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Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus was isolated in 1993, 1994, and 1995 from human cases of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Two virus isolates were recovered in 1994 from Peruvian soldiers at a jungle outpost near Pantoja in northern Peru, and 10 isolates were obtained from military personnel and civilians in 1993-1995 in Iquitos, an urban center in northeastern Peru. The genetic relationship of these isolates to other VEE virus strains was determined by sequencing 856-867 nucleotide reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction fragments derived from the PE2 glycoprotein gene. The sequences were compared with those of other VEE virus strains, including representatives of the IAB, IC, ID, IE, II, and IIIC subtypes. The two Pantoja isolates were most closely related to subtype IC and ID viruses previously isolated in Colombia and Venezuela, and to the ID viruses isolated during the 1970s in Iquitos. All of the recent Iquitos isolates were similar to one
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging arboviral pathogen that affects the Americas. Outbreaks can involve hundreds- of- thousands of equines and humans, spread over large geographic regions, and can last several years. The principal vector in most major coastal outbreaks is the mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus. This species is more susceptible to most epidemic than to enzootic strains, and the adaptation of VEEV to this vector may be an important determinant of epidemic transmission. However, studies on the infection, dissemination, and transmission of VEEV regarding this important vector are lacking. \r\nThe major determinant of Ae. taeniorhynchus infection with VEEV is the E2 envelope glycoprotein, which interacts with cellular receptors. I therefore hypothesized that differential interactions of VEEV with receptors on midgut epithelial cells determine the ability of a representative epidemic versus a representative enzootic strain to infect this mosquito. In support of this ...
Induction and Characterization of Immune Responses in Small Animals Using a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE) Replicon System, Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope ...
Quantifying the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes is essential for designing pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection of vertebrates. Titration of saliva collected in vitro from infected mosquitoes may not accurately estimate titers transmitted during blood feeding, and infection by needle injection may affect vertebrate pathogenesis. We compared the amount of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus collected from the saliva of Aedes taeniorhynchus to the amount injected into a mouse during blood feeding. Less virus was transmitted by mosquitoes in vivo (geometric mean 11 PFU) than was found for comparable times of salivation in vitro (mean saliva titer 74 PFU). We also observed slightly lower early and late viremia titers in mice that were needle injected with 8 PFU, which represents the low end of the in vivo transmission range. No differences in survival were detected, regardless of the dose or infection route.
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Abstract The P-676 and MF-8 epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus were found to contain a minute plaque (MP), different from the predominant small plaque (SP) present in these virus strains. The MP and SP were stable after passages in Vero cells, mice, or horses. Equines were inoculated with the SP or MP of the P-676 and MF-8 strains. Inoculation of either P-676 SP or MP into horses induced high fever and viremia but no signs of encephalitis or death. Four horses infected with MF-8 SP became very ill, with high fever and viremia; three of the inoculated animals died. Four horses were infected with MF-8 MP; only two showed viremia but appeared asymptomatic and afebrile. Neutralization tests with immune sera from the infected equines showed that the P-676 SP and MP appear distinct, while a clear difference cannot be observed with MF-8 SP and MP.
The encephalitogenic New World alphaviruses, including Venezuelan (VEEV), eastern (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis viruses, constitute a continuing public health threat in the United States. They circulate in Central, South, and North America and have the ability to cause fatal disease in humans and in horses and other domestic animals. We recently demonstrated that these viruses have developed the ability to interfere with cellular transcription and use it as a means of downregulating a cellular antiviral response. The results of the present study suggest that the N-terminal, ∼35-amino-acid-long peptide of VEEV and EEEV capsid proteins plays the most critical role in the downregulation of cellular transcription and development of a cytopathic effect. The identified VEEV-specific peptide CVEE33-68 includes two domains with distinct functions: the α-helix domain, helix I, which is critically involved in supporting the balance between the presence of the protein in the cytoplasm and ...
