Many components of the developmentally important Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway are expressed in mouse pre-implantation embryos. However, on p. 5817, Kemler and colleagues report that this pathway does not regulate pre-implantation development. Furthermore, the control of β-catenin levels in pre-implantation embryos and in some cells of post-implantation embryos does not involve the normal β-catenin degradation pathway. The researchers use a Cre-loxP strategy to derive embryos expressing β-catenin that lack the signals needed for its degradation. The pre-implantation development of these embryos is normal and the stabilised β-catenin fails to travel to the nucleus to activate Wnt target genes. The extra-embryonic region of post-implantation embryos also develops normally, but embryonic endoderm cells prematurely express Wnt target genes and undergo a premature epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Future work will determine how pre-implantation and extra-embryonic cells, but not those of the ...
Human embryonic development depends on stem cells. During the course of development, cells divide, migrate, and specialize. Early in development, a group of cells called the inner cell mass (ICM) forms. These cells are able to produce all the tissues of the body. Later in development, during gastrulation, the three germ layers form, and most cells become more restricted in the types of cells that they can produce.
Video articles in JoVE about embryo mammalian include Isolation and Culture of Embryonic Mouse Neural Stem Cells, Isolation of Embryonic Ventricular Endothelial Cells, Genetic Manipulation of the Mouse Developing Hypothalamus through In utero Electroporation, Separation of Mouse Embryonic Facial Ectoderm and Mesenchyme.
TY - JOUR. T1 - L2dtl is essential for cell survival and nuclear division in early mouse embryonic development. AU - Liu, Chao Lien. AU - Yu, I. Shing. AU - Pan, Hung Wei. AU - Lin, Shu Wha. AU - Hsu, Hey Chi. PY - 2007/1/12. Y1 - 2007/1/12. N2 - l(2)dtl (lethal (2) denticleless), is an embryonic lethal homozygous mutation initially identified in Drosophila melanogaster that produces embryos that lack ventral denticle belts. In addition to nucleotide sequence, bioinformatic analysis has revealed a conservation of critical functional motifs among the human L2DTL, mouse L2dtl, and Drosophila l(2)dtl proteins. The function of the L2DTL protein in the development of mammalian embryos was studied using targeted disruption of the L2dtl gene in mice. The knock-out resulted in early embryonic lethality. L2dtl-/- embryos were deformed and terminated development at the 4-8-cell stage. Microinjection of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) vector (siRNA-L2dtl) into the two-cell stage nuclei of wild-type mouse ...
Never before seen phase of early embryo development is revealed thanks to a new polymer womb developed by Nottingham scientists.
Fundamentals of the human embryonic development. Study the embryonic stages, morula, blastula, gastrulation, germ layers, neurula and somites.
The term embryonic development refers to changes that take place as an embryo matures. Those changes differ from plants to animals and from species to species. The discussion that follows focuses on embryonic development in humans. The zygote forms in one of the mothers fallopian tubes, the tubes that connect the ovaries with the uterus. It then travels to the uterus, where it becomes affixed to the uterine lining. Along the way, the zygote divides a number of times. By the time it reaches the uterus, it consists of about 100 cells and is called an embryoblast. The exact day on which the embryoblast implants on the uterine wall varies, but is usually about the sixth day after fertilization. By the end of the first week, a protective sac, the amniotic cavity, begins to form around the embryoblast. Changes now begin to take place at a rapid rate. During week two of embryonic development, embryonic cells have begun the process of differentiation. The identical cells formed by the early divisions ...
Explore how a fertilized cell develops into an embryo, a fetus, and eventually an adult organism. Compare embryo development in different vertebrate species and try to guess which embryo belongs to each species. Use dyes to trace the differentiation of cells during early embryo development, from the zygote to the neurula.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Simpson.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Physics of Living Matter PLM6 series.. ...
After an egg is fertilized, the process of embryo development to the moment of embryo transfer, embryo biopsy, or delivery is a mystery to most patients. The biology of embryo development is complicated, but Dr. Eric Flisser breaks it down into terms we can all understand.
