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New Delhi: The government is working on a long term plan to deal with the Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) which has left over 100 children dead in Bihar this year, the Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare said on June 28.. Replying to queries in the Lok Sabha during the Question Hour, Ashwini Kumar Choubey said the government was committed to give benefits of the Ayushmaan Bharat scheme to children dealing with AES.. The Centre and the Bihar government have come under considerable attack over the deaths of children.. "The government is working on a long term plan to deal with the Acute Encephalitis Syndrome," he said.. The minister said three high-level medical teams from the Centre were sent to Bihar during the outbreak of the AES.. Union Health and Family Welfare Minister Harsh Vardhan himself examined 100 patients in four hours during his visit to the state, he said.. Also read:Bombay High Court upholds Maratha reservation, but adds 16% not justified. Also watch: UpFront With ...
Union Health Minister J P Nadda assured that the Centre is very serious about preventing the spread of Japanese encephalitis and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES), adding that state governments will be provided with the necessary financial help to contain the disease.
A total of 165 persons have lost their lives in Assam due to JapaneseEncephalitis and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, prompting Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi to call an emergency meeting with health officials on Wednesday.. According to an official release, Gogoi held an emergency meeting to review the health scenario with senior officials in the backdrop of outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES).. "Reviewing the health scenario in the backdrop of growing incidence of JE and AES in the state which has claimed 165 lives so far, Chief Minister Gogoi directed the health authorities to gear up on war-footing to control the diseases from spreading to newer areas," the release said.. While AES accounted for 60 per cent of the cases covering 24 districts this year, JE was responsible for 40 per cent of the cases in mainly lower Assam districts, it said.. Gogoi asked the officials to make a comprehensive action plan to control JE and AES, including setting up of an ICU in ...
According to the Department of Disease Control, the three new cases of Japanese encephalitis are a woman in her 50s in Hukou Township, Hsinchu County, a man in his 50s in the west of Chiayi City and a women in her 30s in Linbian Township, Pingtung County.. 18 infections you can get from mosquitoes. All three are currently hospitalized.. This brings the total Japanese encephalitis cases in Taiwan to 10, including one death. This includes 4 cases in Kaohsiung City (including 1 death), 2 cases in Chiayi City and Pingtung County, 1 in Chiayi County and 1 in Hsinchu County.. Taiwan reports additional local dengue case in Kaohsiung. Domestic Japanese encephalitis vector mosquitoes are mainly three-spotted mosquitoes, ring-shaped mosquitoes and white-headed mosquitoes. Most people have no obvious symptoms after infection with Japanese encephalitis. A few may have headache, fever or aseptic meningitis. Change of consciousness, inability to distinguish between people and time, general weakness, damage to ...
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is an important public health problem in South East Asia and the Pacific. In Myanmar, the national Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) with the support of WHO and UNICEF is introducing JE vaccine routinely from 2018. Prior to this, a nationwide catch-up vaccination campaign is targeting 14 million children (9 months to 15 years) during November and December 2017 with the support of GAVI funds. This approach is expected to provide high immunity against JE before incorporation of JE vaccines into the national routine immunization schedule. Both campaign and routine programmes will use WHO prequalified (SA 14-14-2) JE vaccine. The goal is to rapidly achieve reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with Japanese Encephalitis. The theme of the campaign is "Get all children immunized against Japanese Encephalitis", in all states and regions of the country.. There are two phases of introduction. First, school phase JE vaccination targeting 5-15 years old students ...
With six more deaths reported in Bihars Muzaffarpur district on Saturday, the death toll due to viral infection Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) has reached 83.
Japanese Encephalitis is spread by mosquitoes and is the main cause of viral encephalitis in many Asian countries with 68,000 cases occurring every year.
