http://www.steves-digicams.com/microdrive.html The following came directly from IBM Support in answer to a user who was thinking about using the microdrive on a vacation in Napal: The Microdrive does need AIR to float the heads and typically above 10,000 ft the mass of the air is too low and the drive requires a pressurized environment similar to an aircraft or spacecraft. At high altitude the air bearings begin to loose support from the air molecules needed to provide the air bearing
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Comparison of proximally versus distally placed spatially distributed sequential stimulation electrodes in a dynamic knee extension task
An implantable medical electrical lead particularly for stimulation of the sacral nerves comprises a lead body extending between a distal end and a proximal end, and the distal end having at least one electrode of an electrode array extending longitudinally from the distal end toward the proximal end. The lead body at its proximal end may be coupled to a pulse generator, additional intermediate wiring, or other stimulation device. A fixation mechanism is formed on or integrally with the lead body proximal to the electrode array that is adapted to be implanted in and engage subcutaneous tissue, particularly muscle tissue, to inhibit axial movement of the lead body and dislodgement of the stimulation electrodes. The fixation mechanism comprises a M tine elements arrayed in a tine element array along a segment of the lead proximal to the stimulation electrode array. Each tine element comprises at least N flexible, pliant, tines, each tine having a tine width and thickness and extending through a tine
Manning and colleagues (2009) performed the following experiment: in the course of treatment for epilepsy, penetrating microwires were transiently implanted in 20 human patients during the clinical identification of seizure foci. Each patient participated in a spatial navigation task while single-neuron action potential (AP) firing rates and the surrounding LFPs were measured from an array of microwires throughout different brain sites. The firing rate of each neuron and the corresponding normalized PSD of the LFP were calculated in half-second epochs. For each epoch, the power in the PSD was extracted in five discrete frequency ranges: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-30 Hz), and gamma (30-150 Hz). In addition, an estimate of the broadband power in the PSD, across all frequencies, was obtained from each epoch. The firing rate was then compared with each power spectral feature using a regression approach, and an associated significance level was estimated by resampling ...
Figure 1 illustrates the structure of each trial of the Sternberg task. We visually presented lists of one to four consonants. After a delay period, the subjects task was to indicate as rapidly as possible whether a probe item was on the list. We quantified the speed of the response by measuring the response time (RT). This task was administered to three subjects who had intracranial electrode arrays and one with depth electrodes. Each of these subjects performed the Sternberg task with very high accuracy; for subjects 1-4, accuracy was 86, 98, 97, and 96%, respectively. RT increased significantly with list length (LL) for all subjects (p , 0.005). This increase, approximated by the equation RT = a × LL + b msec, had coefficients (a, b) = (89, 817), (95, 1008), (40, 463), and (37, 353) for subjects 1-4, respectively. The differences in RTs between the first two and last two subjects was most likely a consequence of differences in the design of the trial structure (see Materials and ...
EPICA was part of a very special recording session last week. |br /|
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...Researchers have used zinc oxide microwires to significantly improve t...By applying mechanical strain to the microwires researchers at the Ge... By utilizing this effect we can enhance the external efficiency of t...Details of the research were reported in the Sept. 14 issue of the jou...,Zinc,oxide,microwires,improve,the,performance,of,light-emitting,diodes,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
We have examined a number of safety issues associated with cochlear implants. This work has been primarily designed to evaluate the histopathological effects of intracochlear electrode implantation and chronic electrical stimulation. The results of these studies may be summarized as follows: 1) The insertion of the banded free-fit scala tympani array into human cadaver temporal bones produces minimal damage, occurring primarily to a localized region of the spiral ligament. This damage would not result in significant neural degeneration and thus, would not compromise the efficacy of the multiple channel device; 2) chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation for continuous periods of 500 to 2000 hours, using charge balanced biphasic current pulses developing charge densities of 18-32 }?C/cm2. geom./phase, does not adversely affect the spiral ganglion cell population; 3) labyrinthine infection severely reduces the viable spiral ganglion cell population; 4) the formation of new bone present in ...