By the end of this section, you will be able to: |ul| |li|Distinguish the stages of embryonic development that occur before implantation|/li| |li|Describe the process of implantation|/li| |li|List and describe four embryonic membranes|/li| |li|Explain gastrulation|/li| |li|Describe how the placenta is formed and identify its functions|/li| |li|Explain how an embryo transforms from a flat disc of cells into a three-dimensional shape resembling a human|/li| |li|Summarize the process of organogenesis|/li| |/ul| (giáo trình - tài liệu - học liệu từ VOER)
Primo Vision allows you to follow the whole sequence of embryo development in an undisturbed and ideal environment. With increased information on embryo development based on detailed analysis you can confidently select the best embryos for transfer
Question: In the spiritual world, embryonic development can be at seven, nine, and 12 months. Why not just nine but seven and 12 as well? Answer: They are
April 2, 2017 In Research News. Because current methods for assessing the viability of IVF-created embryos are not sufficiently reliable, more research on embryo development is needed, two experts write ...
Genome-wide occupancy links Hoxa2 to Wnt-β-catenin signaling in mouse embryonic development. Donaldson IJ, Amin S, Hensman JJ, Kutejova E, et al.
J:127541 Andersson O, Bertolino P, Ibanez CF, Distinct and cooperative roles of mammalian Vg1 homologs GDF1 and GDF3 during early embryonic development. Dev Biol. 2007 Nov 15;311(2):500-11 ...
An embryo is an amazing thing. From just one initial cell, an entire living, breathing body emerges, full of working cells and organs. It comes as no surprise that embryonic development is a very carefully orchestrated process-everything has to fall into the right place at the right time. Developmental and cell biologists study this very thing, unraveling the molecular cues that determine how we become human.
STUDY QUESTION: Is the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) active during human preimplantation development?. SUMMARY ANSWER: Mitotic spindle disruption during mitosis activates the SAC from at least Day 3 of human preimplantation development, but this does not lead to apoptosis until Day 5.. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Human preimplantation embryos frequently acquire chromosomal abnormalities, but the mechanisms behind this are poorly understood. It has been speculated that a dysfunctional SAC could be responsible. Although research has shown that the SAC components are present during early human development, functional studies are lacking.. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In vitro study using human preimplantation embryos in a university research laboratory. We studied a total of 38 Day-3, 38 Day-4, 29 Day-5 and 21 Day-6 human preimplantation embryos, donated for research, during 16 h of incubation.. PARTICIPANT/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We cultured human preimplantation embryos overnight in a ...
Plastic responses of embryos to developmental environments can shape phenotypes in ways that impact fitness. The mechanisms by which developmental conditions affect offspring phenotypes vary substantially among taxa and are poorly understood in most systems. In this study, we evaluate the effects of thermal and hydric conditions on patterns of egg water uptake, embryonic development and yolk metabolism in embryos of the lizard Anolis sagrei to gain insights into how these factors shape morphological variation in hatchlings. Our 3 × 2 experimental design (3 thermal and 2 hydric conditions) revealed that developmental temperature has strong effects on rates of development and yolk metabolism, but the impacts of moisture were minimal. Increased water uptake by eggs under relatively wet conditions resulted in larger hatchlings with less internalized residual yolk than hatchlings from dry-incubated eggs. However, the relatively small phenotypic differences among treatments may have small fitness ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development. AU - Yamada, Mitsutoshi. AU - Takanashi, Kazumi. AU - Hamatani, Toshio. AU - Hirayama, Akiyoshi. AU - Akutsu, Hidenori. AU - Fukunaga, Tomoko. AU - Ogawa, Seiji. AU - Sugawara, Kana. AU - Shinoda, Kosaku. AU - Soga, Tomoyoshi. AU - Umezawa, Akihiro. AU - Kuji, Naoaki. AU - Yoshimura, Yasunori. AU - Tomita, Masaru. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Kenji Miyado, Keiichi Yoshida, Takumi Miura and other members of National Research Institute for Child Health and Development and Keio university school of medicine for stimulating discussion. This work was supported, in part, by Grants-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Kiban-B-22390312 to TH and Kiban-C-23592415 to TF), by a National Grant-in-Aid from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (NCCHD24-6 to TH and HA), by a Grant-in-Aid from the Japan Health Sciences Foundation (KHD1021 to TH ...