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html. Updated February 6, 2017. Accessed December 7, 2017. Japanese encephalitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/japaneseencephalitis. Accessed August 5, 2015. Accessed December 7, 2017. Japanese encephalitis VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/je-ixiaro.html. Updated January 24, 2014. Accessed December 7, 2017. Mosquito avoidance. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115142/Mosquito-avoidance . Updated November 21, 2016. Accessed December 7, 2017. Vaccine is key to preventing outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis. UNICEF website. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/immunization/india%5F28555.html. Accessed December 7, 2017. ...
Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis: past, present, and future prospects Huanyu Wang,1,2 Guodong Liang1,21State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control (SKLID), Department of Viral Encephalitis, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing People’s Republic of China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of severe viral encephalitis that affects individuals in Asia, western Pacific countries, and northern Australia. Although 67,900 JE cases have been estimated among 24 JE epidemic countries annually, only 10,426 have been reported in 2011. With the establishment of JE surveillance and vaccine use in some countries, the JE incidence rate has decreased; however, serious outbreaks still occur. Understanding JE epidemics and identifying the circulating JE virus genotypes will
Centre for Health Protection Controller Dr Wong Ka-hing: We received the notification of this fourth local case of Japanese encephalitis today. This is a 59-year-old gentleman who has chronic disease. He had the symptoms of fever, headache and vomiting on July 30 and so he attended the medical consultation at Tin Shui Wai Hospital. He was admitted to Pok Oi Hospital. Quite promptly, the attending doctors suspected that he suffered from encephalitis. The samples were tested positive for Japanese encephalitis immunoglobulin M suggesting this is a case of confirmed Japanese encephalitis. Regarding the source of infection, because this patient did not have any travel history during the incubation period, so this is a local case. Because the patient is still unwell, although his condition is stable, so we get most of the information from his wife. His wife is asymptomatic and does not know whether the patient has been bitten by a mosquito. But according to her, the patients local movement during the ...
Acute Encephalitis Syndrome and Japanese Encephalitis continue to wreak havoc 305 lives in the state this year itself. Talking to Assam Times, health department officials said that the vector-borne Acute Encephalitis Syndrome alone has claimed 212 lives. On the other hand, the death toll in the Japanese Encephalitis outbreak has reached 93 this year. There has been sharp rise
Two additional cases reported from Taoyuan City brings the cumulative total to 21 JE cases, primarily in Southern Taiwan.. According to Taiwan CDCs surveillance data, transmission of Japanese encephalitis in Taiwan usually peaks between June and July. During 2010 and 2015, the majority of the cases are reported in central and southern Taiwan and most of them are male (62.7%). People of all ages can become infected. People aged between 30 and 59 are at increased risk for infection.. The vector mosquitoes are most active during dawn and dusk. Pigs act as the amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis. To prevent infection, avoid visiting vector-breeding sites such as pigpens at dawn and dusk when mosquitoes are most active.. LISTEN: Dr Anna Lena Lopez, a pediatric infectious disease specialist and research associate professor at the University of the Philippines in Manila discusses JE and the need for the vaccine. Parents are reminded to make sure their children receive the vaccine on a timely ...
Abstract. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of devastating viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. Although a successful vaccination program led to its near-elimination over three decades in South Korea, the incidence of JE has increased since 2010. The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and factors affecting neurological outcomes of reemerging JE. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of laboratory-confirmed JE patients who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at three tertiary hospitals between 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 patients with JE were identified. Their median age was 51 years, and 10 (58.5%) were men. The most common symptoms and signs were fever (94.1%), altered consciousness (94.1%), and headache (80.2%). Hyporeflexia (47.1%), seizures (35.2%), abnormal brainstem reflex (23.5%), and flaccid weakness (17.6%) were also noted. Brain imaging revealed thalamic lesions in all patients, with the hippocampus, midbrain, basal
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is estimated to result in 3500-50,000 clinical cases every year, with mortality rates of up to 20-50% and a high percentage of neurological sequelae in survivors. Vaccination is the single most important measure in preventing this disease. Inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccines have not been linked to any fatalities, and few serious adverse events after vaccination have been reported. Here, we report a case of sudden death in which a 10-year-old boy experienced cardiopulmonary arrest 5 min afterreceiving a Japanese encephalitis vaccination. He had been receiving psychotropic drugs for the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders. Postmortem examinations were nonspecific, and no signs of dermatologic or mucosal lesions or an elevation of the serum tryptase level, which are characteristic of anaphylaxis, were observed. A toxicological examination revealed that the blood concentrations of the orally administered psychotropic drugs were within the ...
