Lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India: drug coverage and compliance post eight rounds of MDA. Trop Doct. 2013
BACKGROUND: In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. Here we present the first detailed study on the effect of 3 repeated MDAs with this drug combination, as implemented by the Tanzanian National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (NLFEP).
We studied effects of compliance on the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in an Egyptian village. Baseline microfilaremia (mf) and filarial antigenemia rates were 11.5% and 19.0%, respectively. The MDA compliance rates were excellent (> 85%). However, individual compliance was highly variable; 7.4% of those surveyed after five rounds of MDA denied having ever taken the medications and 52.4% reported that they had taken all five doses. The mf and antigenemia rates were 0.2% and 2.7% in those who reported five doses of MDA and 8.3% and 13.8% in those who reported zero doses. There was no significant difference in residual infection rates among those who had taken two or more doses. These results underscore the importance of compliance for LF elimination programs based on MDA and suggest that two ingested doses of MDA are as effective as five doses for reducing filariasis infection rates.
Assessing the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission after annual mass drug administration (MDA) requires a better understanding of how to interpret results obtained with the available diagnostic tools. We conducted parasitologic, serologic, and entomologic surveys in three villages in American Samoa after sentinel site surveys suggested filarial antigen prevalence was < 1% after five annual MDAs with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence ranged from 3.7% to 4.6% and from 12.5% to 14.9%, respectively, by village. Only one person was microfilaria positive. Although no children less than 10 years of age were antigen positive, antifilarial antibody prevalence in this age group was 5.1% and antibody-positive children were detected in all three villages. Wuchereria bancrofti-infected mosquitoes were also detected in all three villages. Thus, monitoring of infections in mosquitoes and antifilarial antibody levels in children may serve as indicators of
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The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000, and nearly all endemic countries in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean and Asia-Pacific regions have now initiated the WHO recommended mass drug administration (MDA) campaign to interrupt transmission of the parasite. However, nearly 50% of the LF endemic countries in Africa are yet to implement the GPELF MDA strategy, which does not include vector control. Nevertheless, the recent scale up in insecticide treated /long lasting nets (ITNs/LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control in Africa may significantly impact LF transmission because the parasite is transmitted mainly by Anopheles mosquitoes. This study examined the magnitude, geographical extent and potential impact of vector control in the 17 African countries that are yet to or have only recently started MDA. National data on mosquito bed nets, ITNs/LLINs and IRS were obtained from published literature, national reports, surveys and datasets
Tele: +1-404-420-5126. ATLANTA… The Carter Center congratulates Nasarawa and Plateau states for becoming the first Nigerian states to stop transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF), a parasitic disease most commonly known for causing elephantiasis. The parasites that cause LF (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori) are transmitted by mosquitoes and live in the lymphatic system of sufferers. Repeated infection can lead to severe swelling of a persons limbs and genitals, a condition called elephantiasis.. "Nasarawas and Plateaus achievement, stopping transmission of lymphatic filariasis in two states of Nigeria, Africas most endemic country, demonstrates that eradication is possible and more than 1 billion people can be protected from this debilitating disease forever," said former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, founder of The Carter Center, which has supported the two Nigerian state governments since 1999 in their effort to prove that LF can be wiped out using currently available ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis. AU - Budge, Philip J.. AU - Sognikin, Edmond. AU - Akosa, Amanda. AU - Mathieu, Els M.. AU - Deming, Michael. PY - 2016/1/14. Y1 - 2016/1/14. N2 - Background: Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA) is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD). To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys. Methodology/Principal Findings: Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel) were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis relies on mass drug administration (MDA) of two drugs annually for 4 to 6 years. The goal is to reduce the reservoir of microfilariae in the blood to a level insufficient to maintain transmission by the mosquito vector. In 2008, the international medical aid organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) performed the first round of a MDA in the high-burden area of Asmat district, in Papua, Indonesia. We report the challenges faced in this MDA on a remote Indonesian island and propose solutions to overcome these hurdles in similar future contexts. During the MDA, we encountered difficult challenges in accessing as well as persuading the patient population to take the antifilarial drugs. Health promotion activities supporting treatment need to be adapted and repetitive, with adequate time and resources allocated for accessing and communicating with local, seminomadic populations. Distribution of bednets resulted in an
Lymphatic Filariasis, also known as Elephantiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori nematode worms transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia mosquitoes. The disease targets the bodys lymphatic system. The infective microscopic larvae (microfilariae) develop in the vector mosquitoes and are injected into humans through a blood meal. In the human host, they reproduce and mature over a period of one year and live in the body for approximately 4 to 6 years. The larvae hatched in humans are ingested by feeding mosquitoes who pass the infection on to another person, continuing the infectious cycle. Lymphatic Filariasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD)*.. * Neglected Tropical Diseases are chronic infections that are typically endemic in low income countries. They prevent affected adults and children from going to school, working, or fully participating in community life, contributing to ...