Measuring gene expression in individual cells is crucial for understanding the gene regulatory network controlling human embryonic development. Here we apply single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis to 124 individual cells from human preimplantation embryos and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neogenin as a receptor for early cell fate determination in preimplantation mouse embryos. AU - Lee, Jae Ho. AU - Choi, Sung Sook. AU - Kim, Hae Won. AU - Xiong, Wencheng. AU - Min, Churl K.. AU - Lee, Sang Jin. PY - 2014/7/11. Y1 - 2014/7/11. N2 - The first cell lineage determination in embryos takes place when two cell populations are set apart, each differentiating into the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), respectively. It is widely believed that position/polarity cues play a key role in triggering this differentiation, but it remains unclear how extracellular cues are transduced into cell fate determination. Here, we provide evidence that supports that neogenin is implicated in relaying extracellular cues into the first cell fate determination in preimplantation mouse embryos. A polarized and transient distribution of neogenin was manifested in early blastomeres. Neogenin up-regulation by its overexpression accelerated ICM development in the blastocyst ...
The cell lineage of the mouse was studied from the 2-cell stage to the blastocyst. Lineage to the 8-cell stage was followed under the microscope. Each cell from the 2-cell stage divided to form two daughter cells which remained attached. Subsequently, these two daughters each produced two descendants; one of these descendants regularly lay deep in the structure of the embryo while the other was peripheral. Lineage to the blastocyst was followed by injecting oil drops into cells at the 8-cell stage, and then following the segregation of these drops into the inner cell mass and trophectoderm. Between the 8-cell stage and the blastocyst, the deep cells contributed more frequently to the inner cell mass than did the peripheral cells.. ...
The degradation of maternal proteins is one of the most important events during early development, and it is presumed to be essential for embryonic genome activation (EGA), but the precise mechanism is still not known. It is thought that a large proportion of the degradation of maternal proteins is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteolytic system. In this study we focused on the expression of the Skp1-Cullin1-F-box (SCF) complex, a modular RING-type E3 ubiquitin-ligase, during bovine preimplantation development. The complex consists of three invariable components--Cul1, Skp1, Rbx1 and F-box protein, which determines the substrate specificity. The protein level and mRNA expression of all three invariable members were determined. Cul1 and Skp1 mRNA synthesis was activated at early embryonic stages, at the 4c and early 8c stage, respectively, which suggests that these transcripts are necessary for preparing the embryo for EGA. CUL1 protein level increased from MII to the morula stage, with a ...
STUDY QUESTION: To what extent do patient- and treatment-related factors explain the variation in morphokinetic parameters proposed as embryo viability markers?. SUMMARY ANSWER: Up to 31% of the observed variation in timing of embryo development can be explained by embryo origin, but no single factor elicits a systematic influence.. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several studies report that culture conditions, patient characteristics and treatment influence timing of embryo development, which have promoted the perception that each clinic must develop individual models. Most of the studies have, however, treated embryos from one patient as independent observations, and only very few studies that evaluate the influence from patient- and treatment-related factors on timing of development or time-lapse parameters as predictors of viability have controlled for confounding, which implies a high risk of overestimating the statistical significance of potential correlations.. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: ...
Hewitson, L.C., Leese, H.J. (1993) Energy metabolism of the trophectoderm and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. J Exp Zool. 267:337-343. Hewitson, L.C., Martin, K.L., Leese, H.J. (1996) Effects of metabolic inhibitors on mouse preimplantation embryo development and the energy metabolism of isolated inner cell masses. Mol Reprod Dev. 43:323-330. Hewitson, L., Simerly, C., Tengowski, M.W, Sutovsky, P., Navara, C,S., Haavisto, A.J. and Schatten, G. (1996) Microtubule and chromatin configurations during rhesus intracytoplasmic sperm injection: Successes and Failures. Biol. Reprod. 55:271-280. Hewitson, L., Haavisto A, Simerly C, Jones J and Schatten G (1997) Microtubule organization and chromatin configurations in hamster oocytes during fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and after insemination with human sperm. Biol.Reprod. 57: 967-975. Hewitson L, Takahashi D, Dominko T, Simerly C, and Schatten G. (1998) Fertilization and embryo development to blastocysts after intracytoplasmic sperm ...
