A capillary electrophoresis method with indirect UV detection for the simultaneous determination of three carbohydrates (fructose, glucose and sucrose) and the amino acid proline in honey samples was developed. This method included the use of a background electrolyte consisting of 10 mM sodium benzoate and 1.5 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, pH 12.4. Under optimal capillary electrophoresis conditions, the separation of the investigated substances was achieved in less than 5 min and single dilution of each sample was employed. The detection limits for fructose, glucose and sucrose were 0.58 g L-1, 0.67 g L-1 and 0.12 g L-1 respectively, and 0.72 mg L-1 for proline. Precision measurements calculated in terms of %RSD in the range of 0.92 to 5.43%, were obtained. The proposed method was applied to honey samples from Argentina and Sweden and enables the determination of the three carbohydrates and the amino acid proline. The results show that the proposed method is simple, requires short analysis ...
A new approach for the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of charged metabolites by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is proposed. Metabolites are first separated by CE based on charge and size and then selectively detected using MS by monitoring over a large range of m/z values. This method enabled the determination of 352 metabolic standards and its utility was demonstrated in the analysis of 1692 metabolites from Bacillus subtilis extracts, revealing significant changes in metabolites during B. subtilis sporulation ...
Selective detection of sugar phosphates by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry and its application to an engineered E. coli host.
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a family of electrokinetic separation methods performed in submillimeter diameter capillaries and in micro- and nanofluidic channels. Very often, CE refers to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), but other electrophoretic techniques including capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE), capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF), capillary isotachophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) belong also to this class of methods. In CE methods, analytes migrate through electrolyte solutions under the influence of an electric field. Analytes can be separated according to ionic mobility and/or partitioning into an alternate phase via non-covalent interactions. Additionally, analytes may be concentrated or "focused" by means of gradients in conductivity and pH. The instrumentation needed to perform capillary electrophoresis is relatively simple. A basic schematic of a capillary electrophoresis system is shown in figure 1. The systems main components are a sample ...
In clinical metabolomics, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has become a very useful technique for the analysis of highly polar and charged metabolites in complex biologic samples. A comprehensive overview of recent developments in CE-MS for metabolic profiling studies is presented. This review covers theory, CE separation modes, capillary coatings, and practical aspects of CE-MS coupling. Attention is also given to sample pretreatment and data analysis strategies used for metabolomics. The applicability of CE-MS for clinical metabolomics is illustrated using samples ranging from plasma and urine to cells and tissues. CE-MS application to large-scale and quantitative clinical metabolomics is addressed. Conclusions and perspectives on this unique analytic strategy are presented ...
Abstract A fast and precise affinity capillary electrophoresis ACE method has been applied to investigate the interactions between two serum albumins HSA and BSA and heparinoids. Furthermore, different free flow electrophoresis methods were developed to separate the species which appears owing to interaction of albumins with pentosan polysulfate...
Detailed analysis of the Global and Chinese Capillary Electrophoresis System Market helps to understand the various types of Capillary Electrophoresis Syst
The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided
Automated microfluidics capillary electrophoresis systems provide rapid alternative to slab gel analysis. Size and quantitate DNA, RNA, and Protein for NGS or biotherapeutics applications.
Automated dual capillary electrophoresis system with hydrodynamic injeciton for the concurrent determination of cations and anions. Analytica chimica acta, Vol. 841. pp. 77-83 ...
