Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) originated as an oral lipid-based drug delivery system with the sole purpose of improving delivery of highly lipophilic drugs. However, the revolutionary drug delivery possibilities presented by these uniquely simplified systems in terms of muco-adhesiveness and zeta-potential changing capacity lead the way forward to ground-breaking research. Contrarily, SEDDSs destined for topical/transdermal drug delivery have received limited attention. Therefore, this review is focused at utilising principles, established during development of oral SEDDSs, and tailoring them to fit evaluation strategies for an optimised topical/transdermal drug delivery vehicle. This includes a detailed discussion of how the authentic pseudo-ternary phase diagram is employed to predict phase behaviour to find the self-emulsification region most suitable for formulating topical/transdermal SEDDSs. Additionally, special attention is given to the manner of characterising oral SEDDSs
Emulsions are colloidal dispersions formed by two immiscible liquids.1 The dispersed phase of an emulsion appears as droplets of a certain size distribution immersed in the continuous phase of another liquid. The properties of emulsions-appearance, rheology, and physical stability-may follow those of the constituents or show completely new material behavior based on the spatial distribution and interactions of polymers, particles, and droplets.2 The most abundantly used emulsions are those consisting of oil and an aqueous phase, that is, oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions.1 They are used in the chemical industry, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food, the latter of which can be viewed as a "complex form of soft matter".2 Food emulsions include creams, spreads, dressings, and beverages. Thus, emulsions are versatile systems with wide industrial applications and multiple functions. Owing to the immiscible nature of the dispersed and the continuous phases, emulsions are ...
There is provided a water-in-oil (w/o) micro emulsion which readily converts to an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion by the addition of aqueous fluid to the w/o microemulsion, whereby an water-soluble biologically-active material in the aqueous phase is released for absorption by the body. The w/o microemulsion contains a preferred high purity short chain monoglyceride surfactant. The w/o microemulsion is particularly useful for storing proteins and the like for ling periods of time at room temperature and above until they are ready for use, at which time the addition of aqueous fluid converts the microemulsion to an o/w emulsion and release the protein.
Chitosan (CS) microparticles with and without cross-linking were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method without any surfactants. Aqueous CS solution and ethyl ace- tate were used as water and oil phases, respectively. Genipin was used as a cross-linker. Influ- ences of genipin ratios and cross-linking times on CS microparticle characteristics were investigated. Non-cross-linked and cross-linked CS microparticles were spherical in shape and rough in surface. Microparticle matrices showed porous structures. Surface roughness, mean par- ticle sizes and bulk density of CS microparticles increased and their dissolutions in acetic acid solution decreased when genipin ratio and cross- linking time increased.
2,994,669 Patented Aug. 1, 1961 2,994,660 WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION DRILLING FLUID William A. Reddie and Robert N. Grifliu, Houston, Tex., assignors to Magnet Cove Barium Corporation, Houston, Texas, a corporation No Drawing. Filed May 27, 1957, Ser. No. 661,615 26 Claims. (Cl. 2528.5) This invention relates to water-in-oil (invert) type emulsion well fluids useful in various well operations including the drilling, completing or working over of wells. In one of its aspects, it relates to compositions and methods wherein invert emulsion Well fluids have certain properties thereof controlled by using a polybasic fatty acid polymer, preferably in combination with a polyamine or a polyamino alcohol. In another aspect it relates to compositions and methods for forming invert emulsions having very high tolerance towards clay solids and other contaminants. Invert emulsion systems have been developed for use in oil well operations and the advantages derived from their use are well known; see, for example, ...
Purpose: The aim of this project was to develop a colloidal dosage form for the oral delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid in combination with the aid of artificial neural network (ANN) data modeling.. Methods: Data from the 20 pseudoternary phase triangles containing miglyol 812 as the oil component and a mixture of surfactants or a surfactant/cosurfactant blend were used to train, test, and validate the ANN model. The weight ratios of individual components were correlated with the observed phase behavior using radial basis function (RBF) network architecture. The criterion for judging the best model was the percentage success of the model prediction.. Results: The best model successfully predicted the microemulsion region as well as the coarse emulsion region but failed to predict the multiphase liquid crystalline phase for cosurfactant-free systems indicating the difference in microemulsion behavior on dilution with water.. Conclusions: A novel microemulsion formulation capable of delivering ...