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Systems and methods are disclosed for assessing electrode-tissue contact for tissue ablation. An exemplary electrode contact sensing system comprises an electrode housed within a distal portion of a catheter shaft. At least one electro-mechanical sensor is operatively associated with the electrode within the catheter shaft. The at least one electro-mechanical sensor is responsive to movement of the electrode by generating electrical signals corresponding to the amount of movement. The system may also include an output device electrically connected to the at least one electro-mechanical sensor. The output device receives the electrical signals for assessing a level of contact between the electrode and a tissue.
A self-curling sheet of a non-conductive material is biased to curl into a tight cylinder. Inwardly extending conductive members are disposed on the surface of the sheet forming the inside of the cylinder. Circumferentially separated longitudinal slices are made in the cylinder adjacent the conductive members forming spring members such that, as the sheet relaxes over time, the electrodes on the spring members engage and pierce a nerve surrounded by the cuff. The conductive segments may be electrically conductive for applying electrical impulses or fluid conductive for infusing medications. In use, a first edge of the self-curling sheet is disposed adjacent a nerve trunk which is to receive the cuff therearound. The self-curling sheet is controllably permitted to curl around the nerve into its original cylindrical shape. Over a period of a few days, electrodes riding on spring members formed by longitudinal slices into the cylinder are embedded in the nerve without damage to the perineurium membrane
Get the most from your R Series® resuscitation platform with OneStep Electrodes for adults and pediatrics. OneStep Complete Electrodes for adults offer high-current defibrillation and capture CPR quality. These electrodes can also be used for monitoring and for cardioversion, and to deliver constant-current pacing-without the need for a separate three-lead ECG cable.. OneStep Pediatric CPR Electrodes provide the only CPR support for children under 55 pounds, while also enabling defibrillation, pacing, and cardioversion. When pediatric electrodes are attached, the R Series automatically reduces the starting energy to 50 joules to ensure safe defibrillation.. OneStep Electrodes can remain pre-connected, even during a 30-joule shock test, because of a patented dual-circuit design. There is no need to disconnect the electrodes to test the defibrillator, meaning readiness is not compromised.. ...
A single-pass endocardial lead electrode adapted for implantation on or about the heart and for connection to a system for monitoring or stimulating cardiac activity including a lead body with a circumferential outer surface. The lead includes a first distal end electrode which has a first electrical conducting surface which is for positioning within the ventricle of the heart. The lead body also has a second electrode which has a second electrical conducting surface adapted for positioning within the atrium of the heart. Both of the first and the second electrodes are adapted for positioning and fixation to the wall. An active fixation element is used as part of the second electrode. The lead body also includes a curved portion which facilitates the positioning and fixing of the second electrode. In another embodiment, the main lead body includes a recess into which an atrial lead body and the active fixation element attached to one end can travel from a recessed position to a position for fixation to
A microdrive apparatus useful in human stereotactic surgery is disclosed. Such apparatus permits safe and accurate placement of a surgical instrument, such as a cannula, into a portion of the central nervous system, e.g. the brain and spinal cord, of a patient by simple mechanical operation.
Researchers have used zinc oxide microwires to significantly improve the efficiency at which gallium nitride light-emitting diodes (LED) convert electricity to ultraviolet light. The devices are believed to be the first LEDs ...
Cardiology Specialty Multi-Function Electrodes, with a low viscosity gel that provides the best skin coupling, are designed to virtually eliminate dermal damage in special procedure areas of the hospital.. Radiolucent Multi-Function Electrodes are designed to provide an unobstructed view of the coronary arteries during x-ray studies. Available in solid or liquid gel.. Biphasic Multi-Function Electrodes are part of the complete Rectilinear Biphasic™ system -ZOLLs breakthrough technology-proven to achieve superior results in cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Lower energy levels combined with the unique liquid gel technology virtually eliminate post-procedural dermal damage.. Sterile Multi-Function Electrodes, with a unique two-pouch system that allows placement of the posterior electrode prior to surgery, are optimal for use in the operating room. They are also available with 10-foot (3-meter) lead wires.. Pacing Only Electrodes are long-term pacing electrodes proven to work with ZOLLs ...