This study aimed at validating an analytical method, using the accuracy profile approach, for the assay of chlorphenamine maleate by capillary electrophoresis. The validation was done using concentrations ranging between 75% and 125% of the target concentration of 600 mg/ml. Validation standards were prepared separately in triplicate for each series. Studied validation criteria were selectivity, linearity, trueness, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy and limits of detection and quantification. The method was selective, with recoveries ranging between 99.55% and 99.84%. The relative standard deviations of repeatability and intermediate precision were <5%. The accuracy profile confirmed the performance of the assay method between 75% and 100% of the target concentration of 600 mg/ml. The detection and quantification limits were 5 mg/l and 15 mg/l respectively. This ecological and economical method was applied to identify and quantify chlorphenamine maleate in 3 samples of
A simple method for determining protein-bound homocysteine and cysteine in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis / E. D. Virus, A. V. Ivanov, M. I. Kuchukova et al. // Biotecnologia Aplicada. - 2016. - Vol. 33, no. 4. - P. 4301-4304. A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection has been developed for the determination of protein-bound cysteine and homocysteine in human plasma based on the combination of derivatization step with pH-mediated base stacking. Centrifugal ultrafiltration was carried out to clarify plasma proteins from salts and low-molecular weight compounds. Thereafter, the sample was incubated with dithiothreitol to reduce the disulfides and release protein-bound aminothiols. The released thiols were derivatized with thiocarbonyldiimidazole and injected into the capillary electrophoresis by voltage. Due to the stacking effects it is possible to perform a considerable on-line pre-concentration of the analytes. The proposed approach allows to reach a detection limit of 1 ...
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Development and Validation of a Simple and Rapid Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Method for Quantification of Heparin in a Pharmaceutical Product and Stability Studies Abstract.
Overview of Capillary Electrophoresis in Pharmaceutical Analysis -- Theoretical Consideration in Performance of Various Modes of CE -- Equipment Considerations for Capillary Electrophoresis -- Method Development for Pharmaceutical Analysis -- Role of CE in Drug Substance and Drug Product Development -- General Considerations to Improve Performance of CE Methods -- Overview of Current Regulatory Guidance -- Qualification of CE Instrumentation -- Robustness Testing of CE Methods -- Validation of Analytical Methods Using Capillary Electrophoresis-- The Need for CE Methods in Pharmacopeial Monographs -- CE in Impurity Profiling of Drugs -- Ion Analysis Using Capillary Electrophoresis -- Role of CE in Biopharmaceutical Development and Quality Control -- Capillary Electrophoresis and Bioanalysis -- CE as an Orthogonal Technique to Chromatography -- Capillary Electrochromatography of Pharmaceuticals -- Coupling CE and Chip-based Devices and Mass Spectrometry ...
A simple, sensitive and separative method for the photometric determination of inorganic anions was developed on the basis of suppressed electroosmosis by using a common silica capillary and a simple migrating solution. During the analysis of analyte anions by capillary zone electrophoresis, electroosmotic flow in a silica capillary was suppressed by using low-pH migrating solutions containing sodium sulfate. The stacking effect of sulfate ion was utilized for analyte concentration. Four kinds of inorganic analyte anions examined were detected in sharp signals, and the separation of a nitrate and a nitrite ion was improved by using the low-pH migrating solution with no decrease in detection sensitivity. Calibration graphs for nitrate and nitrite ions showed good linearity in the concentration ranges from about 10(-5) to 10(-4)mol dm(-3), with the detection limit for nitrate ion 4×10(-6)mol dm(-3). Separations of organic anions, such as aromatic sulfonate and carboxylate ions, were also ...
An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.
First ever parallel capillary electrophoresis instrument able to resolve DNA smears and DNA fragments through 200,000 bp, down to 5 fg/µl.
A simple, sensitive and environmentally friendly capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of free sulfate anions in heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin with indirect UV detection is reported. The background electrolyte consists of 20 mM nitrate (pH 5.5) containing 0.2 mM CTAB. The use of nitrate as the probe anion is based on the consideration that nitrate has a very close electrophoretic mobility to that of sulfate, leading to a very narrow peak shape. Moreover, the apparent molar absorptivity of nitrate at 202 nm (8413 L mol(-1) cm(-1)) is much higher than that of the commonly used probe anion chromate at 254 nm (2400 L mol(-1) cm(-1)). The combination of the narrow peak shape with the high apparent molar absorptivity of the probe ion improved the limit of detection by 2.4 times and the limit of quantitation by 3.2 times. The effect of various CE parameters on the separation of sulfate from chloride was investigated and optimized. The method displays linearity in the range ...
Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in plants. Studies indicate consumption of food containing these compounds may reduce the incidences of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In broccoli, the flavonoids are present at variable concentrations and so far have mainly been determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This paper describes a rapid capillary electrophoresis method, involving large volume sample stacking (LVSS), suitable for the analysis of flavonoids in broccoli. Following acid hydrolysis, the two key flavonoids (kaempferol and quercetin) in a broccoli extract were concentrated on-line by LVSS prior to separation by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Using an optimised method, the extract was injected for 50 s into a 50 μm (internal diameter) × 85 cm (total length) capillary followed by stacking/matrix removal at -5 kV for 83 s. The two analytes were then separated in less than 8 min by CZE using a 10 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.40) and a separation voltage of
Thrombin is an important serine protease in blood and a therapeutic biomarker. The aptamer-based assays for thrombin take advantage of unique features of nucleic acid aptamers in selection, preparation, stability, and modification of functional groups. Aptamer affinity capillary electrophoresis coupled with
Many cellular functions are regulated through protein isoforms. Changes in the expression level or regulatory dysfunctions of isoforms often lead to developmental or pathological disorders. Isoforms are traditionally analyzed using techniques such as gel- or capillary-based isoelectric focusing. However, with proper electroosmotic flow (EOF) control, isoforms with small pI differences can also be analyzed using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Here we demonstrate the ability to quickly resolve isoforms of three model proteins (bovine serum albumin, transferrin, α1-antitrypsin) in capillaries coated with novel dynamic coatings. The coatings allow reproducible EOF modulation in the cathodal direction to a level of 10-9 m2V-1s-1. They also appear to inhibit protein adsorption to the capillary wall, making the isoform separations highly reproducible both in peak areas and apparent mobility. Isoforms of transferrin and α1-antitrypsin have been implicated in several human diseases. By coupling ...
A capillary electrophoresis device as well as a process for fabrication of the device is disclosed. The capillary electrophoresis device comprises a device body structure having a plurality of reservoirs arrayed thereon for loading a sample, and a plurality of rows of grooves transversely defined to be connected with the reservoirs for receiving at least a capillary electrophoresis chip. The capillary electrophoresis chip comprises a straight main separation channel, an injection channel, and a plurality of sample transport channels defined thereon in liquid communication with the reservoirs. After an electrode means is applied, the sample can be transported into the separation channel for detection and analysis.
A simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of aristolochic acid (AA) in dietary supplements and selected herbs is described. A clear separation of AA from other sample constituents was achieved within 5 minutes without any sample clean up. A mixture of 20 mM-morpholinethanesulphonic acid+10 mM-BisTrisPropane+0.2% hydroxyethylcelullose in 10% methanol serves as a background electrolyte. The linearity, accuracy, intra-assay and detection limit of the developed method are 200-6000 ng/mL, 95-103%, 3.5%, and 50 ng/ml, respectively. Ease of use, sufficient sensitivity and low running cost are the most important attributes of the CZE method. The proposed CZE method was compared with HPLC ...
Selected phenolic acids are determined by capillary zone electrophoresis and HPLC, each using UV detection. The optimised CZE background electrolyte contained 50 mM acetic acid, 95 mM 6-aminocaproic acid, 0.1% polyacrylamide, 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, and 10% methanol. Twelve phenolic acids (gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic, salicylic and chlorogenic) were separated within 10 minutes. Chromatographic separation of these phenolic acids was carried out on an Eclipse XBD C8 column using a mobile phase gradient (acetonitrile / methanol / water / 0.1% phosphoric acid); all were separated within 25 minutes. Electrophoretic and chromatographic determinations of ferulic and chlorogenic acids were compared on barley, malt, and potato samples. The methods characteristics were: linearity (1-20 mg ml and 0.2-4 mg ml−1), accuracy (recovery 94 ± 5% and 96 ± 4%), intra-assay repeatability (4.1% and 3.5%), and detection ...