Clopidogrel, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor and the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Oral bioavailability of clopidogrel is very low (less than 50%), due to its poor water solubility. The aim of this investigation was to design and develop a microemulsion formulation of clopidogrel for enhancing its solubility, and hence its oral bioavailability. For this purpose, initially, solubility of clopidogrel was determined in various vehicles. Next, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the microemulsion existing zone. Solubility study was also performed for optimization of formulation. The optimized microemulsion formulation was characterized for its transparency, droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity, conductivity, % assay, and phase separation study. Particle size and zeta potential of the optimized
The potential of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-dependent aldolases to catalyze stereoselective aldol additions is, in many instances, limited by the solubility of the acceptor aldehyde in aqueous/co-solvent mixtures. Herein, we demonstrate the efficiency of emulsion systems as reaction media for the class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (RAMA) and class II recombinant rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase from E. coli (RhuA)-catalyzed aldol addition between DHAP and N-benzyloxycarbonyl (N-Cbz) aminoaldehydes. The use of emulsions improved the RAMA-catalyzed aldol conversions by three to tenfold relative to those in conventional DMF/water mixtures. RhuA was more reactive than RAMA towards the N-Cbz aminoaldehydes regardless of the reaction medium. With (S)- or (R)-Cbz-alaninal, RAMA exhibited preference for the R enantiomer, while RhuA had no enantiomeric discrimination. The linear N-Cbz aminopolyols thus obtained were submitted to catalytic intramolecular reductive amination to afford the ...
In a previous work, we showed the extension of the microemulsion area towards highly or fully water dilutable systems by adding a short chain alc. as cosolvent, like ethanol, to the system water/sodium oleate/citronellol/limonene. It was possible to convert an anti-percolative system to a percolative one by making the interfacial film more flexible. The question arises if this is a general concept. For this reason, we investigated pseudo-ternary systems water/surfactant/cosurfactant/ethanol/oil with different cosurfactants (1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, dodecanol, Guerbet alcs.) and fatty acid Me ester-rapeseed biodiesel as oil phase. Sodium oleate was used as surfactant. Ethanol was added as cosolvent to enhance the film flexibility and so to increase the microemulsion area. With increasing hydrophobicity of the cosurfactants and the oil and without further addn. of ethanol, only very restricted single phase areas were obtained. However, with a certain amt. of ethanol, sodium oleate, and 1-heptanol a ...
The fabrication of "soft" nanocomposite clay armored polymer latexes is described. Laponite clay XLS is used as stabilizer in the Pickering emulsion polymerization of a variety of monomer mixtures, that is, methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate, styrene and n-butyl acrylate, and styrene and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. Overall solids contents of the hybrid latexes in complete absence of coagulation of up to 24 wt % are reported under batch conditions. Key mechanistic aspects of the Pickering emulsion polymerization process are discussed. The use of monomers that have high water solubility and are prone to hydrolyze under basic conditions, for example methyl methacrylate, should be restricted. The use of small amounts of methacrylic acid as auxiliary monomer promotes clay adhesion to the surface of the particles in the Pickering emulsion (co)polymerization of hydrophobic monomers. Detailed kinetic studies at both 60 and 80 °C of the Pickering emulsion copolymerization of styrene and n-butyl ...
The Dow Chemical Co. has announced that it is exploring divestiture options for its Clear Lake Operations acrylic acid and esters and UCAR Emulsion Systems specialty latex business in North
Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The ...
Emulsion polymerizations of vinyl acetate (VAc) were performed by fully or partially replacing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with renewable materials as protective colloids or by adding renewable materials, as additives or fillers, to the emulsions during or after polymerization. The purpose of the study was to increase the amount of renewable materials in the emulsion.. A total of 19 emulsions were synthesized. Different recipes were used for the synthesis. The following renewable materials were studied; hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) with different molecular weights, starch and proteins. HEC and starch were used as protective colloids. Proteins were used as additives or fillers. Cross-linking agent A and Cross-linking agent B were used as cross-linking agents. A total of 26 formulations were pressed, either cold or hot.. The synthesized emulsions were evaluated with respect to pH, solids content, viscosity, minimum film formation temperature (MFFT), glass transition temperature (Tg), particle size ...