A flexible transcutaneous electrical nerve and/or muscle stimulation electrode is provided which utilizes a conductive material, preferably a conductive fabric, and electrical shunt means disposed along the conductive material for causing more uniform resistivity between any two equally spaced apart points on the conductive material than without the electrical shunt means. Further adjustment of the electrical conductivity may also be achieved by varying the conductivity of individual fibers utilized in the conductive fabric.
Electrode combinations.Red electrodes are used for current injunction, and green electrodes are used for voltage measurement. The combinations can be divided in
A neural stimulation system automatically corrects or adjusts the stimulus magnitude (stimulation energy) in order to maintain a comfortable and effective stimulation therapy. Because the changes in impedance associated with the electrode-tissue interface can indicate obstruction of current flow and positional lead displacement, lead impedance can indicate the quantity of electrical stimulation energy that should be delivered to the target neural tissue to provide corrective adjustment. Hence, a change in impedance or morphology of an impedance curve may be used in a feedback loop to indicate that the stimulation energy needs to be adjusted and the system can effectively auto correct the magnitude of stimulation energy to maintain a desired therapeutic effect.
A microelectronic switch having a substrate layer, an electrically conductive switching layer formed on the substrate layer, an electrically conductive cavity layer formed on the switching layer, an electrically conductive cap layer formed on the cavity layer, the cap layer forming a first electrode and a second electrode that are physically and electrically separated one from another, and which both at least partially overlie the switching layer, and a cavity disposed between the switching layer and the second electrode, where the switching is layer is flexible to make electrical contact with the second electrode by flexing through the cavity upon selective application of an electrical bias.
Medtronic 4195 Active Fixation LV lead and Medtronic passive fixation LV lead arms will both have same follow-up testing and schedule. Medtronic 4195 active fixation LV lead and Medtronic passive fixation LV lead : 1:1 randomization between Medtronic active fixation 4195 LV lead and another FDA approved passive fixation Medtronic LV lead. Fluoroscopic images will be taken at implant in a supine position and again at 3 month follow-up in different postural positions with capture thresholds of the LV lead taken at each postural position.. ...
To simulate the electrode we add a small section to serve as the electrode resistance and capacitance */ /* watch out when changing Ra in the model since this electrode.Ra is used for the series resistance! */ begintemplate Electrode public electrode create electrode // c (pf) = cm*area = PI*L*diam*(.01) * cm // rs (MOhm) = Ra*L/2 / (PI*diam^2/4) = 2*L/PI/diam^2 * (.01) * Ra // so it is nice to have // PI*L*diam*.01 = 1 // 2*L/PI/diam^2*.01 = 1 // diam = (2/PI^2)^(1/3) // L = 1/.01/PI/diam proc init_electrode() { electrode { diam = (2/PI^2)^(1/3) L = 1/.01/PI/diam insert pas g_pas = 0 e_pas = 0 } } proc init() { init_electrode() electrode Ra = 0.001 //(Ohm*cm) electrode cm = 0 //(uF/cm2) connect electrode(0), $1 } //electrode makeppm() endtemplate Electrode objref se,pe,te soma se=new Electrode(0.5) priden[0] pe=new Electrode(1) se.electrode.Ra = 1.2 se.electrode.cm = 1e-6 pe.electrode.Ra = 17.5 pe.electrode.cm = 2.95 access soma tstop=15 ...