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Fibronectin 1 (FN1), a glycoprotein component of the extracellular matrix, exerts different functions during reproductive processes such as fertilisation, gastrulation and implantation. FN1 expression has been described to increase significantly from the morula towards the early blastocyst stage, suggesting that FN1 may also be involved in early blastocyst formation. By alternative splicing at 3 defined regions, different FN1 isoforms are generated, each with a unique biological function. The analysis of the alternative FN1 splicing on the one hand and the search for candidate FN1 receptors on the other hand during early bovine embryo development may reveal more about its function during bovine preimplantation embryo development. RT-qPCR quantification of the FN1 splice isoforms in oocytes, embryos, cumulus cells and adult tissue samples revealed a large variation in overall FN1 expression and in splice variant expression. Moreover, two new FN1 transcript variants were identified, the first one
In the Holy Quran, God speaks about the stages of mans embryonic development:. We created man from an extract of clay. Then We made him as a drop in a place of settlement, firmly fixed. Then We made the drop into an alaqah (leech, suspended thing, and blood clot), then We made the alaqah into a mudghah (chewed substance)… (Quran 23:12-14). Literally, the Arabic word alaqah has three meanings: (1) leech, (2) suspended thing, and (3) blood clot.. In comparing a leech to an embryo in the alaqah stage, we find similarity between the two[1] as we can see in figure 1. Also, the embryo at this stage obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother, similar to the leech, which feeds on the blood of others.[2]. Figure 1: Drawings illustrating the similarities in appearance between a leech and a human embryo at the alaqah stage. (Leech drawing from Human Development as Described in the Quran and Sunnah, Moore and others, p. 37, modified from Integrated Principles of Zoology, Hickman and others. ...
Nilsson, B. O., Jin, M., Larsson, A. and Sundström, P. (1996), Human Autoantibodies Recognizing Human and Mouse Preimplantation Stages. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 36: 135-140. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.1996.tb00154.x ...
The preimplantation period of development represents the highest interval of embryonic loss throughout pregnancy. It is therefore imperative that we elucidate the mechanisms involved in regulating preimplantation embryonic responses to stress and that govern development. The MAPK pathways are involved in both responding to environmental stress and regulation of development throughout embryogenesis, and are therefore good candidates to study the mechanisms involved in preimplantation embryonic adaptation to stress and development. The preimplantation embryo culminates in the development of a fluid filled structure called the blastocyst. It is at this stage the first differentiation events occur and the trophectoderm (TE), which will go on to form the embryonic portion of the placenta, develops. The p38 MAPK is required for embryo development to proceed beyond the 8-16 cell stage as well to play an adaptive role in regulating embryonic response to culture stress. My hypothesis is that the MAPK
I am fascinated by the striking diversity in size, shape, and color of modern vertebrates. My labs research strives to create a deeper understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the diversity of anatomical form. Our work in inherently integrative, pulling tools from fields as diverse as ecology, phylogenetics, developmental biology, and genetics. The consistent, uniting theme across all of our studies is a passion for understanding organismal diversity. We currently have three active research foci.. 1.The effects of thermal stress on reptilian embryos There is no debate. Climate change is warming our world. In recent years ecologists and conservation biologists have raised concerns about stresses these increasing temperatures will place on of terrestrial ectotherms, animals whose thermal niche is closely tied to their environment. Many of these studies are focused on adult ecology and rarely have the direct effects on embryonic development been explored. Using Anolis lizards a ...