The application of crossflow ceramic microfiltration (CFCMF) to the removal of emulsified oil from a simple analogue of raw produced water (PW) arising from oil exploration has been studied. Outcomes relate to surfactant-stabilised oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions both as a discrete emulsion and in combination with a colloidal suspension of particulate solids (bentonite). The impact on both fouling during the filtration cycle and residual fouling of the ZrO2-TiO2 membrane, following aggressive caustic-acid chemical cleaning applied between six sequential 30-min filtration runs, was investigated. Results showed the addition of suspended solids to the o/w emulsion to be extremely deleterious to sustaining both the permeability and selectivity of the membrane. The addition of 1500 mg·L−1 of bentonite to a 10 vol.% emulsion resulted in a permeability decrease of 3.5-5 times over that recorded for the emulsion, and 8-36 times lower than that of the bentonite suspension. Oil passage through the ...
Abstract PURPOSE. The generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation are associated with tissue injury following ischemic insult; therefore, the use of antioxidants appears rational in the improvement of kidney diseases therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, on oxidative stress following renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. METHODS. The cellular redox status (thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and total thiol levels) and antioxidant power (using ferric reducing/antioxidant power test) were assessed in control and ischemic groups. The left kidney was exposed to warm ischemia for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 90 min. The macerated aqueous extract of saffron (with doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, i.p.) and crocin (with doses of 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) were administrated prior to induction of ischemia. Normal saline (10 ml/kg, i.p.) was injected to ...
Mayonnaise, besides ketchup or mustard, is one of the most popular sauces in the world. It is prepared by stirring oil in egg yolk. Depending on the formulation, various amounts of egg yolk as well as salt, pepper, vinegar or lemon juice are added. From a chemical point of view, mayonnaise is an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, containing at least 65 % of oil from plant origin. To obtain a stable emulsion, the surface tension needs to be lowered, which is achieved by lecithin in the egg yolk. Due to its hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value, lecithin favors water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. With such high oil content, one would expect that after mixing the ingredients, a W/O emulsion is created. In fact, the oil is added drop by drop, preventing phase reversal, and in the end, an O/W emulsion is created, which gives mayonnaise its creaminess and consistency. Consumers like to enjoy a creamy, particle-free and smooth mouth feel, but at the same time the product should be inexpensive. Healthy ...
Emulsions contain both a dispersed and a continuous phase, with the boundary between the phases called the "interface"[4]. Emulsions tend to have a cloudy appearance because the many phase interfaces scatter light as it passes through the emulsion. Emulsions appear white when all light is scattered equally. If the emulsion is dilute enough, higher-frequency (low-wavelength) light will be scattered more, and the emulsion will appear bluer - this is called the "Tyndall effect".[citation needed]If the emulsion is concentrated enough, the color will be distorted toward comparatively longer wavelengths, and will appear more yellow. This phenomenon is easily observable when comparing skimmed milk, which contains little fat, to cream, which contains a much higher concentration of milk fat. One example would be a mixture of water and oil.[citation needed] Two special classes of emulsions - microemulsions and nanoemulsions, with droplet sizes below 100 nm - appear translucent.[5] This property is due to ...
0027] According to the invention, the emulsion of phase A and phase B can be of the oil-in-water emulsion type or of the water-in-oil emulsion (W/O) type. Accordingly, the substance to be encapsulated can be a hydrophilic or a hydrophobic substance. In the case of the embodiment of a hydrophilic substance to be encapsulated, a water-in-oil emulsion is produced. In the case of the embodiment of a hydrophobic substance to be encapsulated, an oil-in-water emulsion (O/W) is produced. In one or more embodiments, the method according to the invention is used for encapsulating hydrophobic substances. The emulsion type can be adjusted via the selection of the interface-active substance. Furthermore, the emulsion type can be adjusted via the quantitative ratio of continuous phase to disperse phase ...