Background To identify potential environmental drivers of Japanese Encephalitis virus (JE) transmission in Nepal, we conducted an ecological study to determine the spatial association between 2005 Nepal JE incidence, and climate, agricultural, and land-cover variables at district level. Methods District-level data on JE cases were examined using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) analysis to identify spatial clusters from 2004 to 2008 and 2005 data was used to fit a spatial lag regression model with climate, agriculture and land-cover variables. Results Prior to 2006, there was a single large cluster of JE cases located in the Far-West and Mid-West terai regions of Nepal. After 2005, the distribution of JE cases in Nepal shifted with clusters found in the central hill areas. JE incidence during the 2005 epidemic had a stronger association with May mean monthly temperature and April mean monthly total precipitation compared to mean annual temperature and precipitation. A parsimonious
The authorities in Malkangiri district [Odisha state] are finding it difficult to arrest the outbreak of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and the mystery disease, which the administration is suspecting to be acute encephalitis syndrome (AES), even as droves of children are being rushed to the hospitals and wails of anguish from relatives of victims fill the district headquarters hospital every day.. Two separate expert teams have investigated the mysterious deaths, ministers, secretaries of various departments and specialist doctors have made numerous visits to the tribal-dominated district in the past few weeks but all their promises and attempts have failed in controlling the killer disease.. With 4 deaths on Wednesday [16 Nov 2016], the unofficial toll has risen to 114 in 69 days. Officials have put the JE related toll at 31 and the non-JE [AES] deaths at 67. The deceased died while undergoing treatment at the district headquarters hospital, Malkangiri.. Expressing their helplessness, a senior ...
After 170 deaths from Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in just two months in Bihar, Assam is now on alert for a Japanese Encephalitis outbreak.
From January 1986 to 1988, a total 27, 700 children between 3 months to 5 years old (85.7% of the target poopulation) in Dong Anh Distict, Hanoi, Vietnam, were immunized with JE BIKEN vaccine. The number of 24 JE cases reported from 1986 to 1988 after the vaccination was significantly less than the number of 131 cases reported in the years 1984 and 1985 before the vaccination. After the vaccination, annual number of JE cases was reduced more than 8-fold compared with previous years, and 21 of the 24 of JE cases (87.5%) were found among unvaccinated. Surveillances on swine antibodies and mosquito population in 1988-1989 indicated continued transmission of JE virus in the study area. By the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, antibody positive swine were found all year round, and the positve rate fluctuated between 10 to 66% (average 43.5%) with gemoetrical mean titer between 11-47. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most abundant mosquito species and its density increased in hot season ...
|b||i|The deaths of children are a direct result of negligence and inaction on the part of the respective state governments of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Union of India in handling the epidemical situation wh|/i||/b|...
This article provides a historical overview of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in India since the first detection of JE virus activity in 1952 until the 2006 introduction of JE vaccine in high-risk states and expansion of vaccination efforts in 2007 and 2008. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to journal articles.). Author: Dhillon GP, Raina VK. Published: 2008 ...
Free Online Library: Encephalitis surveillance through the Emerging Infections Program, 1997-2010. by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Demographic aspects Diagnosis Prevention Research Health surveys Analysis
Officially, there have been 82 cases of JE and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Kachar, Dibrugarh, Sonitpur, Kamrup and Morigaon.সরকারিভাবে জানা গিয়েছে, জেই এবং তীব্র এনসেফালাইটিস সিন্ড্রোমের (‌এইএস)‌ ৮২টি কেস দেখা গিয়েছে কাছার, ডিব্রুগড়, সোনিতপুর, কামরূপ ও মরিগাঁওতে।
A four-year-old boy was hospitalised last week in Hanoi due to Japanese encephalitis (JE). He was suffering from a high fever and seizures.
