses no Brasil: um desafio para a atenção primária. Rev APS 2008; 11:459-467. [ Links ] 6. Vasconcelos PFC, Travassos da Rosa APA, Pinheiro FP, Shope RE, Travassos da Rosa JFS, Rodrigues SG, et ...
Definition of Venezuelan box in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Venezuelan box? Meaning of Venezuelan box as a finance term. What does Venezuelan box mean in finance?
Definition of Venezuelan bolívar in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Venezuelan bolívar? Meaning of Venezuelan bolívar as a finance term. What does Venezuelan bolívar mean in finance?
Venezuelan Canadians are Canadian citizens of Venezuelan descent or a Venezuela-born person who resides in Canada. Venezuelan Canadians are one of more than ten Latino groups in Canada. The first Venezuelan immigrants came to Canada in the 1960s, but more than half arrived after the Venezuelan general strike of 2002-2003. Montreal, Quebec, with about 2,000, has the largest number, but in recent years, more and more families, now about 150, have settled in Calgary, Alberta[2] and Edmonton, Alberta. Smaller communities are found in Toronto, Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario and Vancouver, British Columbia.. ...
Naiguatá sank following its purposeful ramming of the polar ice class cruise liner RCGS Resolute while in international waters on 30 March 2020.[10][11] According to RCGS Resolutes owner, the Coast Guard ship had fired shots[11] and ordered the cruise ship to follow it to Margarita Island, a Venezuelan harbour.[12] Naiguatá sank following the ramming, with RCGS Resolute informing the international Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC) of the incident and offering assistance. After staying in the area for an hour, RCGS Resolute was informed through MRCC that assistance was not required as Naiguatás crew had been rescued by the Venezuelan Navy.[13]. Venezuelan president Nicolás Maduro accused the captain of the cruise ship of "piracy" and "terrorism",[14] adding later that he did not rule out that RCGS Resolute was "carrying mercenaries to attack onshore military bases".[15][16] The Venezuelan minister of defence said RCGS Resolutes action was an act of "imperial ...
Type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) have critical roles in inhibiting virus replication and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the molecular basis of restriction by ISGs, the antiviral mechanisms of many remain unclear. The 20 kDa ISG, ISG20, is a nuclear 3-5 exonuclease with preference for ssRNA, which has been implicated in the IFN-mediated restriction of several RNA viruses. While the exonuclease activity of ISG20 has been shown to degrade viral RNA in vitro, these findings have not been reconciled with proposed effects of ISG20 against RNA viruses that replicate in the cell cytoplasm. In the present study, we utilize a combination of an inducible, overexpression system for murine ISG20 and Isg20-/- mice to investigate mechanisms and consequences of ISG20-mediated restriction of alphaviruses. Overexpressed ISG20 primarily localized to Cajal bodies in the nucleus and potently restricted chikungunya virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replication by ...
Ichor Medical Systems Inc (Ichor) is a medical equipment company that commercializes electroporation technology for the delivery of vaccines and DNA drugs. The company electroporation technology is used for the treatment and prevention of debilitating diseases. Its trigrid provides DNA drugs and vaccines for melanoma, malaria, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, influenza, and for other disease. Ichors proprietary platform, TriGrid delivery system uses electrical fields to enhance DNA drug delivery capability by up to thousand fold compared to conventional injection. The company also offers clinical trials for developing products to treat diseases such as HIV, melanoma, malaria, HBV, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, breast cancer, and others. Ichor is headquartered in San Diego, California, the US.. Ichor Medical Systems Inc-Pharmaceuticals & Healthcare-Deals and ...
A postdoctoral position is available immediately to study the interactions between mosquito-borne viruses and their hosts, with particular focus on productive versus abortive interactions of eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses with host cells and tissues and the effect of such interactions on cell responses and disease. The candidate should have a PhD degree and be familiar with basic techniques in molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. Research experience in RNA virology, immunology, viral pathogenesis and/or signal transduction is highly desirable. Individuals with experience working in BSL-3 containment are particularly encouraged to apply. Candidates must be authorized to work in the United States and will be required to obtain Department of Justice security clearance for work with Select Agents and Toxins, as required by Federal regulation. Interested individuals should submit a letter of application, curriculum vitae, and the name, address, e-mail and telephone ...
Schroeder CE, Yao TL, Sotsky J, Smith RA, Roy S, Chu YK, Guo HX, Tower NA, Noah JW, McKellip S, et al. Development of (E)-2-((1,4-Dimethylpiperazin-2-ylidene)amino)-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide , ML336: Novel 2-Amidinophenylbenzamides as Potent Inhibitors of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 ;57:8608-8621. ...
Schroeder CE, Yao TL, Sotsky J, Smith RA, Roy S, Chu YK, Guo HX, Tower NA, Noah JW, McKellip S, et al. Development of (E)-2-((1,4-Dimethylpiperazin-2-ylidene)amino)-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide , ML336: Novel 2-Amidinophenylbenzamides as Potent Inhibitors of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 ;57:8608-8621. ...