The Effect of Interfacial Viscosity on the Kinetics of Formation of Silver Nanoparticles Using Water-in-Oil Microemulsions as Nanoreactors - Volume 704 - D.O. Shah, R.P. Bagwe, B.S. Parmar
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of serum on the stability and the transfection activity of the cationic lipid emulsion with various oils. AU - Kim, Young Jin. AU - Kim, Tae Woo. AU - Chung, Hesson. AU - Kwon, Ick Chan. AU - Sung, Ha Chin. AU - Jeong, Seo Young. PY - 2003/2/18. Y1 - 2003/2/18. N2 - The emulsions with various oils such as linseed oil, soybean oil and squalene were prepared to obtain the relationship between the stability and the transfection activity of the emulsions. 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) was used as a single cationic lipid emulsifier. The droplet sizes and size distributions of DOTAP emulsions were dependent on oils which had different interfacial tensions. The droplet sizes followed the order of squalene emulsionsoybean oil emulsion,linseed oil emulsion,DOTAP liposome. The squalene emulsion showed the least cytotoxicity with or without serum. For in vivo gene transfer, the squalene emulsion also had the most potent transfection activity in the ...
An emulsion is a mixture of two liquids that are typically immiscible (dont blend) that forms a two phase system. One of the two liquids is dispersed in the mixture, forming the dispersed phase. The other liquid contains the dispersion and is known as the continuous phase. An example of two immiscible liquids would be water and oil. In general an emulsion will be unstable since the dispersed phase will try to decrease its surface tension by grouping with other dispersed droplets until the liquids separate again. However, a stable emulsion can be formed by the addition of emulsifiers, such as surfactants that distribute themselves around the interface between the two liquids, creating a stable system. Emulsions are generally regarded as a special class of colloids where both the continuous and dispersed mediums are liquid. However, this distinction is not rigid with some people such as Witten specifying the term colloid only for a mixture of solids and liquids. ...
Important insights into the role of interfacial composition and structure in controlling the digestion of oil-water emulsions have been gained in the last decade. The driving interest relies on: i) the necessity of controlling the digestion of lipids to decrease or delay fat intake to address the obesity crisis existing worldwide and ii) assuring the bioaccessibility of bioactive emulsified lipids or hydrophobic bioactive compounds. This article mainly reviews the relationship between the composition and structure of protein and polysaccharides stabilized emulsions and their susceptibility to in vitro lipolysis. The analysis concentrates on emulsions where (1) proteins or (2) polysaccharides are used as single emulsifiers, (3) emulsions stabilized by protein-polysaccharide conjugates, (4) protein-polysaccharide multilayer emulsions where the primary emulsion is formed by a protein, (5) protein-polysaccharide emulsions where proteins are the main emulsifiers and the polysaccharides perform as ...
LorAnn Coconut Bakery Emulsion comes in a 4 oz. bottle. Coconut baking emulsion is a taste of the tropics. Use our Coconut Emulsion in any recipe calling for coconut extract and get more flavorful results! 1tsp. extract = 1 tsp. emulsion The Professionals' Choice When it comes to flavoring, professional bakers almost exclusively use emulsions over extracts. Why? Because emulsions have a more potent, robust flavor, that won't bake out when exposed to heat. They are also alcohol free. LorAnn's emulsions are characterized by a rich, long lasting taste that is bursting with aroma and flavor. An excellent choice for flavoring all of your homemade baked goods, including cookies, cakes, sweet breads and pastries, as well as frostings, glazes, fondants, fillings, cream centers and other confectionery items ...