JE should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any patient with an acute neurologic infection who recently has been in a JE-endemic country. Health-care providers should assess the itineraries of travelers to JE-endemic countries, provide guidance on personal protective measures to prevent vector-borne diseases, and consider recommending JE vaccine for travelers at increased risk for JE virus infection ...
With five deaths reported due to Japanese Encephalitis and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, the death toll in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh has touched 280.
At least 129 children have now died of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in the town of Muzaffarpur in the eastern Indian state of Bihar since an outbreak earlier this month, a medical official said on Sunday.
Manohar Paswan and Phulesri Devis three-year-old child is fighting for his life after contracting Acute Encephalitis Syndrome. Last week, they had admitted their only son in the Encephalitis Ward of the Sri Krishna Memorial College and Hospital in Muzaffarpur, Bihar. But his condition has not shown any signs of improvement. | Encephalitis continues its rampage in helpless Bihar
Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to known causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases ...
Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to known causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases ...
Health and Family Welfare Secretary PK Meherda on Saturday asked all Collectors and Commissioners of municipal corporations in the 13 districts to assess the actual beneficiary load and prepare an action plan. JE vaccination campaign would be carried out in 13 districts, Cuttack, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Kalahandi, Kendrapada, Khordha, Baleswar, Koraput, Nabarangpur, Puri, Rayagada, Subarnapur and Sundargarh.. Nearly 71.8 lakh children in the age group of one- year to 15 years would be vaccinated with the JE vaccine during the campaign that would continue for nearly three weeks.. ...
The vaccination against JE is not recommended for routine use, but only for individuals living in endemic areas. Though occasional cases have been reported from urban areas in few districts, JE is exclusively a disease of rural areas. Hence, even in endemic areas, the children residing only in rural areas should be targeted for vaccination Government of India has identified around 180 districts to be endemic for JE in India so far JE vaccine is also recommended for travelers to JE endemic areas provided they are expected to stay for a minimum of 4 weeks in rural areas in the JE season.. ...
MUZAFFARPUR: As many as 66 children have died due to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Muzaffarpur district of Bihar, officials said. A total of 55 patients died at Shri Krishna Medical College while 11 of them died in private Kejriwal hospital here. Till now over 130 have been hospitalised in the district. District Magistrate of Muzaffarpur had on Friday told ANI that for students till class eight, schools will remain closed till June 22 and for students in higher standards, classes will be held only till 10.30 am ...
The toll of children suffering from Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Muzaffarpur rose to 83 on Sunday even as Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan visited the State-run Sri Krishna Medical College and Hospital (SKMCH) in the district and announced several measures to tackle the disease.
This fact sheet provides important information on the SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine manufactured by the Chengdu Institute of Biological Products. Topics include vaccine presentation, dosage, safety, and history of use.. Corporate author(s): Chengdu Institute of Biological Products. Publication date: October 2013. ...
folks,. Keep getting loads of conflicting advice about whether or not to take the JE vaccine. Has anyone had this vacination and in particular the course taken over 14 days? If so did you have any side effects?. We are flying to India on feb 9th and need to decide sharpish if we´re going to have the jab or not!!. We will be in SE Asia during the transmission season but hear the risk of being infected is very low!!. Any advice greatly received!. Andy. ...
Altogether 156 children have died due to outbreak of the Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Bihar since May and 82 others were admitted to various hospitals for treatment, an official said on Friday.
23 July Suraj Anjaana 0 677 4.9 Know all about Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) also known as Chamki fever or Chamki bukhar in Bihar, its cause, tips and tricks for precaution and treatment to save lifes.. India is a big country. Its stands in number 2nd in population and number Read More ...