Exclusive Distribution by Biotecnologia3000 Will Generate Innovative Foods & Beverages. CLEVELAND, OH (October 15, 2013) -- Ganeden, a recognized world leader in the manufacturing and marketing of probiotics, announced today that GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) is the first Bacillus coagulans to be approved by the Venezuelan Popular Power Ministry of Health for Food Applications, and will now be available in Venezuela as a result of an exclusive distribution partnership with Biotecnologia 3000 C.A.. The new relationship will provide Ganeden access to leading Venezuelan food and beverage manufacturers, while leveraging the extensive knowledge and experience that Biotecnologia3000 has with the Venezuelan market.. We are focused on expanding globally by establishing a strong foundation with partners who understand the importance of health and wellness, said Michael Bush, Ganedens VP of Business Development. Venezuela is a major player in the South American region of Latin America. ...
Venezuelan manufacturers and suppliers of emergency from around the world. Panjiva uses over 30 international data sources to help you find qualified vendors of Venezuelan emergency.
The Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana is the first full scientific account of a botanically rich and geologically ancient part of South America. The Venezuelan Guayana lies in the center of the Guayana Shield and is dominated by massive table mountains known as tepuis. From these imposing mountains fall the highest waterfalls in the world, such as Angel Falls on Auyán-tepui. It is a region of great beauty, still largely pristine, which includes other diverse habitats such as the swamps of the Orinoco Delta, the upland Gran Sabana, large extensions of lowland tropical forest, and the peculiar white-sand savannas and shrublands of the upper Río Negro. More information about the geography, history, vegetation, and conservation issues can be found in a summary of Volume 1. Botanical explorations in the Guayana Shield region have resulted in the recognition of hundreds of new species, dozens of new genera, and several new families of plants, many of them only known to occur there. Volumes 2 through 9 ...
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez has beaten his respiratory infection and his recovery continues to be favourable, the Venezuelan government has reported.
Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro offered chocolate and little else at a meeting on Nov. 13 with investors holding some 60 billion dollars in Venezuelan junk bonds. The offer failed to appease lenders.
The Office of the Kentucky State Veterinarian reports that during the second week in June, government officials in Panama reported two confirmed equine cases of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE). The report cited two deceased hors
Yesterdays illegitimate elections confirm that Maduro is a dictator who disregards the will of the Venezuelan people, Mnuchin said.
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavezs staunch ally Diosdado Cabello was re-elected as head of the National Assembly Saturday, with the possibility of him becoming the caretaker president if Chavez cannot be sworn in for his new term Thursday, Jan.10.
Opposition leaders deridedanother currency devaluation by President Hugo Chavezsgovernment as evidence of economic incompetence, while someanxious Venezuelans packed stores in fear of price increases.
Venezuelan supermarkets are seeing shortages of certain products, and government and the private sector are arguing over the cause as the absence of president Hugo Chavez sows political instability.
A quick , refreshing and , at the same time, deep and insightful look to an almost recent and growing phenomenon, that is taking place in what once was a rich and promising country.
The encephalitogenic New World alphaviruses, including Venezuelan (VEEV), eastern (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis viruses, constitute a continuing public health threat in the United States. They circulate in Central, South, and North America and have the ability to cause fatal disease in humans and in horses and other domestic animals. We recently demonstrated that these viruses have developed the ability to interfere with cellular transcription and use it as a means of downregulating a cellular antiviral response. The results of the present study suggest that the N-terminal, ∼35-amino-acid-long peptide of VEEV and EEEV capsid proteins plays the most critical role in the downregulation of cellular transcription and development of a cytopathic effect. The identified VEEV-specific peptide CVEE33-68 includes two domains with distinct functions: the α-helix domain, helix I, which is critically involved in supporting the balance between the presence of the protein in the cytoplasm and ...
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##VEEV MARMOSET MODEL## Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a potentially re-emerging pathogen that has been responsible for several epizootics and epidemics. VEEV is also of interest due to its high infectivity when aerosolized, and its
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes acute hemorrhagic fever that is fatal in up to 90% of cases in both humans and nonhuman primates. No vaccines or treatments are available for human use. We evaluated the effects in nonhuman primates of vaccine strategies that had protected mice or guinea pigs from lethal EBOV infection. The following immunogens were used: RNA replicon particles derived from an attenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) expressing EBOV glycoprotein and nucleoprotein; recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing EBOV glycoprotein; liposomes containing lipid A and inactivated EBOV; and a concentrated, inactivated whole-virion preparation. None of these strategies successfully protected nonhuman primates from robust challenge with EBOV. The disease observed in primates differed from that in rodents, suggesting that rodent models of EBOV may not predict the efficacy of candidate vaccines in primates and that protection of primates may require different mechanisms.