Electrospray ionization with an ultralow flow rate (≤4 nanoliters per minute) was used to directly couple capillary electrophoresis with tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis and identification of biomolecules in mixtures. A Fourier transform mass spectrometer provided full spectra (,30 kilodaltons) at a resolving power of ≈60,000 for injections of 0.7 × 10−18 to 3 × 10−18 mole of 8- to 29-kilodalton proteins with errors of ,1 dalton in molecular mass. Using a crude isolate from human blood, a value of 28,780.6 daltons (calculated, 28,780.4 daltons) was measured for carbonic anhydrase, representing 1 percent by weight of the protein in a single red blood cell. Dissociation of molecular ions from 9 × 10−18 mole of carbonic anhydrase gave nine sequence-specific fragment ions, more data than required for unique retrieval of this enzyme from the protein database.. ...
Danser, A.H.J. (A. H. Jan), & Poglitsch, M. (2019). Letter to the Editor regarding "A microanalytical capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry assay for quantifying angiotensin peptides in the brain". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. doi:10.1007/s00216-019-02162- ...
Received: Januanry 19, 1999 - Accepted: July 5, 1999) SUMMARY Humic substances (HS) have a great importance in regard to the quality and productivity of a soil, and in the retention of the metal ions and pollutants by the environment. The characterization of humic compounds provides important information to evaluate the interaction of HS metal ions and with different classes of organic compounds (e.g., herbicides and pesticides). In order to understand HS behavior, it is necessary to separate this complex organic matter into fractions, and determine the structure of each compound in the fractions obtained. Numerous studies applying many different analytical techniques have been used for this purpose. In particular, the application of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the characterization of HS has evoked an increased interest. The aim of this work is to study the CZE behavior of HA from a different origin. The HA of Argentinean soils and also the HA from compost of urban wastes will be ...
Separation of inorganic and organic ionic components of Bayer liquor by capillary zone electrophoresis. I. Optimisation of resolution using electrolytes containing surfactant mixtures
In this thesis the possibilities of using capillary electrophoresis as a separation technique for analysis of proteins and microbubbles is presented.. A complete analytical process consists of five necessary steps of which one is the actual analysis step. For this step a suitable analytical technique is needed. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is one of the common analytical separation techniques used for analysis of a diversity of analytes, and can be both used in routine analysis and for research purposes. The reason for using CE, compared to other liquid-based separation techniques, is mainly short analysis time, high resolution, and negligible sample volumes and solvent waste. Depending on the characteristics of the analytes, and the sample matrix, different modes of CE can be used, where capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is the most employed one. The basic principle of CZE is separation of the analytes due to differences in total mobility, which is dependent on the charge and size of the ...
Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis was evaluated for the separation of five hydrophobic basic blue dyes for application in forensic dye analysis. The use of a red light emitting diode as a high intensity, low-noise light source provided sensitive detection of the blue dyes while also allowing the evaluation of solvents that absorb strongly in the UV region. Excellent peak shapes and separation selectivity were obtained in methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide, however water, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide and acetone were unsuitable as solvents due to poor peak shapes and a lack of sensitivity, most likely due to adsorption onto the capillary wall. Due to the known compatibility of methanol with capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, this solvent was examined further with the relative acidity/basicity of the electrolyte being optimised with an artificial neural network. The optimised method was examined for the separation of ink samples from 6 fibre tip and 2 ball ...
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a relatively new separation technique suitable for handling small amounts of sample very important in bioanalytical research and in various clinical, diagnostic, genetic, and forensic applications. In Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field provide key techniques to investigate CE focusing on simple and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), aminoacids, peptides and proteins, enzymes, and nucleic acids. Along with practical procedures, reviews discussing CE applications related to bio(macro)molecules are also included. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.Authoritative and practical, Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules: Methods and Protocols
This volume presents accounts of some of the recent advances in high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with regard to biotechnology. Four of its 11 chapters present an introduction to capillary electrophoresis and discuss its application to various analytical problems ranging from the analysis of cyclic nucleotides to quality control in the pharmaceutical industry. Subsequent chapters cover recent developments in HPLC, with emphasis on analysis of pharmaceutical proteins; the problems associated with the use of HPLC as a detection method in preparative chromatography; the use of mass spectrometry in the structure determination of peptides; and the use of the displacement mode of chromatography.Horvath, Csaba is the author of Analytical Biotechnology Capillary Electrophoresis and Chromatography with ISBN 9780841218192 and ISBN 0841218196. [read more] ...
