A pacemaker system includes an electrode lead having a distal tip electrode for supplying stimulation pulses to cardiac tissue and a ring electrode, the electrode lead being connected to a cardiac stimulator. A detector is contained in a stimulator housing and is connected to the electrode lead for detecting electrical cardiac activity between said ring electrode and said tip electrode. Measurement of a signal dependent on physical activity of the subject in whom the pacemaker is implanted is obtained either by applying a voltage on the ring electrode during a predetermined measuring period and measuring a current through the ring electrode during at least a part of this period, or by, after detection of a QRS wave, applying a potential on the ring electrode and measuring the current between the housing and the ring electrode during the measuring period and also applying an alternating current between the tip electrode and the housing and measuring a voltage difference between the tip electrode and the
An electrochemical sensor based on a three-electrode method containing a reference electrode, comprising: A working electrode 2, a counter electrode 3 and a reference electrode 4 formed on an insulating substrate 1; an examining electrode 8 provided to examine an electric potential of the reference electrode 4; a combining layer 20, an immobilized enzyme layer 21 and a diffusion-limiting layer 22 made of a fluororesin provided on voltmeter is provided on these electrodes, between the examining electrode 8 and the reference electrode 4 so that the electric potential of the reference electrode can be examined; to detect an abnormality in the reference electrode immediately after its occurrence, recover a high reliability of measured value by removing the abnormality quickly, make it possible to conduct a continuous measurement for a long time and furthermore try to reduce a running cost.
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-DOPA synthesis using tyrosinase-immobilized on electrode surfaces. AU - Rahman, Siti Fauziyah. AU - Gobikhrisnan, Siramulu. AU - Misri, null. AU - Jong, Gwi Taek. AU - Park, Don Hee. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the direct precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine. L-DOPA is a well-known neuroprotective agent for the treatment of Parkinsons disease symptoms. L-DOPA was synthesized using the enzyme, tyrosinase, as a biocatalyst for the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA and an electrochemical method for reducing L-DOPAquinone, the product resulting from enzymatic synthesis, to L-DOPA. In this study, three electrode systems were used: A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as working electrode, a platinum, and a Ag/AgCl electrode as auxiliary and reference electrodes, respectively. GCE has been modified using electropolymerization of pyrrole to facilitate the electron transfer process and immobilize tyrosinase. Optimum ...
EEG electrode is a medical device that is used for recording the electrical activity of the brain. Technavios EEG electrodes market analysis considers sales from the adoption of disposable EEG electrodes and reusable EEG electrodes. Our analysis also considers the sales of EEG electrodes in Asia, Europe, North America, and ROW. In 2018, the disposable EEG electrodes segment had a significant market share, and this trend is expected to continue over the forecast period. The benefits of using disposable EEG electrodes including improved safety profile and reduced prices will play a significant role in the disposable EEG electrodes segment to maintain its market position. Also, our global EEG electrodes market report looks at factors such as the increasing prevalence of neurological disorders, rising demand for EEG procedures, and increasing initiatives and support from governments and healthcare organizations. However, high cost of EEG devices and procedures, shortage of skilled professionals, ...
A removable medical electrode system for monitoring electrical activity of selected tissue comprises a flexible member (22) of electrically insulating material shaped to conform to a surface of the tissue (20). It includes a mechanism (32, 34) for articulating the electrode (10) between an expanded and contracted position to place and remove the electrode (10) on the tissue (20), and to hold the electrode (10) in place during an operation. An electrical conductor (42) is fixed to the electrode (10) to carry electrical impulse signals from the nerve tissue (20) to a monitoring system.
In this study an alternative supporting electrolyte was used in enzyme immobilization. Invertase was studied to observe the effect of the supporting electrolyte. Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) was used as the supporting electrolyte during the electrolysis of pyrrole. The results show that the polymeric supporting electrolyte can be used instead of sodium dodecyl sulfate ...
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0138]However, the electrode combination can be shifted distally, i.e., upward in the orientation of FIG. 7. There is room on leads 26A, 26B to shift the electrode combination distally by two shift positions. Hence, if the initial position is shift position 1, shifts can be made to shift position 2 and shift position 3. Each shift may represent a shift in the position of the active electrodes associated with the previous electrode combination such that the electrical stimulation pattern remains identical or substantially similar, e.g., in terms of relative positions and spacing between the active electrodes in both the initial and shifted electrode combination. In addition, the initial and shifted electrode combinations have a common number of electrodes. In the example of FIG. 7, each electrode combination has three electrodes (110C, 110D, and 112C for the first combination), and the electrode combinations have a substantially similar electrode pattern. Active electrodes are those electrodes ...