Cardiac lead implantation systems and methods including an electronics arrangement provided with a user interface and a coupler assembly. A coupler body is configured to detachably grasp a cardiac lead and couple with electrical contacts of the cardiac lead. A user interface includes an output indicative of sensed cardiac parameters, such as one or both of cardiac signal amplitude and lead electrode impedance, and may include an audio output device and/or a visual output device. Methods of lead implantation involve advancing a cardiac lead into proximity with a patients heart, and contacting cardiac tissue with an electrode arrangement to locate a suitable implant location. Sensing of one or more cardiac parameters is accomplished and an audible representation of the sensed parameters is produced, the audible representation varying as the electrode arrangement is moved relative to the cardiac tissue.
A defibrillation pulse generator and lead system particularly adapted to allow for implant in a single incision and subcutaneous pocket. The electrode system consists of a right ventricular electrode and a combined, subcutaneously implanted pulse generator housing and flexible periprerally extending electrode. The flexible electrode extends in a generally co-planar relation with respect to the major surfaces of the device housing and may comprise a plurality of electrode segments electrically connected in common with the device housing and distributed over a flexible electrode pad.
An apparatus for stimulating and sensing evoked response to stimulus in the heart. First and second electrodes are in electrical contact with the heart, a third indifferent electrode is also in electrical contact with the heart. A pacemaker provides stimulus signals through the electrodes in the stimulating mode of operation. The first and second electrodes are switched through switching apparatus wherein in the first mode the first and second electrodes are maintained at equal electrical potentials, and in a second, sensing mode, the switch operates between the first and second electrodes so as to allow the first and second electrodes to act as bipolar sensing leads. Evoked response is sensed by a differential amplifier having a first differential input connected to the first electrode and a second differential input connected to the second electrode. The differential amplifier provides a differential signal which is proportional to the evoked cardiac response.
An ablation apparatus has an introducer including an introducer lumen, a proximal portion and a distal portion. Two or more electrodes are at least partially positionable in the introducer lumen. Each electrode is configured to be advanced from the introducer distal portion in a deployed state into a selected tissue site to define a volumetric ablation volume. A fluid delivery member is positioned on at least a portion of an exterior of one of the electrodes. The fluid delivery member is configured to be coupled to a fluid medium source. A cable is coupled to the electrodes.
An electrode array is a configuration of electrodes used for measuring either an electric current or voltage. Some electrode arrays can operate in a bidirectional fashion, in that they can also be used to provide a stimulating pattern of electric current or voltage. Common arrays include: * Schlumberger (Wenner) * Wenner alpha * Wenner beta * Wenner gamma * Pole-pole * Dipole-dipole * Pole-dipole * Equatorial dipole-dipole (en) ...
Cyberkinetics, Inc, winner of the Medgadget Most Sci-Fi Sounding Company Name Award, has asked the FDA for permission to market their nerve growth stimulation system.
A high-density multichannel microwire electrode array is disclosed. The array can comprise a variable number of electrodes. A method of assembling the array is further disclosed. Additionally, a plurality of devices employing the array are disclosed, including an intelligent brain pacemaker and a closed loop brain machine interface.
Computer-based, 64-channel device specifically designed for multi-channel microelectrode arrays, including impedance measurement, automated electroplating, site activation and site rejuvenation. For use with Neuralynxs Tetrode Assembly Station.. ...
The Lund researchers tailored electrodes-which they call 3D electrodes-are unique in that they are extremely soft and flexible in all three dimensions, in a way that enables stable recordings from the neurons over a long time.. The electrode is so soft that it deflects against a water surface. In order to implant such electrodes, the researchers have developed a technique for encapsulating the electrodes in a hard but dissolvable gelatine material that is also very gentle on the brain.. "This technology retains the electrodes in their original form inside the brain and can monitor what happens inside virtually undisturbed and normally functioning brain tissue", says Johan Agorelius, a doctoral student in the project.. Until now, developed flexible electrodes have not been able to maintain their shape when implanted, which is why they have been fixated on a solid chip that limits their flexibility, among other things. Other types of electrodes that are used are much stiffer. The result in both ...
14th Symposium on Fuel Cell and Battery Modelling and Experimental Validation (ModVal 14), Karlsruhe, Germany (03/2017), Book of ...