Stanford University scientists think a newly improved drug might help fight off viruses causing Ebola, dengue and Zika among others. Attempts to destroy viruses, including common cold viruses have failed up until now. Scientists at Stanford decided to solve this problem from a different angle by boosting the human bodys ability to resist the virus rather than directly fighting the virus. This work was published in Nature Chemical Biology. This approach has worked, in a lab dish at least, with a drug that fights two disease-causing viruses and potentially many more. Chaitan Khosla, a professor of chemistry and of chemical engineering who was one of the senior authors on the paper said, the drug could be effective against viruses that use RNA instead of DNA as their genetic material. "Most of the really nasty viruses use RNA," Khosla said, including Ebola, dengue, Zika and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a mosquito-borne virus which infects horses but can also kill people. In ...
Stanford University scientists think a newly improved drug might help fight off viruses causing Ebola, dengue and Zika among others. Attempts to destroy viruses, including common cold viruses have failed up until now. Scientists at Stanford decided to solve this problem from a different angle by boosting the human bodys ability to resist the virus rather than directly fighting the virus. This work was published in Nature Chemical Biology. This approach has worked, in a lab dish at least, with a drug that fights two disease-causing viruses and potentially many more. Chaitan Khosla, a professor of chemistry and of chemical engineering who was one of the senior authors on the paper said, the drug could be effective against viruses that use RNA instead of DNA as their genetic material. "Most of the really nasty viruses use RNA," Khosla said, including Ebola, dengue, Zika and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a mosquito-borne virus which infects horses but can also kill people. In ...
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What do you think of the Venezuela-Cuba collaboration?. The Venezuela-Cuba collaboration is based on human needs and not on profits. It is a beautiful example of international solidarity. This was a very heartening experience to witness first hand. It is well known that the Venezuelan government did not get a satisfactory response in 2003 when it appealed to the Venezuelan medical community to work in medically underserved areas in the country. The Cuban medical professionals on the other hand volunteered to be part of the humanitarian mission to deliver care to remote parts of Venezuela where doctors previously had seldom set foot. It is also well known that the Venezuelan government has been helping Cuba with its oil needs. There are more than 25,000 Cuban health professionals and about 10,500 Venezuelan health care professionals in the Barrio Adentro program. Recent statistics indicate 12,272 Cuban doctors and 1,935 Venezuelan doctors in the program.. I had the opportunity to tour a ...
Grieder will oversee the divisions grantmaking which exceeded $176 million in FY 2004 to support the 8 national primate research centers and their field stations, primate breeding and resource-related projects, development of mammalian and nonmammalian animal model resources, pre- and post-doctoral training and a variety of research projects. Since 1993, Grieder has been on the faculty and has conducted research at the medical school of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Her areas of expertise include viral-induced neuroimmunology and neurodegeneration, emerging viral threats and the molecular genetics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus, which is on the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions list of biowarfare agents ...
CV: PDF. Dr. Amy Vittor studies factors that drive the emergence of vector-borne diseases. She conducted her doctorate on malaria and deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon, showing that a strong positive association exists between the abundance of malaria vectors and anthropogenic land use change. During her medical training, she treated patients with HIV and tuberculosis in Botswana, Kenya and Panama, and conducted malaria bed net implementation research in a United Nations Millennium Village in Ethiopia with the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Driven by a desire to better understand why arboviruses emerge where and when they do, she turned her attention to arboviral transmission. She studied dengue epidemiology in Kenya with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Nairobi as a Fogarty International Clinical Fellow, and subsequently moved to Panama to examine the epidemiology of Venezuelan equine encephalitis and the emergent Madariaga encephalitis.. At present, her research ...
President Trump has signed an Executive Order limiting the Venezuelan governments access to the U.S. financial system. The new sanctions are the latest in a quick succession of U.S. sanctions measures issued in response to the deteriorating political situation in Venezuela. Notably, while previous U.S. sanctions directives targeted specific Venezuelan individuals and entities only, the new sanctions, for the first time, target the Venezuelan government and the Venezuelan state oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA).
Discussion. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is located on the Northern coast of South America; it covers 916,445km2 and has a population of 29,105,362 inhabitants, of which 2,903,285 are concentrated in the capital city, Santiago de León de Caracas.1 The city is comprised of five municipalities: Chacao, Sucre, El Hatillo, Baruta and Libertador. The HGO-BMFS is located in the north-western area of the city, in the district of Sucre. This district is subdivided into 13 sectors, one of which is Los Magallanes de Catia, hence the name of the hospital: "Hospital de los Magallanes de Catia". Its construction was initiated by President Raul Leoni in 1968 and it was inaugurated by President Rafael Caldera in 1973.2. According to the Venezuelan Statistical Office, by 20011 the Sucre district had 352,040 inhabitants, of which 182,106 were females and 164,934 were males. The age of this population was between 15 and 60 years, with this range comprising at least 230,658 inhabitants.1,3. As for ...
After two decades of sewing jackets and school uniforms, Venezuelan clothing designers Stalina Svieykowsky and Nelson Jimenez this month revamped their operations to make the country
Looking for better living conditions and fleeing crisis in their country, thousands of Venezuelans are emigrating to Brazil in growing numbers.
... jazz review by Angelo Leonardi, published on March 31, 2014. Find thousands reviews at All About Jazz!
Venezuelans took to the streets across their country to protest their government in what was dubbed the mother of all marches, leaving three people dead.