Lymphatic Filariasis, also known as Elephantiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori nematode worms transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia mosquitoes. The disease targets the bodys lymphatic system. The infective microscopic larvae (microfilariae) develop in the vector mosquitoes and are injected into humans through a blood meal. In the human host, they reproduce and mature over a period of one year and live in the body for approximately 4 to 6 years. The larvae hatched in humans are ingested by feeding mosquitoes who pass the infection on to another person, continuing the infectious cycle. Lymphatic Filariasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD)*.. * Neglected Tropical Diseases are chronic infections that are typically endemic in low income countries. They prevent affected adults and children from going to school, working, or fully participating in community life, contributing to ...
PLOS NTDs Editors-in-Chief Peter Hotez and Serap Aksoy discuss new research and the global effort towards eliminating lymphatic filariasis.. One of the most significant, yet often unheralded, accomplishments from the 2000-2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and now continuing through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has been progress towards the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF). LF is a horrific and disfiguring illness that affects approximately 40 million people in the poorest countries of South Asia (e.g., India), Southeast Asia (e.g., Indonesia), Africa, and Haiti in the Americas.. Coinciding with the launch of the MDGs and through a 1997 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA 50.29), the World Health Organization (WHO) created the Global Programme to Eliminate LF (GPELF) in 2000. Together with a Global Alliance to Eliminate LF (GAELF) for advocacy and technical support, the organizations shaped a two-decade-long vision and goal for mass drug administration (MDA) to stop ...
Lymphatic filariasis is an infection that affects the lymphatic circulation and is caused by Wuchereria Bancrofti, a parasitic threadworm. The infection is spread by mosquitoes and it is important to know the causes, symptoms and treatment of lymphatic filariasis to treat and prevent this condition.
Spatiotemporal distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Nepal (2001-2012).In 2001, lymphatic filariasis mapping using immunochromatographic card tests in 37 di
As the objective of the programme is to achieve interruption of transmission, a surveillance system for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has to cover the entire country, not merely LF endemic areas. LF elimination programmes should establish surveillance that will identify foci of transmission. Efforts should be made to integrate filariasis surveillance within an integrated disease surveillance system of the country.. Filariasis (microfilaraemia, hydrocoele or elephantiasis) should be a reportable event throughout the country; a monthly report should be sent from health institutions to the district; a quarterly report from district to state or national headquarters would be adequate. Include examination for lymphoedema or hydrocoele in population surveys for other diseases or purposes such as leprosy, family planning, school health or active guinea worm, or podoconiosis, case searches.. Screening for LF should be done during medical examinations of recruits in the uniformed services such as the ...