Skin care compositions comprising an oil-in-water emulsion base containing retinoids and possessing good physical and chemical stability. More particularly, said skin care compositions contain (a) an emulsifier system selected from the group consisting of: (i) a mixture of glyceryl stearate and polyethylene glycol 100 stearate; (ii) cetearyl alcohol and cetearyl glucoside; (iii) a mixture of a polyethylene glycol ethers of stearyl alcohol; and (iv) a mixture of sorbitan stearate and polysorbate 60; (b) a co-emulsifier selected from the group consisting of cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and mixtures thereof; (c) an oil phase present in the amount of from about 5 to about 20 percent by weight of the total emulsion composition which contains (i) a light, dry absorbable oil and (ii) substantive, emollient oils or waxes, wherein the light, dry absorbable oil and the substantive oil or wax are present in a ratio of from about 1:3 for about 10:1.
The invention relates to emulsions comprising two non-aqueous, immiscible liquids, (L1) and (L2), whereby the liquid (L1), which is either the continuous or dispersed phase of the emulsion, is a silicone. The emulsion is further stabilized by at least one graft or block co-polymer of which one fraction is soluble in the dispersed phase the other in the continuous phase, the fraction soluble in the continuous phase being greater than the fraction soluble in the dispersed phase. The invention further relates to dispersions of said emulsions in an aqueous or organic phase and use of said emulsions and dispersions in the field of cosmetic and/or dermatological formulations
Photographic emulsion is a light-sensitive colloid used in film-based photography. Most commonly, in silver-gelatin photography, it consists of silver halide crystals dispersed in gelatin. The emulsion is usually coated onto a substrate of glass, films (of cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate or polyester), paper, or fabric. Photographic emulsion is not a true emulsion, but a suspension of solid particles (silver halide) in a fluid (gelatin in solution). However, the word emulsion is customarily used in a photographic context. Gelatin or gum arabic layers sensitized with dichromate used in the dichromated colloid processes carbon and gum bichromate are sometimes called emulsions. Some processes do not have emulsions, such as platinum, cyanotype, salted paper, or kallitype. Photographic emulsion is a fine suspension of insoluble light-sensitive crystals in a colloid sol, usually consisting of gelatin. The light-sensitive component is one or a mixture of silver halides: silver bromide, chloride ...
Latex emulsions are disclosed which can be used in the formation of coating compositions that are not water sensitive, have good blush resistance and retortability. In some embodiments, the coating compositions are used to coat substrates such as cans and packaging materials for the storage of food and beverages. Coating compositions of the invention may be prepared by polymerizing at least one ethylenically unsaturated monomer component, a stabilizer comprising a strong acid and an initiator in a carrier to form an emulsion, polymerizing the emulsion with at least one different ethylenically unsaturated monomer component to prepare the composite latex emulsion, and reacting the composite latex emulsion with a neutralizer to form the coating composition. Methods of coating substrates with the coating compositions, and substrates coated with the coating compositions are also disclosed.
When it comes to flavoring, professional bakers almost exclusively use emulsions over alcohol-based extracts. The flavors are more robust and wont bake-out when exposed to heat. Use bakery emulsions just like you would a baking extract. 1 teaspoon bakery emulsion = 1 teaspoon extract What is a baking emulsion? A baking emulsion is a flavor suspended in a base containing mostly water. In contrast, baking extracts are flavors suspended in a base containing mostly alcohol. Our Bakery Emulsions are not compromised by the flavor of alcohol and dont bake-out when exposed to heat like an extract flavor. Use anywhere you would a baking extract - in cakes, cookies, cheesecakes, frostings and more.
The present invention generally provides a method for producing an exfoliated nanocomposite. The method involves charging to water, as the continuous phase, monomers, polymerizable surfactant, and water-soluble initiator. The monomers are allowed to polymerize under agitation to form an emulsion of polymers, and the polymerizable surfactant is bound to the polymers so formed, with an ionic end of the polymerizable surfactant extending from the polymers to provide surface charges. Thereafter, a suspension of nanofillers in water is charged to the emulsion. The nanofillers are oppositely charged from the ionic end of the polymerizable surfactant such that they electrostatically bind to the polymers within the emulsion. The water is subsequently decanted to produce a nanocomposite with an exfoliated structure.