Many well-meaning liberal and secular political analysts are highly perturbed by sectarian policy decisions of RSS/BJP rulers led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, especially after starting his second inning. They are vocal in red-flagging lynching incidents, policies of the Modi government on Kashmir, the National Register of Citizens (NRC), the demand for Bharat Ratna to Savarkar who submitted 6-7 mercy petitions to the British masters (getting remission of 40 years out of 50 years sentence), and the murder of constitutional norms in Goa, Karnataka and now in Maharashtra ...
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease that is caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes. Domestic and feral pigs, some species of birds, and humans are all involved in the transmission cycle of this very serious zoonosis. JE is endemic in some areas of Asia, where the major vector identified is Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Even though this specific mosquito is not present in US, all vectors competent for West Nile virus are potentially competent for JEV too, posing a serious threat for the US. Modeling JE presents major challenges, as all vector-borne zoonoses. Due to the complexities of multiple populations involved, the direct use of a network approach, similar to the one used by our group to model RVF [1], will lead to a large set of equations with many parameters to be estimated. To overcome this problem, the PI proposes to explore novel modeling approaches based on interconnected networks [2]. Interconnected networks are an abstract representation where two or more simple ...
The Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine will now be mandatory for active-duty Airmen who are either permanently stationed or who will be temporarily assigned for more than 30 days to Japan or South Korea.
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AES cases in Bihars litchi-cultivation region were misdiagnosed as Japanese encephalitis (JE) till late 1990s since the symptoms and the seasonal outbreak of the two diseases are similar.
2. dan: Dunaj - Ukrajina. Dobil sem še dva sopotnika, Natašo in Špacota. Z vlakom smo iz Hauptbahnhofa proti Budimpešti krenili dopoldne. To je bil verjetno najhitrejši vlak na poti. Sopotniki v vagonu so bili pijano mrtvi Dunajčani, ki so se namerili žurat na Madžarsko. V Budimpešti smo iz ene postaje na drugo prepešačili dva kilometra. Druga postaja je bila precej podobna volčjedraški, zato do zadnjega nisem bil prepričan, ali se tam mimo proti Ukrajini dejansko pelje vlak. Pa se je le pojavil. Pozno popoldne smo prispeli na mejo. Zanimivo, da nas je naslednji vlak peljal le nadaljnja dva kilometra, z ene strani meje na drugo. Vozil pa je kar uro in pet minut, saj je ravno na tej točki prišlo do časovnega zamika. Tukaj nas je pričakala prva resna mejna kontrola. Ukrajinski carinik se nam je pohvalil, da je v Ljubljani kupil audija. Zaupal nam je, da avto teče kot ura. Na železniški blagajni smo preverili, ali je z našimi vlak kartami vse v redu. Gospodična za okencem je ...
Gosta pasta močno koncentriranega okusa, zaradi česar se ne uporablja kot samostojen izdelek (vedno jo je treba razredčiti). Je proizvod fermentacije soje, riža in/ali rži. Odvisno od sestavin in načina fermentacije je lahko miso pasta temno rdeče oziroma skoraj rjave ali svetle barve. Uporablja se za začinjanje juh, marinad, zelenjavnih in mesnih jedi, za vlaganje zelenjave.. Približno v šestem stoletju pred našim štetjem so na Kitajskem začeli soliti in fermentirati sojino seme. Nastala je gosta okusna pasta, ki je bila podobna današnji miso pasti (jap. miso - pasta iz fermentiranih semen soje in riževega slada [eng. malt]). V trinajstem stoletju se je neki japonski Zen duhovnik, ki je proučeval Kitajsko navdušil nad misom in na Japonskem ga je poskusil razredčiti z vodo. Ugotovil je, da je nastala tekočina zelo okusna začimba. Omaka, ki jo je dobil, je bila prednik sojine omake. Kasneje so japonski proizvajalci omaki dodajali praženo pšenico, da bi izboljšali in ...