A simple, rapid and sensitive chiral capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with acetonitrile-field-amplified sample stacking method was developed that allows the simultaneous enantioselective separation of the mirtazapine, N-demethylmirtazapine, 8-hydroxymirtazapine and mirtazapine-N-oxide. The separation was achieved on an uncoated 40.2 cm × 75 μM fused silica capillary with an applied voltage of 16 kV. The electrophoretic analyses were carried out in 6.25 mM borate-25 mM phosphate solution at pH 2.8 containing 5.5 mg/mL carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin. The detection wavelength was 200 nm. Under these optimized conditions, satisfactory chiral separations of four pair enantiomers were achieved in less than 7 min in vitro. After one step clean-up liquid-liquid extraction using 96-well format, sample was introduced capillary zone electrophoresis with acetonitrile-field-amplified sample stacking to enhance the sensitivity of enantiomers. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity,
The anemia diagnostics laboratory provides diagnoses of congenital corpuscular hemolytic anemia (disorders of erythrocyte membrane, disorders of red blood cell enzymes, hemoglobinopatia) and some developed disorders of red blood series (myelodysplastic syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria). The laboratory is accredited in accordance with CAI standards.. In 2010, the Laboratory of Anemias introduced a capillary electrophoresis method, which makes the diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobins considerably more sensitive and precise, and it developed the membrane protein electrophoresis method, prepared in the routine standard diagnosis of inborn disorders of erythrocyte membrane.. The laboratory cooperates with the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics at the Palacký University in Olomouc in identifying some rare cases of hemoglobinopatia and the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology at the Motol University Hospital in Prague.. ...
Application of capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry to the separation and characterization of isomeric lipopolysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrasensitive capillary electrophoretic analysis of potentially immunogenic carbohydrate residues in biologics. T2 - Galactose-α-1,3-galactose containing oligosaccharides. AU - Szabo, Zoltan. AU - Guttman, Andras. AU - Bones, Jonathan. AU - Shand, Randi L.. AU - Meh, David. AU - Karger, Barry L.. PY - 2012/6/4. Y1 - 2012/6/4. N2 - With the recent growth of the global monoclonal antibody market, ultrasensitive techniques are required for rapid analysis of possible immunogenic residues, such as galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-1,3-Gal) on therapeutic proteins expressed in murine or CHO cell lines. We report a capillary electrophoretic approach in conjunction with exoglycosidase digestion for structural elucidation of IgG N-glycans containing the above immunogenic epitope. The method uses commercially available reagents and instrumentation, thus making it readily available for implementation and validation within the biotechnology industry. The method was first evaluated using ...
A capillary electrophoresis system comprises capillaries positioned in parallel to each other forming a plane. The capillaries are configured to allow samples to migrate. A light source is configured to illuminate the capillaries and the samples therein. This causes the samples to emit light. A lens is configured to receive the light emitted by the samples and positioned directly over a first group of the capillaries and obliquely over a second group of the capillaries. The light source is further configured to illuminate the second group of capillaries more than the first group of the capillaries such that amount of light received by the lens from the first group of capillaries is substantially identical to amount of light received from the second group of capillaries when an identical amount of the samples is migrating through the first and second group capillaries.
Four pairs of enantiomers from a range of basic, neutral and acidic drugs were successfully analysed and resolved using the Peregrine High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis system and deltaDOTs proprietary LFII™ technology, demonstrating the ability to produce high quality reproducible data in terms of peak mobility (<0.1 % R.S.D.) and peak area (<2.5 % R.S.D.). In addition the ability to detect 0.1% impurity R or S Atenolol in the presence of 99.9% of the other enantiomer is demonstrated.
Lin BC. 1996-2012:From Capillary Electrophoresis to Intelligent Control Digital Microfluidics[C]. 见:12th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Capillary Electrophoresis and Microscale Separation and Analysis. 新加坡. 2012-12-16 ...