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A removable medical electrode system for monitoring electrical activity of selected tissue comprises a flexible member (22) of electrically insulating material shaped to conform to a surface of the tissue (20). It includes a mechanism (32, 34) for articulating the electrode (10) between an expanded and contracted position to place and remove the electrode (10) on the tissue (20), and to hold the electrode (10) in place during an operation. An electrical conductor (42) is fixed to the electrode (10) to carry electrical impulse signals from the nerve tissue (20) to a monitoring system.
The electrodes in their 6 pin version are not significantly bigger than the bipolar pacemaker electrodes with IS-1 connector used presently on the market. This was achieved by a new circular...
Electrophysiological signals recorded in deep structures of the human brain are of key interest to the neuroscientific community. For instance, in Parknsons Disease, the beta-rhythm plays a role that has been shown to be tightly coupled with the expression of clinical symptoms (such as bradykinesia). For instance, enhanced beta band activity is suppressed by levodopa [Geng et al., 2017; Kühn et al., 2006a, 2006b, 2009] and during DBS [Eusebio et al., 2011; Kühn et al., 2008] in parallel with improvement of motor symptoms.. DBS is a treatment option that gives us a unique opportunity to record from deep structures in the brain. However, in each patient, usually, only one or two DBS electrodes are surgically implanted. Common electrodes are composed of four contacts - so in each electrode/hemisphere, one may record from three bipolar channels. Already, this gives great insight into rhythmic activity in the basal ganglia as shown in manifold publications.. However, it would be great to be able ...
This is most the important factor and inadequate cooling is the most frequent cause of electrode life problems. It must be attended to first. Typically 4 l/min of water flow through the electrodes is recommended for uncoated, thin steel sheet and 6 or more l/min for coated and thicker steels. An inlet temperature not exceeding 20°C is recommended and outlet temperature not exceeding 30°C. The electrode diameter should be a minimum of 2.5 to 3 times the tip diameter to increase the effectiveness of cooling. The cooling tube should be cut at 45° and directed on the inside face of the electrode. It is important to check that blockages or back pressure on the outlet do not affect the flow rate. When using female caps, the holder should be drilled through to direct water onto the electrode itself. ...
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Rectangular, or as we call them Maternity Electrodes can be used with the TENS of your choice. This pack contains 4 pads which is all you need to work with your TENS. The electrodes are reusable up to 30 times, no gel is required and are for one person use only. Measurement: 40mm x 100mm (1.5in x 4in )
Constructed of durable carbon rubber, pre-gelled carbon stimulating electrodes are designed to provide good adhesion to stressed application sites. These electrodes are lat...
You see a strange apparatus. Location Anywhere a Strange Apparatus (Electrodes) can also be seen. Notes Using it will turn it into a Strange Apparatus (Electrodes). See also: Broken Apparatus (Electrodes) Related Objects Machines (Objects) Alchemical Apparatus Armillary Sphere Astro Clock...
The Flat Electrode can be used for both electroporation and electro cell fusion. The Flat Electrode generates either a divergent or homogeneous field depending on the orientation of the grooved electrodes.
A system for therapeutically stimulating a His bundle includes an implantable pulse generator and a multi-polar medical electrical lead. The generator is configured for subcutaneous implantation and t
A stacked battery has at least two cell segments arranged in a stack. Each cell segment may have a first electrode unit having a first active material electrode, a second electrode unit having a secon
With proper care, Quell Electrodes should last up to two weeks-gel pads may show signs of wear during normal use. Check out these Quell Electrode care tips
The electrode of an electrode well is formed by inserting a heating device into the borehole and heating the surrounding formation to a temperature at which the hydrocarbon-containing material undergoes thermal cracking, resulting in a coke-like residue surrounding the heater. This conductive and permeable carbonized material serves as an electrode of enlarged radius for further electroheating of the formation.
An electrode assembly for use in a reduction cell for the production of metal such as aluminum. The electrode comprises an electrically conductive carbon electrode block with an electrically conducti