The Pseudomonas exotoxin (or exotoxin A) is an exotoxin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It inhibits elongation factor-2. It does so by ADP-ribosylation of EF2. This then causes the elongation of polypeptides to cease. (The mechanism of the toxin is similar to that of Diphtheria toxin.) It has been investigated as a treatment for hepatitis B and cancer. Yates SP, Taylor PL, Jørgensen R, et al. (February 2005). "Structure-function analysis of water-soluble inhibitors of the catalytic domain of exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Biochem. J. 385 (Pt 3): 667-75. doi:10.1042/BJ20041480. PMC 1134741 . PMID 15458385. Yates SP, Merrill AR (May 2004). "Elucidation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 contact sites within the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A". Biochem. J. 379 (Pt 3): 563-72. doi:10.1042/BJ20031731. PMC 1224111 . PMID 14733615. Hafkemeyer P, Brinkmann U, Brinkmann E, Pastan I, Blum HE, Baumert TF (May 2008). "Pseudomonas exotoxin antisense RNA selectively kills ...
Yao, Q., B. Q. Liu, H. Li, D. McGarrigle, B. W. Xing, M. T. Zhou, Z. Wang, J. J. Zhang, X. Y. Huang and L. Guo (2014). "C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-mediated phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) promotes proteolytic cleavage and nuclear translocation of eEF2." J Biol Chem 289(18): 12666-78 ...
Wang, Z., Han, Q. Q., Zhou, M. T., Chen, X., and Guo, L. (2016) Protein turnover analysis in Salmonella Typhimurium during infection by dynamic SILAC, Topograph, and quantitative proteomics. J. Basic Microbiol. 56, 801-811. Yao, Q., Liu, B. Q., Li, H., McGarrigle, D., Xing, B. W., Zhou, M. T., Wang, Z., Zhang, J. J., Huang, X. Y., and Guo, L. (2014) C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-mediated phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) promotes proteolytic cleavage and nuclear translocation of eEF2. J. Biol. Chem. 289, 12666-12678. ...
EEF1G is a subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This…
EEF1G is a subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This…
aminoacyl tRNA synthetase p18 component: shares a protein motif with the beta and gamma subunits of eukaryotic elongation factor 1; amino acid sequence given in first source
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Satoshi Kameshima, Kyosuke Kazama, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki].
The browser then sends a request to the serveriron nat server, which then sends an answer; this could be, for example, an HTML page. The patients neutrophils extended a few fork-like pseudopodia and actin isolated from his neutrophils polymerized netserver agents in vitro. Stimulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase leads to activation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase and to its phosphorylation at a novel site, serine 398. The server I have is KVM though and another one XenHVM. AIP1Alix may be subject to similar regulation in cells. In addition, the search engine will boost up your site ranking in Canada when you host with a Canada hosting service. Our servers have been the stepping stone in the success of many of our small businesses and netserver agents global enterprise clients. We are going to generate a few strong passwords netserver agents When you netserver agents running multiple WordPress sites, it becomes very difficult remembering netserver agents the various sites ...
Elongation factor 1-alpha 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EEF1A2 gene. This gene encodes an isoform of the alpha subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This isoform (alpha 2) is expressed in brain, heart and skeletal muscle, and the other isoform (alpha 1) is expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. This gene may be critical in the development of ovarian cancer. EEF1A2 is a direct target of miRNA-663 and miRNA-744. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101210 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000016349 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Knudsen SM, Frydenberg J, Clark BF, Leffers H (Sep 1993). "Tissue-dependent variation in the expression of elongation factor-1 alpha isoforms: isolation and characterisation of a cDNA encoding a novel variant of human elongation-factor 1 alpha". Eur J Biochem. 215 (3): 549-54. ...
Studies on the high molecular weight form of polypeptide chain elongation factor-1 from pig liver. III. Temperature-dependent dissociation into subunits in the presence of GTP.:III. Temperature-Dependent Dissociation into Subunits in the Presence of GTP (1983 ...
Protein-tyrosine kinase C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) was originally purified as a kinase for phosphorylating Src and other Src family kinases. The phosphorylation of a C-terminal tyrosine residue of Src family kinases suppresses their kinase activity. Therefore, most physiological studies regarding Csk function have been focused on Csk as a negative regulator of Src family tyrosine kinases and as a potential tumor suppressor. Paradoxically, the protein levels of Csk were elevated in some human carcinomas. In this report, we show that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is a new protein substrate of Csk and could locate in the nucleus ...