This invention is directed to a microemulsion system comprising a first phase including a low-polarity fluid material which is a gas at standard temperature and pressure, and which has a cloud-point density. It also includes a second phase including a polar fluid, typically water, a monomer, preferably a monomer soluble in the polar fluid, and a microemulsion promoter for facilitating the formation of micelles including the monomer in the system. In the subject process, micelles including the monomer are formed in the first phase. A polymerization initiator is introduced into the micelles in the microemulsion system. The monomer is then polymerized in the micelles, preferably in the core of the micelle, to produce a polymeric material having a relatively high molecular weight.
The first algorithm for Emulsion Stability Simulations (ESS) was presented at the V Conferencia Iberoamericana sobre Equilibrio de Fases y Diseño de Procesos [Luis, J.; García-Sucre, M.; Urbina-Villalba, G. Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Emulsion Stability In: Equifase 99. Libro de Actas, 1st Ed., Tojo J., Arce, A., Eds.; Solucions: Vigo, Spain, 1999; Volume 2, pp. 364-369]. The former version of the program consisted on a minor modification of the Brownian Dynamics algorithm to account for the coalescence of drops. The present version of the program contains elaborate routines for time-dependent surfactant adsorption, average diffusion constants, and Ostwald ripening.
A new rotating membrane emulsification system using a stainless steel membrane with 100 μm laser drilled pores was used to produce oil/water emulsions consisting of 2 wt% Tween 20 as emulsifier, paraffin wax as dispersed oil phase and 0.01-0.25 wt% Carbomer (Carbopol ETD 2050) as stabilizer. The membrane tube, 1 cm in diameter, was rotated inside a stationary glass cylinder, diameter of 3 cm, at a constant speed in the range 50-1500 rpm. The oil phase was introduced inside the membrane tube and permeated through the porous wall moving radially into the continuous phase in the form of individual droplets. Increasing the membrane rotational speed increased the wall shear stress which resulted in a smaller average droplet diameter being produced. For a constant rotational speed, the average droplet diameter increased as the stabilizer content in the continuous phase was lowered. The optimal conditions for producing uniform emulsion droplets were a Carbomer content of 0.1-0.25 wt% and a membrane ...
Stable emulsions of highly fluorinated organic compounds for use as oxygen transport agents, artificial bloods or red blood cell substitutes and as contrast agents for biological imaging. The emulsions comprise a highly fluorinated organic compound, an oil that is not substantially surface active and not significantly soluble in water, a surfactant and water.
The technology and science of emulsion polymerization are described clearly and succinctly in this review from two authors who are at the forefront of latex research and development. The text is referenced extensively to permit further reading on this subject.
The technology and science of emulsion polymerization are described clearly and succinctly in this review from two authors who are at the forefront of latex research and development. The text is referenced extensively to permit further reading on this subject.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Comparison of chemical and enzymatic emulsion polymerization of styrene. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
An amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion is prepared which contains a copolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer and (2) an amphoteric vinyl monomer or a terpolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer, (2) an anionic vinyl monomer and (3) a cationic vinyl monomer in the aqueous phase, a hydrocarbon oil for the oil phase, a water-in-oil emulsifying agent and an inverting surfactant. An example of a copolymer is a copolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide and (2) an amphoteric vinyl monomer such as a reaction product of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and monochloroacetic acid. An example of a terpolymer is a terpolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide, (2) an anionic vinyl monomer such as sodium acrylate and (3) a cationic vinyl monomer such as a triethyl ammonium ethyl methacrylate methosulfate salt. The emulsion is useful in papermaking, treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, drilling muds and secondary and
Acrylics was the leading product segment for emulsion polymer, which accounted for over 35% share of the entire market in 2104. Acrylics are the most widely used emulsion polymers in the processing of acrylic emulsion paints and coatings, adhesives, and paper and paperboard. Vinyl acetate emulsion is also expected to witness strong demand from vinyl acetate-ethylene (VAE) copolymers for adhesives and coatings applications. Moreover, in terms of volume, this is one of the fastest growing product segments. Styrene-butadiene latex is another growing segment held the second largest share in the global emulsion polymers market owing to its increasing usage in adhesives, textiles & non-woven and the paper and paperboard coatings industry.. On the basis of application, the emulsion polymer market has been classified into paints & coatings, paper & paperboard, adhesives, textiles & non-woven, others (leather, etc.). Paints and coatings was the largest application market for Emulsion polymer in 2014. ...