COPENHAGEN, Denmark, January 24, 2019 - Bavarian Nordic A/S (OMX: BAVA, OTC: BVNRY) reports further progress in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against the equine encephalitis virus - a rare, but potentially deadly illness. The program, which is funded by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Project Management Office for Medical Countermeasure Systems (JPM-MCS) through a multi-year agreement of up to USD 36 million, aims to develop a vaccine against three separate strains of the equine encephalitis virus, Eastern (EEEV), Venezuelan (VEEV), and Western (WEEV), for which there are currently no preventative vaccines available. The vaccine is based on Bavarian Nordics proprietary, poxviral MVA-BN® platform, which due to its large genome is able to encode multiple antigens, thus providing the potential to protect against multiple diseases. Since award of the contract in March 2018, Bavarian Nordic has received incremental funding to support the preclinical development, GMP ...
The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential antibody escape mutations identified. The specific aims of this study were as follows: Aim 1: Generate mutant virus stocks containing the identified ...
The U.S. and Soviet Union both weaponized Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis during the Cold War, prompting VEEV to be added to the Select Agent list.
a. Clinical Syndrome. (1) Characteristics. Eight serologically distinct viruses belonging to the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex have been associated with human disease; the most important of these pathogens are designated subtype 1, variants A, B and C. These agents also cause severe disease in horses, mules, and donkeys (Equidae). Natural infections are acquired by…
Read "Role of angiotensin II in experimental Venezuelan equine encephalitis in rats, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Equine encephalitis is a vector-borne viral disease that can affect equines, other mammals and sometimes humans. There are several forms of the disease caused by different viruses. These include eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis.
In 1993, an outbreak of encephalitis among 125 affected equids in coastal Chiapas, Mexico, resulted in a 50% case-fatality rate. The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death. To better understand the ecology of this VEEV strain in Chiapas, we experimentally infected 5 species of wild rodents and evaluated their competence as reservoir and amplifying hosts. Rodents from 1 species (Baiomys musculus) showed signs of disease and died by day 8 postinoculation. Rodents from the 4 other species (Liomys salvini, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, Oryzomys couesi, and Sigmodon hispidus) became viremic but survived and developed neutralizing antibodies, indicating that multiple species may contribute to VEEV maintenance. By infecting numerous rodent species and producing adequate viremia, VEEV may increase its chances of long-term persistence in nature and could increase risk for establishment in disease-endemic areas ...
##VEEV MARMOSET MODEL## Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a potentially re-emerging pathogen that has been responsible for several epizootics and epidemics. VEEV is also of interest due to its high infectivity when aerosolized, and its
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes acute hemorrhagic fever that is fatal in up to 90% of cases in both humans and nonhuman primates. No vaccines or treatments are available for human use. We evaluated the effects in nonhuman primates of vaccine strategies that had protected mice or guinea pigs from lethal EBOV infection. The following immunogens were used: RNA replicon particles derived from an attenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) expressing EBOV glycoprotein and nucleoprotein; recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing EBOV glycoprotein; liposomes containing lipid A and inactivated EBOV; and a concentrated, inactivated whole-virion preparation. None of these strategies successfully protected nonhuman primates from robust challenge with EBOV. The disease observed in primates differed from that in rodents, suggesting that rodent models of EBOV may not predict the efficacy of candidate vaccines in primates and that protection of primates may require different mechanisms.
REFERENCES 1. Figueiredo LT. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2007; 40:224-229. [ Links ] 2. Figueiredo ML, Figueiredo LT. Emerging alphaviruses in the Americas: Chikungunya and Mayaro. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop2014; 47:677-683. [ Links ] 3. Ortiz DI, Kang W, Weaver SC. Susceptibility of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtypes ID, IIIC, IIID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses. J Med Entomol 2008; 45:1117-1125. [ Links ] 4. Aitken TH, Anderson CR. Virus transmission studies with Trinidadian mosquitoes II. Further observations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1959; 8:41-45. [ Links ] 5. Alencar CHM, Albuquerque LM, Aquino TMF, Soares CB, Ramos Júnior AN, Lima JWO, et al. Potencialidades do Aedes albopictus como vetor de arboviroses no Brasil: um desafio para a atenção primária. Rev APS 2008; 11:459-467. [ Links ] 6. Vasconcelos PFC, Travassos da Rosa APA, Pinheiro FP, Shope RE, Travassos da Rosa JFS, Rodrigues SG, et ...