The kinase eEF2K [eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase] controls the rate of peptide chain elongation by phosphorylating eEF2, the protein that mediates the movement of the ribosome along the mRNA by promoting translocation of the transfer RNA from the A to the P site in the ribosome. eEF2K-mediated phosphorylation of eEF2 on threonine 56 (Thr56) decreases its affinity for the ribosome, thereby inhibiting elongation. Here, we show that in response to genotoxic stress, eEF2K was activated by AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase)-mediated phosphorylation on serine 398. Activated eEF2K phosphorylated eEF2 and induced a temporary ribosomal slowdown at the stage of elongation. Subsequently, during DNA damage checkpoint silencing, a process required to allow cell cycle reentry, eEF2K was degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system through the ubiquitin ligase SCFβTrCP (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein, β-transducin repeat-containing protein) to enable rapid resumption of translation ...
Image above: Commercial spraying of RoundUp on food crops genetically designed to withstand the herbicide is prevalent. From (http://indianapublicmedia.org/eartheats/effects-gm-pesticide-products). The chemical at the heart of the planets most widely used herbicide -- Roundup weedkiller, used in farms and gardens across the U.S. -- is coming under more intense scrutiny following the release of a new report calling for a heightened regulatory response around its use. Critics have argued for decades that glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup and other herbicides used around the globe, poses a serious threat to public health. Industry regulators, however, appear to have consistently overlooked their concerns.. A comprehensive review of existing data released this month by Earth Open Source, an organization that uses open-source collaboration to advance sustainable food production, suggests that industry regulators in Europe have known for years that glyphosate, originally introduced by ...
Background Regional protein synthesis (LPS) via receptor-mediated signaling is important in the directional responses of axons to extrinsic cues. An unchanged F-actin, however, not microtubule, cytoskeleton was also necessary for netrin-1-induced activation from the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, upstream of translation initiation. Downstream of translation initiation, microtubules had been necessary for netrin-1-induced activation of eukaryotic elongation aspect 2 kinase (eEF2K) and eEF2. Conclusions Used together, our outcomes present that while actin and microtubules are both essential for cue-induced axonal proteins synthesis, they serve distinctive assignments with F-actin getting necessary for the initiation of translation and microtubules performing later on the elongation stage. Electronic supplementary materials The online edition of this content (doi:10.1186/s13064-015-0031-0) contains supplementary materials, which is open to certified users. Background The power of neuronal development cones ...
Ribosomal elongation factor 4 (EF4) is highly conserved among bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. However, the EF4-encoding gene, lepA, is nonessential an
Through our implementing partner, the Global AIDS Interfaith Alliance ("GAIA"), our mobile health care clinics have provided life-sustaining health care to the 1 million residents in these districts for almost a decade," stated ETAF Managing Director, Joel Goldman. "LRAD Corporations generous donation equips our mobile clinics with versatile public address systems to better reach the communities we serve in Malawi." For more information about the LRAD 100X and its use by GAIA/ETAF, please click Humanitarian Communication. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disruption of the EF-2 kinase/Hsp90 protein complex. T2 - A possible mechanism to inhibit glioblastoma by geldanamycin. AU - Yang, Jun. AU - Yang, Jin Ming. AU - Iannone, Marie. AU - Shih, Weichung Joe. AU - Lin, Yong. AU - Hait, William N.. PY - 2001/5/15. Y1 - 2001/5/15. N2 - Glioblastoma multiforme is the most treatment-resistant brain tumor. Elongation factor-2 (EF-2) kinase (calmodulin kinase III) is a unique protein kinase that is overexpressed in glioma cell lines and in human surgical specimens. Several mitogens activate this kinase and inhibitors block mitogen activation and produce cell death. Geldanamycin (GA) is a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic that disrupts Hsp90-protein interactions. Because EF-2 kinase is chaperoned by Hsp90, we investigated the effects of GA on the viability of glioma cells, the expression of EF-2 kinase protein, and the interaction between Hsp90 and EF-2 kinase. GA was a potent inhibitor of the clonogenicity of four glioma cells lines with ...
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