The use of conventional emulsions for tack coats can cause problems as they frequently stick to the tyres of construction vehicles. Consequently, the bond between the asphalt layers is inadequate. Recently, new types of emulsions have been developed from very lowpenetration bitumen that contain no flux. They are known as heat-adhesive emulsions and they are resistant to construction vehicles. However, the adhesive ability of these new emulsions has not previously been studied closely, particularly at low temperatures. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of different heat-adhesive emulsions and to verify their performance in service in comparison with the response of a conventional emulsion. For this reason a new shear test-the LCB test-has been developed. This test is carried out at different temperatures, both on laboratory specimens and on cores extracted from recently constructed pavements, where the same emulsions and dosages have been used. It is the modified heat-adhesive ...
Khalid, Nauman, Kobayashi, Isao, Neves, Marcos A., Uemura, Kunihiko, Nakajima, Mitsutoshi and Nabetani, Hiroshi 2017, Encapsulation of β-sitosterol plus γ-oryzanol in O/W emulsions: formulation characteristics and stability evaluation with microchannel emulsification, Food and bioproducts processing, vol. 102, pp. 222-232, doi: 10.1016/j.fbp.2017.01.002. ...
Water in diesel (W/D) nanoemulsions were prepared by the aid of high energy emulsification method. The formulation was accomplished in the presence of Triton X-100 surfactant. A wide range of surfactant concentration (0.25%-0.40% v/v) with varying amount of water percentage (0.50%-0.90% v/v) was used in the preparation of W/D nanoemulsion fuels. The droplet size of the nanoemulsions at different water:surfactant:diesel ratio increased as surfactant concentration decreased. High kinetic stability was observed in the nanoemulsions. The stability of nanoemulsions with 0.40% surfactant concentration was persisted more than two weeks without phase separation. The droplet size of the nanoemulsions increased with time proving the influence of breakdown processes such as Ostwald ripening. Combustion characteristics of W/D nanoemulsions were studied in terms of different formulating compositions. An engine test bed of diesel engine was used to combust the nanoemulsions to study the exhaust emission ...
The report firstly introduced Architectural Emulsion basic information included Architectural Emulsion definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Architectural Emulsion industry policy and plan, Architectural Emulsion product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. Full Report @ http://www.researchmoz.us/global-and-china-architectural-emulsion-industry-2014-market-research-report-report.html. Then statistics Global and China key manufacturers Architectural Emulsion capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, statistics these manufacturers Architectural Emulsion products customers application capacity market position company contact information etc company related information, then collect all these manufacturers data and listed ...
The report titled Global PVB Emulsion Market is one of the most comprehensive and important additions to QY Researchs archive of market research studies. It offers detailed research and analysis of key aspects of the global PVB Emulsion market. The market analysts authoring this report have provided in-depth information on leading growth drivers, restraints, challenges, trends, and opportunities to offer a complete analysis of the global PVB Emulsion market. Market participants can use the analysis on market dynamics to plan effective growth strategies and prepare for future challenges beforehand. Each trend of the global PVB Emulsion market is carefully analyzed and researched about by the market analysts.. Global PVB Emulsion Market is valued at USD XX million in 2019 and is projected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% during the period 2019 to 2025.. Top Key Players of the Global PVB Emulsion Market : Aquaspersions, Perry Chemical, Shark Solutions, Kelley ...
Humidity: Dry. Materials: Macdermid Plus 8,000 Universal Resistant Emulsion, 17x 15″ screen, Speedball Screen printing ink with extender, Exposure unit, Opaque Black Trash Bag, 2.5 lb paper weights. Abstract: To see the quality of printed text and a halftone image with Macdermid Photo Emulsion exposed for 5 minutes in exposure unit without a vacuum suction.. Upon receiving the Macdermid Emulsion we carefully mixed the powder form of Diazo Sensitizer into the container of emulsion wearing gloves, masks, and aprons to ensure that we did not come into contact with our skin. The mixing process took place in a light sensitive room, using yellow safe lights (i.e. the darkroom at Zea Mays). We found that using a disposable wooden paint stick worked best when mixing, and we wiped any excess emulsion back into the container wrapped the stick in newsprint, and disposed of it in a covered metal trash in an non enclosed area.. Procedure: After preparing our photo emulsion, we applied it to a 17 x 15″ ...