Type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) have critical roles in inhibiting virus replication and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the molecular basis of restriction by ISGs, the antiviral mechanisms of many remain unclear. The 20 kDa ISG, ISG20, is a nuclear 3-5 exonuclease with preference for ssRNA, which has been implicated in the IFN-mediated restriction of several RNA viruses. While the exonuclease activity of ISG20 has been shown to degrade viral RNA in vitro, these findings have not been reconciled with proposed effects of ISG20 against RNA viruses that replicate in the cell cytoplasm. In the present study, we utilize a combination of an inducible, overexpression system for murine ISG20 and Isg20-/- mice to investigate mechanisms and consequences of ISG20-mediated restriction of alphaviruses. Overexpressed ISG20 primarily localized to Cajal bodies in the nucleus and potently restricted chikungunya virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replication by ...
Ichor Medical Systems Inc (Ichor) is a medical equipment company that commercializes electroporation technology for the delivery of vaccines and DNA drugs. The company electroporation technology is used for the treatment and prevention of debilitating diseases. Its trigrid provides DNA drugs and vaccines for melanoma, malaria, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, influenza, and for other disease. Ichors proprietary platform, TriGrid delivery system uses electrical fields to enhance DNA drug delivery capability by up to thousand fold compared to conventional injection. The company also offers clinical trials for developing products to treat diseases such as HIV, melanoma, malaria, HBV, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, breast cancer, and others. Ichor is headquartered in San Diego, California, the US.. Ichor Medical Systems Inc-Pharmaceuticals & Healthcare-Deals and ...
A postdoctoral position is available immediately to study the interactions between mosquito-borne viruses and their hosts, with particular focus on productive versus abortive interactions of eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses with host cells and tissues and the effect of such interactions on cell responses and disease. The candidate should have a PhD degree and be familiar with basic techniques in molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. Research experience in RNA virology, immunology, viral pathogenesis and/or signal transduction is highly desirable. Individuals with experience working in BSL-3 containment are particularly encouraged to apply. Candidates must be authorized to work in the United States and will be required to obtain Department of Justice security clearance for work with Select Agents and Toxins, as required by Federal regulation. Interested individuals should submit a letter of application, curriculum vitae, and the name, address, e-mail and telephone ...
Schroeder CE, Yao TL, Sotsky J, Smith RA, Roy S, Chu YK, Guo HX, Tower NA, Noah JW, McKellip S, et al. Development of (E)-2-((1,4-Dimethylpiperazin-2-ylidene)amino)-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide , ML336: Novel 2-Amidinophenylbenzamides as Potent Inhibitors of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 ;57:8608-8621. ...
Schroeder CE, Yao TL, Sotsky J, Smith RA, Roy S, Chu YK, Guo HX, Tower NA, Noah JW, McKellip S, et al. Development of (E)-2-((1,4-Dimethylpiperazin-2-ylidene)amino)-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide , ML336: Novel 2-Amidinophenylbenzamides as Potent Inhibitors of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 ;57:8608-8621. ...
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Definition of Venezuelan box in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Venezuelan box? Meaning of Venezuelan box as a finance term. What does Venezuelan box mean in finance?
Venezuelan Canadians are Canadian citizens of Venezuelan descent or a Venezuela-born person who resides in Canada. Venezuelan Canadians are one of more than ten Latino groups in Canada. The first Venezuelan immigrants came to Canada in the 1960s, but more than half arrived after the Venezuelan general strike of 2002-2003. Montreal, Quebec, with about 2,000, has the largest number, but in recent years, more and more families, now about 150, have settled in Calgary, Alberta[2] and Edmonton, Alberta. Smaller communities are found in Toronto, Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario and Vancouver, British Columbia.. ...
Definition of Venezuelan bolívar in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Venezuelan bolívar? Meaning of Venezuelan bolívar as a finance term. What does Venezuelan bolívar mean in finance?