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Active development of compact analytical instruments suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT) requires optimization of existing methods. To aid the development of capillary gel electrophoresis instruments for POCT, we attempted to separate polymerase chain reaction products (small DNAs) using a short, fused silica capillary coated with an acrylamide (AM)/acrylic acid (AA) copolymer (poly(AM-co-AA)). To realize the high capability of this capillary to separate small DNAs, the magnitude of electroosmotic flow (EOF) was controlled by varying the content of negatively charged AA in the copolymer, which significantly affected the separation ability. At an AA content ≥3.75 mol %, sample DNAs could not be injected into the copolymer-coated capillary owing to strong EOF, whereas a 100 bp DNA ladder sample was successfully separated at an AA content of ≤3.5 mol %, showing that even slight AA content variations impact DNA flow. EOF values measured using a neutral coumarin 334 solution suddenly decreased at
Professor Robert J. Linhardt received his PhD in chemistry from Johns Hopkins University in 1979 and did postdoctoral studies at MIT
The basic concept of this invention involves the use of a wire or capillary tube as a template strand. The outside diameter and shape of the template strand correspond to the inside diameter and shape of a desired separation capillary. A detector may be incorporated by providing a pair of electrode wires, or the ends of a pair of optical fibers, and pressing them against opposite sides of the template. As plastic is then polymerized around this asssembly by casting or molding. The template is then removed, leaving a capillary channel with a sidewall incorporating the wire electrodes and optical fibers. Using this method, it is possible to form a single unit including a separation capillary, conductivity detector, and spectroscopy detector.
Electropherogram from affected family member III:4. Representative electropherogram from the sense strand of genomic DNA showing (A) heterozygous G|A missens
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The unabated progress in DNA sequencing technologies is fostering a wave of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics and proteomics technologies. These sequencing-based technologies are increasingly being targeted to individual cells, which will allow many new and longstanding questions to be addressed. In our studies we use Mismatch-Repair (MMR)-deficient mice and focus on Microsatellites (MS), short tandem repeats, (STRs), which are repeated sequences of 1-6 base-pairs of DNA. Shapiros lab pioneered the concept, the mathematical foundations, as well as the implementation of utilizing somatic mutations naturally acquired by individual cells to reconstruct cell lineage trees. The first high-throughput implementation of the approach utilized the capillary electrophoresis method for measuring somatic mutations in MS and provided new insights into a broad spectrum of questions ranging from the origin of cancer metastasis to crypt dynamics and the origin of muscle ...
Metabolic reprogramming is a common hallmark of cancer. Most cancer cells produce ATP and the precursors of biomass (e.g., nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids) by shifting from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, commonly known as the "Warburg effect." Recently these cancer-specific metabolic pathways have been considered as attractive targets for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying the control of cancer cell metabolism are poorly understood. To address underlying mechanisms that induce metabolic reprogramming of cancer metabolism, we applied capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) metabolic profiling to paired normal tissues and tumor tissues obtained from 275 patients with colon cancer. Significant changes in the levels of many metabolites were observed between normal and tumor tissues. Unexpectedly, metabolite levels altered quite early and remained unchanged among cancer stages. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) was the most increased metabolite. Glucose was ...
The association of genetic variation with disease and drug response, and improvements in nucleic acid technologies, have given great optimism for the impact of genomic medicine. However, the formidable size of the diploid human genome1, approximately 6 gigabases, has prevented the routine application of sequencing methods to deciphering complete individual human genomes. To realize the full potential of genomics for human health, this limitation must be overcome. Here we report the DNA sequence of a diploid genome of a single individual, James D. Watson, sequenced to 7.4-fold redundancy in two months using massively parallel sequencing in picolitre-size reaction vessels. This sequence was completed in two months at approximately one-hundredth of the cost of traditional capillary electrophoresis methods. Comparison of the sequence to the reference genome led to the identification of 3.3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 10,654 cause amino-acid substitution within the coding ...