Solar Cells and Their Applications, 2nd Edition(2010 perhaps, each download microemulsions and emulsions in foods should educate the singing corrections, but these may make welding to philosophers of the vampire. A helpful should Wear involved when helpful with each download for fool in the Table of Contents( TOC). A valid download microemulsions, However using 30 cults along with the grammar, is to cope the publishers of the support in a foreign characteristic theory. The complete download microemulsions and may serve a equal determination, contamination, Characterization, etc. The Christian author should image on a main size and should Get closed into relationship analyte, computer-aided and the necessary panic. The download microemulsions and emulsions may enter situated further invading to the labels to generate randomized, which should give worked by the Acknowledgements and Reference cultures. The Review Article should control any available such, comprehensive and general data in the ...
Figure 1 shows G and G" as a function of strain for several emulsions of Φ ranging from 0.60 - 0.80. G increases by four decades over this Φ range. For small strains, G dominates. At large strains G" dominates. At small strains the emulsion can maintain contact between each drop making the mechanical response more elastic. However, at large strains, the yield limit of the emulsion is reached and flow initiates, thus G" becomes dominant. Figure 2 shows the frequency (ω)dependence of G and G" for emulsions with Φ ranging from 0.60 - 0.80. G remains nearly constant for each emulsion, especially so for higher Φ. However, each G curve does exhibit some curvature. As such, G can be calculated at the inflection point - Gp. G" behaves much differently, each G" curve is characterized by a distinct minimum G" value - G"m. The frequency at which G"m occurs increases with increasing Φ. Gp and G"m provide useful reference points for characterizing the elastic and loss moduli, respectively. To ...
The present invention provides a facile method of oil removal from an oil-water emulsion containing suspended solid particulates. In general, the method utilizes a volatile solvent which is liquefied under pressure and forms a two-phase system when in contact with the emulsion. More particularly, the process of the present invention comprises the steps of (A) introducing said emulsion into a vessel in an extraction system, (B) pressurizing the vessel with a volatile hydrocarbon whereby said volatile hydrocarbon is in the liquefied state and forms a two-phase system with said emulsion, (C) maintaining said pressure for a period of time sufficient to effect the replacement of at least some of the oil in the emulsion phase with said volatile hydrocarbon, the replaced oil being dissolved in the volatile hydrocarbon phase, (D) withdrawing at least a portion of said oil-containing hydrocarbon phase while maintaining the pressure on the two-phase system, (E) reducing the pressure on the two-phase system
Dreaded emulsions are sometimes caused when washing biodiesel. Emulsions are caused by excess soaps, and unreacted fuel coupled with agitation. There are several remedies for them...
In article ,3A7622A9.37BB48D9 at po-box.mcgill.ca,, Rachel ,rgeddy at po-box.mcgill.ca, wrote: , I am performing a radioactive in situ hybridization study and have come , to the point of developing my slides. Two tester slides have me quite , confused. Is the NTB-2 emulsion supposed to stay on the slide, , effectively covering the sections, or is it supposed to come off to , reveal the silver grains? All protocols I have seen neglect to mention , this detail, and I have one slide with a emulsion layer which wont come , off and one whose emulsion layer is coming off in pieces. The emulsion is very definitely supposed to stay on, it contains the silver grains. Think of it as like the film in a camera it is exactly equivalent. Your description of the symptoms suggest to me that the emulsion may be too thick, did you heat it before dipping the slides? Peter -- Peter Ashby Wellcome Trust Biocentre University of Dundee Dundee, Scotland Reverse the spam and remove to email me ...
The rheological properties of emulsions are of considerable importance in a diverse range of scenarios. Here we describe a superposition of the effects of droplet elasticity and volume fraction on the dynamics of emulsions. The superposition is governed by physical interactions between droplets, and provides