Naiguatá sank following its purposeful ramming of the polar ice class cruise liner RCGS Resolute while in international waters on 30 March 2020.[10][11] According to RCGS Resolutes owner, the Coast Guard ship had fired shots[11] and ordered the cruise ship to follow it to Margarita Island, a Venezuelan harbour.[12] Naiguatá sank following the ramming, with RCGS Resolute informing the international Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC) of the incident and offering assistance. After staying in the area for an hour, RCGS Resolute was informed through MRCC that assistance was not required as Naiguatás crew had been rescued by the Venezuelan Navy.[13]. Venezuelan president Nicolás Maduro accused the captain of the cruise ship of "piracy" and "terrorism",[14] adding later that he did not rule out that RCGS Resolute was "carrying mercenaries to attack onshore military bases".[15][16] The Venezuelan minister of defence said RCGS Resolutes action was an act of "imperial ...
Exclusive Distribution by Biotecnologia3000 Will Generate Innovative Foods & Beverages. CLEVELAND, OH (October 15, 2013) -- Ganeden, a recognized world leader in the manufacturing and marketing of probiotics, announced today that GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) is the first Bacillus coagulans to be approved by the Venezuelan Popular Power Ministry of Health for Food Applications, and will now be available in Venezuela as a result of an exclusive distribution partnership with Biotecnologia 3000 C.A.. The new relationship will provide Ganeden access to leading Venezuelan food and beverage manufacturers, while leveraging the extensive knowledge and experience that Biotecnologia3000 has with the Venezuelan market.. We are focused on expanding globally by establishing a strong foundation with partners who understand the importance of health and wellness, said Michael Bush, Ganedens VP of Business Development. Venezuela is a major player in the South American region of Latin America. ...
Venezuelan manufacturers and suppliers of emergency from around the world. Panjiva uses over 30 international data sources to help you find qualified vendors of Venezuelan emergency.
The Office of the Kentucky State Veterinarian reports that during the second week in June, government officials in Panama reported two confirmed equine cases of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE). The report cited two deceased hors
Read First 2019 Equine Encephalitis case confirmed in S.C. in addition to hundreds of recent farming and agriculture news articles. View up to date crop reports, livestock information and ag industry breaking news from farms.com.
CV: PDF. Dr. Amy Vittor studies factors that drive the emergence of vector-borne diseases. She conducted her doctorate on malaria and deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon, showing that a strong positive association exists between the abundance of malaria vectors and anthropogenic land use change. During her medical training, she treated patients with HIV and tuberculosis in Botswana, Kenya and Panama, and conducted malaria bed net implementation research in a United Nations Millennium Village in Ethiopia with the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Driven by a desire to better understand why arboviruses emerge where and when they do, she turned her attention to arboviral transmission. She studied dengue epidemiology in Kenya with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Nairobi as a Fogarty International Clinical Fellow, and subsequently moved to Panama to examine the epidemiology of Venezuelan equine encephalitis and the emergent Madariaga encephalitis.. At present, her research ...
Grieder will oversee the divisions grantmaking which exceeded $176 million in FY 2004 to support the 8 national primate research centers and their field stations, primate breeding and resource-related projects, development of mammalian and nonmammalian animal model resources, pre- and post-doctoral training and a variety of research projects. Since 1993, Grieder has been on the faculty and has conducted research at the medical school of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Her areas of expertise include viral-induced neuroimmunology and neurodegeneration, emerging viral threats and the molecular genetics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus, which is on the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions list of biowarfare agents ...
The Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana is the first full scientific account of a botanically rich and geologically ancient part of South America. The Venezuelan Guayana lies in the center of the Guayana Shield and is dominated by massive table mountains known as tepuis. From these imposing mountains fall the highest waterfalls in the world, such as Angel Falls on Auyán-tepui. It is a region of great beauty, still largely pristine, which includes other diverse habitats such as the swamps of the Orinoco Delta, the upland Gran Sabana, large extensions of lowland tropical forest, and the peculiar white-sand savannas and shrublands of the upper Río Negro. More information about the geography, history, vegetation, and conservation issues can be found in a summary of Volume 1. Botanical explorations in the Guayana Shield region have resulted in the recognition of hundreds of new species, dozens of new genera, and several new families of plants, many of them only known to occur there. Volumes 2 through 9 ...
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez has beaten his respiratory infection and his recovery continues to be favourable, the Venezuelan government has reported.
Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro offered chocolate and little else at a meeting on Nov. 13 with investors holding some 60 billion dollars in Venezuelan junk bonds. The offer failed to appease lenders.
This Focused Meeting on "Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Avian Viruses" will take place on 27-29th September 2016 at Charles Darwin House, London, UK.. Avian viruses have contributed immensely to our understanding of not only virology but important aspects of biology including cancer, immunology and cell biology.. In recent years, the role of birds as sources of important zoonotic viruses (avian influenza, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, the equine encephalitis viruses) has become apparent. Poultry (reaching a global annual population of around 55 billion chickens) are also increasingly important as a universally acceptable source of protein for a growing world population. With a plethora of viruses, with frequent occurrence of emergence of novel pathogens and continuing diversity, the vaccination strategies widely used by the industry are being challenged.. With significant growth of the poultry population happening in Asia and South America, where emergence and re-emergence of avian ...
This Focused Meeting on "Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Avian Viruses" will take place on 27-29th September 2016 at Charles Darwin House, London, UK.. Avian viruses have contributed immensely to our understanding of not only virology but important aspects of biology including cancer, immunology and cell biology.. In recent years, the role of birds as sources of important zoonotic viruses (avian influenza, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, the equine encephalitis viruses) has become apparent. Poultry (reaching a global annual population of around 55 billion chickens) are also increasingly important as a universally acceptable source of protein for a growing world population. With a plethora of viruses, with frequent occurrence of emergence of novel pathogens and continuing diversity, the vaccination strategies widely used by the industry are being challenged.. With significant growth of the poultry population happening in Asia and South America, where emergence and re-emergence of avian ...
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavezs staunch ally Diosdado Cabello was re-elected as head of the National Assembly Saturday, with the possibility of him becoming the caretaker president if Chavez cannot be sworn in for his new term Thursday, Jan.10.
Yesterdays illegitimate elections confirm that Maduro is a dictator who disregards the will of the Venezuelan people, Mnuchin said.
Looking for better living conditions and fleeing crisis in their country, thousands of Venezuelans are emigrating to Brazil in growing numbers.
Venezuelans took to the streets across their country to protest their government in what was dubbed the mother of all marches, leaving three people dead.
Opposition leaders deridedanother currency devaluation by President Hugo Chavezsgovernment as evidence of economic incompetence, while someanxious Venezuelans packed stores in fear of price increases.
... jazz review by Angelo Leonardi, published on March 31, 2014. Find thousands reviews at All About Jazz!
Venezuelan supermarkets are seeing shortages of certain products, and government and the private sector are arguing over the cause as the absence of president Hugo Chavez sows political instability.
Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaidos faltering efforts to oust President Nicolas Maduro are facing a new challenge in the form of an influence-peddling scandal that has left disillusioned Venezuelans wondering if Guaidos moment has passed. Guaido on Sunday said the opposition-controlled congress would investigate alleged ... ...
I love a good mystery, most scientists do. Whether its JFK being killed by a poison arrow or secret CIA Cold War poisons, Im all in. And for me, the older the better. When Im searching for poisons I like to start with the oldest references, which for me are usually in the mid to late…
Vieja yo?: The Venezuelan soap played with this. Margot, is a HouseWife just turned 50 who has tried to be an actress for years, and thanks to her skills she ends fronting for an old man to discover who are the really truthful people in his company. Everybody keeps calling old hag (even her very unfaithful husband and her three kids), and everybody around treats her like she was truly an hideous old prune. Of course, she is interpreted by [[http://www.notas.com/html/html/Vieja%20yo%203%20MIMI%20LAZO%20Y%20ADRIAN%20DELGADO%204.JPG Mimi Lazo]], who is the Venezuelan poster lady for GrandmaWhatMassiveHotnessYouHave, and all the calling out is put in the mouth of people who are either envious of her luck and/or looks, or far older and uglier -- people who has other reasons to dislike her and just use the old hag card to hurt her. Unluckily, her younger {{Love Interest,s}} fell into the InformedAttractiveness, as he gained weight during the soap and put in clothing too formal for the poor man ...
A quick , refreshing and , at the same time, deep and insightful look to an almost recent and growing phenomenon, that is taking place in what once was a rich and promising country.