The administration of drugs to whole populations irrespective of disease status is referred to as mass drug administration (MDA). This article describes the administration of antimalarial drugs to whole populations an intervention which has been used as a malaria-control measure for more than 70 years. Recent proposals to eliminate or even to eradicate malaria have led to a renewed interest in mass drug administrations in areas with very high malaria endemicity. Drugs have been administered either directly as a full therapeutic course of treatment or indirectly through the fortification of salt. Mass drug administrations were generally unsuccessful in interrupting transmission but, in some cases, had a marked effect on parasite prevalence and on the incidence of clinical malaria. MDAs are likely to encourage the spread of drug-resistant parasites and so have only a limited role in malaria control. They may have a part to play in the management of epidemics and in the control of malaria in areas ...
WHO fact sheet on lymphatic filariasis providing key facts, definition, information on cause, transmission, symptoms, treatment and prevention and WHO response.
Reliance Group, one of Indias largest conglomerates, also has lent its corporate support to the campaign by agreeing to promote it through the companys mobile, mass media and web-based channels. Their involvement is set to take center stage when the second phase of the campaign begins in February 2015, with mass drug administrations taking place in states not covered during the first phase, including Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.. The Campaign Film Storyline. Intrigue is created to lead villagers to a patient with a manifestation of lymphatic filariasis, also known as filaria or elephantiasis ("Hathipaon" in colloquial Hindi). Key messaging highlights the irreversible nature of advanced filaria and, at the same time, the simplicity of its prevention. Care has been taken to sensitively handle the subject and to create empathy with the patient. The patient himself delivers the most important message - "this disease can happen to anyone." Portraying a pitiful picture of the patient is avoided and ...
A Cohort Study of Lymphatic Filariasis on Socio Economic Conditions in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2012 Upadhyayula SM, Mutheneni SR, Kadiri MR, Kumaraswamy S, Nagalla B. Source Bioinformatics Group, Biology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Abstract BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of socioeconomic variables on lymphatic filariasis in endemic villages of Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: A pilot scale study was conducted in 30 villages of Karimnagar district from 2004 to 2007. These villages were selected based on previous reports from department of health, Government of Andhra Pradesh, epidemiology, entomology and socioeconomic survey was conducted as per protocol. Collected data were analysed statistically by Chi square test, Principal Component Analysis, Odds ratio, Bivariate, multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total of 5,394 blood samples collected and screened for microfilaria, out of which 199 were ...
People with the disease can suffer from lymphedema and elephantiasis and in men, swelling of the scrotum, called hydrocele. Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Communities frequently shun and reject women and men disfigured by the disease. Affected people frequently are unable to work because of their disability, and this harms their families and their communities ...
by Randee J. Kastner, Elisa Sicuri, Christopher M. Stone, Gabriel Matwale, Ambrose Onapa, Fabrizio Tediosi Introduction Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) preventable through mass drug administration (MDA), is one of six diseases deemed possibly eradicable.
Friday 24 March 2006 - Clear evidence that Lymphatic Filariasis (LF, commonly known as elephantiasis) can be eliminated is reported in the March 25 issue of The Lancet. LF is one of the world s most d...
Author Summary Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the leading causes of disability among tropical diseases and is caused by a mosquito-transmitted parasite but can be prevented using mass drug therapy and vector-control. In recent years, an international effort has been mounted to eliminate LF. In order to focus limited resources on areas with the highest disease burden, the World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested that mass drug treatment programs be focused in areas with |1% prevalence of the infection, working under the assumption that areas with |1% prevalence are equivalent to areas of limited or no transmission. We carried out an additional assessment in low-prevalence areas and observed evidence of active transmission and clustering of antigen-positive persons. Our results imply that a 1% infection threshold may not be sufficient to capture all remaining reservoirs of transmission.
Dr. Frank Richards is an expert in parasitic and tropical diseases who has worked extensively in Latin America and Africa. His professional interest is in the safe and effective delivery of available tools to eliminate the transmission of tropical parasitic diseases. The health programs he directs at The Carter Center have helped ministries of health and local communities provide more than half a billion preventive treatments through mass drug administration (MDA) programs in 11 countries.. Richards came to The Carter Center from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), where he spent 23 years in the Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Over the course of his career he has worked and published on lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, Guinea worm, neurocysticercosis, and malaria. Richards particular expertise, however, is ivermectin (Mectizan®) MDA programs for river blindness (onchocerciasis). He has been involved in onchocerciasis elimination programs in Latin ...