This chapter considers the susceptibility of the early stages of mammalian development before embryo implantation, and even before fertilization has occurred. Maternal obesity and high body mass index (BMI) are associated with reduced fertility and an increased risk of miscarriage in both natural and assisted pregnancies. The pre-implantation embryo has received significant attention in recent years with respect to environmental effects on short- and long-term gestational development, and health into adulthood. Pre-implantation embryos during either early cleavage or until blastocyst formation are cultured in vitro for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. DNA methylation patterns are extensively remodeled during pre-implantation development, thereby providing a potential window for epigenetic sensitivity to environmental conditions. Maternal nutritional restriction during the periconceptional period leads to adverse developmental programming ...
Global activation of the embryonic genome is the most critical event in early mammalian development. After fertilization, a rich supply of maternal proteins and RNAs support development whereas a number of zygotic and embryonic genes are expressed in a stage-specific manner leading to embryonic genome activation (EGA). However, the identities of embryonic genes expressed and
Chromatin remodeling activities are abundant in preimplantation embryos and in ES cells, and many of these activities are geared toward initiating pluripotent transcriptional competence and ensuring that differentiation programs are locked in epigenetically (Corry et al., 2009; Albert and Peters, 2009). Although Chd1l is part of the Snf2 family of DNA-dependent ATPases (Flaus et al., 2006), many of which are potent transcriptional regulators, Chd1l itself does not seem to regulate gene expression, at least in ES cells. It remains a formal possibility that Chd1l regulates gene expression in the preimplantation embryo, where a prominent developmental arrest phenotype was observed, but subsequently ceases to have gene regulation activity in ES cells. Despite being abundantly expressed, Chd1l is not required for normal proliferation, pluripotency, or differentiation of ES cells. Chd1l might have no function at all in ES cells, its function may be masked by the function of a redundant ES cell ...
The accumulation of substrate carbon by mouse embryos was measured following incubation in U-14C-glucose. Following a 30-min incubation period 273 × 10-14 and 301×10-14g atoms of substrate carbon per embryo were found in 2- and 8-cell embryos respectively. By comparison, the figures for unfertilized and fertilized ova were 14 × 10 -14 and 45 × 10-14 g atoms of substrate carbon.. The intracellular concentration of substrate carbon was timedependent in both 2- and 8-cell embryos. After an 80-min incubation, substrate carbon in the 8-cell embryo was almost double that in the 2-cell embryo. Accumulation did not occur during incubations at 5° C and there was competition between glucose and galactose for uptake. The results are discussed in relation to the energy requirements of the developing zygote. ...
Background (NACHT, leucine high do it again and PYD containing 5), can be an oocyte-specific maternal impact gene necessary for early embryonic advancement beyond the two-cell stage in mouse. microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. By real-time PCR, MATER messenger RNA was noticed to diminish during maturation highly, and through the embryo cleavage levels progressively; it had been hardly recognized in morulae and blastocysts. The protein persisted after fertilization up until the blastocyst stage, and was mostly degraded after hatching. A similar mainly cytoplasmic localization was observed in blastomeres from embryos up to 8-cells, with an apparent concentration near the Gleevec nuclear membrane. Summary Altogether, these manifestation patterns are consistent with bovine MATER protein being an oocyte specific maternal effect factor as with mouse. Background Preimplantation embryo development is largely dependent on maternal transcripts and proteins synthesized during oogenesis. ...
RNA binding proteins play a pivotal role during the oocyte-to-embryo transition and maternal phase of embryogenesis in invertebrates, but their function in these processes in mammalian systems remain largely understudied. Here we report that a member of the Pumilio/FBF family of RNA binding proteins in mice, Pumilio 1 (Pum1), is a maternal effect gene. The absence of maternal PUM1 in the oocyte does not affect meiotic maturation but leads to abnormal preimplantation development. Furthermore, genome-wide transcriptome analysis of oocytes and embryos revealed that there is a concomitant perturbation of the mRNA milieu. Of note, putative PUM1 mRNA targets were equally perturbed as non-direct targets, which indicates that PUM1 regulates the stability of maternal mRNAs both directly and indirectly. We show Cdk1 mRNA, a known PUM1 target essential for meiosis and preimplantation development, is not degraded appropriately during meiosis, leading to an increase in CDK1 protein in mature oocytes, which indicates
For the first time, scientists have edited the DNA in human embryos to make a fundamental discovery about the earliest days of human development. By
The egg-to-embryo transition entails transforming a highly differentiated oocyte into totipotent blastomeres, and represents one of the earliest obstacles that...