Gosta pasta močno koncentriranega okusa, zaradi česar se ne uporablja kot samostojen izdelek (vedno jo je treba razredčiti). Je proizvod fermentacije soje, riža in/ali rži. Odvisno od sestavin in načina fermentacije je lahko miso pasta temno rdeče oziroma skoraj rjave ali svetle barve. Uporablja se za začinjanje juh, marinad, zelenjavnih in mesnih jedi, za vlaganje zelenjave.. Približno v šestem stoletju pred našim štetjem so na Kitajskem začeli soliti in fermentirati sojino seme. Nastala je gosta okusna pasta, ki je bila podobna današnji miso pasti (jap. miso - pasta iz fermentiranih semen soje in riževega slada [eng. malt]). V trinajstem stoletju se je neki japonski Zen duhovnik, ki je proučeval Kitajsko navdušil nad misom in na Japonskem ga je poskusil razredčiti z vodo. Ugotovil je, da je nastala tekočina zelo okusna začimba. Omaka, ki jo je dobil, je bila prednik sojine omake. Kasneje so japonski proizvajalci omaki dodajali praženo pšenico, da bi izboljšali in ...
15. marec 2012 - Otiss dr. Grigori Grabovoi - številke Materija je samo koncentrirana energija. Vsa neživa in živa narava je torej pojavna oblika energije. Vsaka bolezen je vibracijski odklon od normale. Številčne kode, ki jih podaja dr. Grabovoi so v bistvu vibracije, ki odpravljajo vibracijski odklon, ki ga je povzročila bolezen. Številčna koda vibrira…
ATP je sestavljen iz adenozina (adeninski obroč, povezan s sladkorjem ribozo) in treh fosfatnih skupin (trifosfat). Fosfatne skupine označujemo z alfa (α), beta (β) in gama (γ) glede na njihovo oddaljenost od riboze, začenši s fosfatno skupino alfa, ki je najbližje ribozi. ATP je dobro topen v vodi in dokaj stabilen v območju pH od 6,8 do 7,4, medtem ko pri ekstremnih vrednostih pH hitro poteče hidroliza. ATP je tako najbolje shranjevati v obliki brezvodne soli. ATP v nepufrani vodi razpade na ADP in fosfat. To je posledica šibkejših vezi med fosfatnimi skupinami znotraj molekule ATP v primerjavi z vodikovimi vezmi, ki se vzpostavijo med produkti hidrolize ATP (ADP + fosfat) in vodo. ATP in ADP sta v vodi v kemijskem ravnotežju (večina je v obliki ADP). Sistem, ki je oddaljen od ravnotežja, vsebuje Gibbsovo prosto energijo in je sposoben opravljanja delo. Celice vzdržujejo razmerje ATP/ADP približno 10 velikostnih razredov stran od ravnotežja, kar pomeni, da je koncentracija ...
To pomeni, da je topnost plina v kapljevini sorazmerna tlaku plina nad njo. Kasneje se je izkazalo, da Henryjev zakon ni uporaben samo za raztopine plinov, ampak tudi za mnogo drugih razredčenenih raztopin. Primer Henryjevega zakona iz vsakdanjega življenja je gazirana pijača. Dokler je steklenica zaprta, je pod pokrovčkom skoraj čist ogljikov dioksid, katerega tlak je rahlo višji od zračnega tlaka, pijača sama pa je raztopina ogljikovega doksida. Ko se steklenica odpre, se nekaj ogljikovega dioksida sprosti z značilnim pokom, tlak nad kapljevino se zmanjša in ogljikov dioksid se začne iz raztopine sproščati v obliki mehurčkov. Če je kozarec s pijačo dolgo časa odprt, se v pijači vzpostavi novo ravnotežje, tokrat z ogljikovim dioksidom iz zraka. Ker je parcialni tlak ogljikovega dioksida v zraku majhen, večina plina izpari in pijača postane "prazna". ...
Ko je naša sodelavka Eva, mamica dveh otrok, hujšala iz dneva v dan, smo jo vprašali po njeni skrivnosti. Pokazala nam je izdelek, ki ga priporočata Dr. Oz in Oprah in je spremenil življenja na tisoče Slovencev. Preberite zgodbo o ODKRITJU STOLETJA.