From 2000 to 2009, more than 2.8 billion treatments were delivered to a targeted population of 695 million individuals in 53 countries, considerably reducing transmission in many places. Recent research data show that the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in at-risk populations has dropped by 43% since the beginning of the GPELF. The overall economic benefit of the programme during 2000-2007 is conservatively estimated at US$ 24 billion. ...
... The time taken by the parasite to complete its development in the hosts is called the incubation period.
Education and information about lymphatic filariasis including fact sheets and information on prevention and control, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.
Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT) is the main strategy for control of onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and trachoma. The strategy involves regular provision of preventive treatment (in the form of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns) to entire populations or targeted risk groups (e.g. schoolchildren). This strategy reduces disease progression in treated individuals and prevents transmission of infection to others. Mass drug administration (MDA) programmes are rapidly expanding, although important questions remain. For example, will the planned MDA programmes be sufficient to achieve elimination in all epidemiological settings? To what extent is successful elimination jeopardized by low coverage and systematic non-adherence? When, and on the basis of what criteria can MDA be safely interrupted? Each of the modelling analyses highlight the importance of groups who systematically, or semi-systematically do not access MDA ...
The Master of Arts - Public Administration (MPA) program is an interdisciplinary program designed for individuals seeking employment or advancement to leadership positions in public service organizations including federal, state and local government, non-profit agencies, law enforcement, and public or private colleges and universities. This program offers students a great opportunity to network with others from a variety of fields and backgrounds.. The Public Administration program produces value for the region, state and society by preparing highly-qualified and skilled public administrators. These individuals contribute to the betterment of a culturally diverse workplace by providing intellectual and experiential opportunities. The Master of Arts - Public Administration program provides:. ...
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These results suggest that the majority of the community places a positive value on both prevention and treatment of LF. Mean WTP provides a useful monetary estimate of overall societal benefit of LF prevention and treatment programs. However, for interventions which require broad and sustained community participation, the lower end of the distribution of WTP has additional implications. Cost recovery policies may result in inadequate participation and longer program duration ...
This website about PATHs Malaria Control and Evaluation Partnership in Africa (MACEPA) global program provides an overview of the program and its featured projects. See other PATH program websites.. Corporate author(s): PATH. Publication date: 2017. ...
Through the Global Programme, adolescent girls are gaining key skills and learning about their rights. © UNFPA India/Arvind Jodna
The standard method for diagnosing active infection is the identification of microfilariae in a blood smear by microscopic examination. The microfilariae
Abnormal swelling & inflammation on parts of your body, there is a chances that you suffer form Filaria. Know the types, symptoms & treatments for Filaria.
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
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Description: Department of Public Health: Healthcare Administration Program. MHA Comprehensive Examination, Fall 2013. WRITTEN EXAM: December 04, 2013 - GRISE HALL 0530. Morning Session: 8AM to 12 Noon. Attempt Questions 1 and 2 AND either question 3 or 4.. ...
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In one of the poorest countries in the world, millions of Nigerians suffer from a host of forgotten, parasitic diseases, including Schistosomiasis and Lymphatic Filariasis. Affordable, safe drugs are available, but not widely in use. Health workers here have set an ambitious goal: to eliminate five neglected diseases in just five years. Can they do it? ...
Smallpox is the only disease weve ever eradicated. But others are on the endangered list: Guinea Worm, Polio and Lymphatic Filariasis could all be wiped out in the next few generations.
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Elephantiasis, Filarial; Filarial Elephantiasis; Lymphatic Filariasis; Bancroftian Elephantiasis; Elephantiasis, Bancroftian; Filariasis, Lymphatic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Elephantiasis, Filarial; Filarial Elephantiasis; Lymphatic Filariasis; Bancroftian Elephantiasis; Elephantiasis, Bancroftian; Filariasis, Lymphatic. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.