The present invention relates generally to systems and methods for electrochemical sensing. Particularly, the invention relates to optimizing bias settings in an electrode system to increase oxygen pr
In this study, a sodalite nanozeolite was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Following the morphology evolution of the sodalite nanozeolite in the SEM images illustrates the formation of the spherical particle with a size between 60 and 80 nm. Then, carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by sodalite nanozeolite and Ni2+ ions. The electrocatalytic performance of the fabricated electrode (Ni-SOD/CPE) towards glucose oxidation were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and Chronoamperometry and it was used as anode for the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in 0.1 M of NaOH solution. Also, the electron transfer coefficient, the diffusion coefficient and the mean value of catalytic rate constant for glucose and redox sites of electrode were found to be 0.86, 3.13×10−5 cm2 s−1 and 5.34×106 cm3 mol−1 s−1, respectively. Good catalytic activity, high sensitivity, good choice and the stability and easy preparation enables the modified
Glutathione (GSH) has been detected with an electrochemical sensor. Different types of modified electrode material (screen-printed graphite, graphite-epoxy resin) have been compared. The best results for analytical determination were obtained with screen-printed graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) at a potential of 0.20 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The analytical determination of GSH is based on the oxidation by a t-butylhydroperoxide catalysed by the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in solution, according to: 2GSH + ROOM → GSSG + H2O + ROH. Calibration curves of GSH standard solutions linear up to 30 µM were obtained in a solution of phosphate buffer (0.05 M phosphate ions, pH = 7) and 0.005 M EDTA. This new procedure seems to be highly reproducible and has the distinct advantage of fast response time, linearity up to 30 µM of glutathione and a detection limit of 4 µM.. ...
The invention discloses a kind of preparation method of lithium-sulfur cell electrode material, the present invention uses graphene oxide for carrier, SiO 2 For template, furancarbinol is carbon source, and oxalic acid is catalyst, prepares porous [email protected] composite material, final product is layered structure, by the above-mentioned layered structure porous [email protected] composite material prepared with sulphur powder is compound prepares high-performance lithium-sulphur battery electrode material;The present invention has many advantages, such as that simple preparation method, easy control of reaction conditions, final electrode material charging and discharging capacity are high;Presoma layered structure porous [email protected] composite material structure novel, the electric conductivity of electrode material is promoted using graphene as conductive carrier, porous carbon can play the role of dispersing sulphur and constraint electric discharge intermediate product polysulfide as
Our company provides plasma reactors using DCSBD plasma systems with flat and curved electrode for continuous, simplex or duplex surface treatment of printed materials. The devices are always tailor-made for specific customer applications and are available in a laboratory, pilot and industrial design.. Atmospheric air. DCSBD generates diffuse type of plasma in air at atmospheric pressure, but also in many other working gases without the addition of noble gas.. Power density. Extremely high power density of plasma up to 100 W/cm-3 allows short plasma exposure times and thus high speed processing.. Homogeneity. The homogeneity of the plasma increases with increasing power density of discharge.. Electrode system. Coplanar electrode system in which generated plasma does not come into contact with metal electrodes has a virtually unlimited lifespan, it means it is no-wear electrode system. Moreover, the system is mechanically robust and machined samples can be mechanically pressed against it to ...
How to Apply sEMG Electrodes The MyoTrac Muscle Monitor ships with a starter package of 3 Triode electrodes. If you want to use a different electrode configuration than the Triode Electrode Pad provides, you can order an Extender Cable.. In order to allow bilateral placement on the same muscle group an Extender Cable (available in lengths of 40 or 21) is available. This extender cable plugs into the end of the Triode Electrode head that ships with the MyoTrac and allows a strip of 3 electrodes to be used together for a Frontalis placement or separated for placements on other muscles bilaterally (such as the temporalis, masseter, trapezius, etc. muscle groups).. We have created a series of illustrations to clarify the process preparing the electrodes for placement. Both the Triode Electrode Pads and the Strip of 3 Electrodes are available in packages of 100. They both feature hypoallergenic adhesive surfaces and silver chloride electrodes that do not need gel applied. Both types of electrodes ...
article{e3604934-e3c4-4e2c-8fa9-23566d3e0157, abstract = {The role of the electrode material in the efficiency of direct (non-mediated) bioelectrocatalytic reduction of H2O2, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is studied and discussed. The variations in direct peroxidase bioelectrocatalysis when coming from carbon/graphite to metal electrodes and oxides, as well as modified electrodes, are analyzed regarding the variations in adsorption/orientation of peroxidase at the electrodes, interfacial electron transfer rates and mechanism of catalysis.}, author = {Ferapontova, Elena}, issn = {1040-0397}, keyword = {Modified electrodes,Silver,Gold,Graphite,Horseradish peroxidase,Bioelectrocatalysis}, language = {eng}, number = {13-14}, pages = {1101--1112}, publisher = {John Wiley & Sons}, series = {Electroanalysis}, title = {Direct peroxidase bioelectrocatalysis on a variety of electrode materials}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elan.200403003}, volume = {16}, year = {2004 ...
A highly reliable biosensor is provided which is reduced in influences of any interfering substance or preexisting oxygen in a sample solution. The biosensor comprises an electrode system including a working electrode, a counter electrode and a third electrode also usable as an interfering substance detecting electrode, a reagent layer containing at least an oxidoreductase and an electron mediator, and an electrically insulating base plate for supporting the electrode system and the reagent layer, wherein the third electrode is arranged at an opposing position to that of at least one of the working electrode and the counter electrode and the reagent layer is arranged at a predetermined position apart from the third electrode.