Viruses are tricky, but we humans may be trickier still. Stanford stem cell biologists Vittorio Sebastiano, PhD, and Jens Durruthy-Durruthy, PhD, published a study today in Nature Genetics indicating that the genetic remnants of ancient viral infections that still linger in our genome are essential to early human embryonic development. As Sebastiano explained in our release: Were starting to accumulate …Read More. ...
Gastrulation is the process that converts a relatively undifferentiated group of cells into an embryo with easily recognisable structures. All adult form and function is dependent upon gastrulation and this is why it is truly the most important time in your life. We study the genetic mechanisms that control mammalian gastrulation and the consequences of incorrect gastrulation.
Embryonic Development Model - $615 No Tax - Buy Embryonic Development Models, Shows 12 Stages of Embryo Development. Easy online ordering from Cascade HealthCare Products Inc.
In recent years, the transcription and expression patterns of cytokines and their receptors in mammalian embryos and the dams during embryonic development, have been extensively studied. Significant p
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Control of the embryonic development can be done anytime during the pregnancy. When the embryonic development is controlled, the due date is set during a routine examination. Using the results as a base line, one can see if the fetal weight is above or below average. In order to make an evaluation on the growth of the fetus, multiple measurements must be made over time. ...
Researchers have found a way to coax human embryonic stem cells to turn into the types of cells that make eggs and sperm, shedding light on a stage of early human development.
Krones, Tanja; Schluter, Elmar; Manolopoulos, Konstantin; Bock, Karin; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf; Koch, Manuela C.; Lindner, Martin; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Mayatepek, Ertan; Huels, Gerd; Neuwohner, Elke; El Ansari, Susan; Wissner, Thomas; Richter, Gerd (2005-01) ...
Dueker, G.L., Chen, J., Cowling, C. & Haskin, B. (2016). Early developmental outcomes predicted by gestational age from 35-41 weeks. Early Human Development, 103, 85-90.. ...
A blastocyst is a cellular mass that forms early in the embryo development process in mammals. Humans develop a blastocyst about...
Chan MM, Smith ZD, Grosswendt S, Kretzmer H, Norman TM, Adamson B, et al. Molecular recording of mammalian embryogenesis. Nature. 2019 ;570(7759):77-82. ...
Mammalian embryogenesis is a complex, highly regulated process that requires both temporal and spatial control of multiple cellular signals to ensure proper cellular growth, tissue differentiation, and organ development. Many of these processes are controlled through several evolutionarily ...
The eMouseAtlas team have generated a series of 3D images to capture mouse embryo development and to use as a spatial framework for gene-expression and other spatially organised data. The resource is published and available on the Web at http://www.emouseatlas.org/emap/ema ...
The same is true of the so-called gill slits. In the human embryo at one month, there are wrinkles in the skin where the throat pouches grow out. Once in a while, one of these pouches will break through, and a child will be born with a small hole in the neck. That s when we find out for sure that these structures are not gill slits. If the opening were really part of a gill, if it really were a throwback to the fish stage, then there would be blood vessels all around it, as if it were going to absorb oxygen from water as a gill does. But there is no such structure in humans of any age. We simply do not have the DNA instructions for forming gills. ...
Two hundred patients who attended the Fertility Clinic of a University Hospital and who underwent three or more IVF or ICSI attempts were recruited and randomized into two groups. Embryos of patients enrolled into one arm of the study were subjected to genetic analysis of the embryos at day three of embryonic development. In the control group, no preimplantation genetic analysis was performed. Two embryos were transferred in both groups on day five ...
The jumonji (JMJ) gene, obtained by a gene trap strategy, is essential for embryogenesis and is suggested to play important roles in cell growth during development.
Tufts University researchers had recently discovered the brain to take an active part in bodily development well before movement or other
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