Abstract The electrochemical response of serotonin on the modified electrode based on multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT) doped respectively with nickel, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles coating on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) at physiological pH7 was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The modified GCE/MWCNT-metal oxide electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of serotonin at large peak current and lower oxidation potentials compared to other electrodes investigated. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was between 5.98×10−3 μM to 62.8μM with detection limits 118, 129 and 166nM for GCE/MWCNT-NiO, GCE/MWCNT-ZnO and GCE/MWCNT-Fe3O4 sensors respectively. GCE-MWCNT-NiO was the best electrode in terms of serotonin current response, electrode stability, resistance to fouling and limit of detection towards the analyte. The developed sensors
Definition of electrochemical reaction by Electropedia. Meaning of electrochemical reaction. Translations of electrochemical reaction. Equivalent terms for electrochemical reaction.
The radial now microring electrode (RFMRE), a new hydrodynamic ultramicroelectrode, is described. In the RFMRE, solution flows from a capillary nozzle, which is positioned very close to a planar substrate using micro-positioners. The RFMRE can be operated in one of two configurations: either (a) with the ring electrode on the capillary or (b) with the ring electrode positioned in the plane of the substrate directly underneath the capillary. In both arrangements, as fluid leaves the capillary, it is forced into the nozzle/substrate gap and flows radially past the ring electrode. Under these conditions, the RFMRE is effectively analogous to a microband channel electrode. The RFMRE is shown to be characterized by well-defined, variable, and high mass-transfer rates under steady-state voltammetric conditions. Mass-transfer coefficients in excess of 2 cm s(-1) have been readily achieved with the RFMRE operating at relatively low volume now rates (1.67 x 10(-2) cm(3) s(-1)). The device thus has ...
A novel glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon-spheres has been fabricated through a simple casting procedure. The modified GCE displays high selectivity and excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA). In the co-existence system, the peak separations between AA and DA, DA and 5-HT, and AA and 5-HT are large up to 230, 180, and 410 mV, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been employed to simultaneously detect DA, 5-HT, and AA, and the linear calibration curves for DA, 5-HT, and AA are obtained in the range of 20.0-150.0 μM, 40.0-750.0 μM and 300.0-2,000.0 μM with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 2.0 μM, 0.7 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. The proposed electrode has been applied to detect DA, 5-HT, and AA in real samples using standard addition method with satisfactory results.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sensitive and Profitable Electrochemical Detection of Uric Acid in the Presence of Dopamine with a Novel Carbon Paste Electrode Decorated with a Copper(II) Complex. AU - Tamayo, Lenka V.. AU - Torres, Juan F.. AU - Llanos-Penagos, Johisner. AU - Calderón, Jorge A.. AU - Nagles, Edgar. AU - García-Beltrán, Olimpo. AU - Hurtado, John J.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2019 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - A new microcomposite with copper(II) complex and carbon paste (CuC/CPE) was developed to determine the uric acid (UA) content in the presence of dopamine (DP) and was characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed high selectivity for UA compared with DP because the anodic peak currents for DP were near those of a CPE without Cuc and were considerably increased for UA. The UA and DP increases were 86.9 % and 14.3 %, respectively, ...
Abstract: Stable electrode modified by aminylferrocene/L-cysteine(L-Cys) was fabricated successfully by linking aminylferrocene to L-Cys self-assembled monolayer(SAM) with coupling reagent. The modified electrode exhibits a pair of reversible redox peaks in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. The electrochemical behaviors of the modified electrode were explored in detail with cyclic voltammetry and a.c. impedance. The apparent electron transfer coefficient and standard rate constant were calculated to be 0.66 and 6.86 s-1 for the modified electrode respectively. The modified electrode shows electrocatalytic activity for oxidation of epinephrine (EP) in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. The peak current was proportional to the concentration of EP in the range of 2.0×10-7~1.0×10-5 mol·dm-3. Key words: Aminylferrocene, L-cysteine, Self-assembled monolayer, Electrocatalysis, Epinephrine ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Self-Assembly of Biomolecules on Electrode Surfaces; Oligonucleotides, Amino Acids, and Proteins towards the Single-Molecule Level. AU - Wackerbarth, Hainer. AU - Zhang, Jingdong. AU - Grubb, Mikala. AU - Hansen, Allan Glargaard. AU - Ooi, Bee Lean. AU - Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager. AU - Ulstrup, Jens. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. M3 - Book chapter. VL - Chapter 15. SP - 485. EP - 516. BT - Electrochemistry of Nucleic Acids and Proteomics. A2 - Palecek, E.. A2 - Scheller, F.. A2 - Wang, J.. PB - Elsevier. CY - Amsterdam. ER - ...
0013]Now referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, two schematic block diagrams and a simplified circuit diagram of an electrode pair and monitor or monitor input circuit may be seen. The sensing electrode for sensing the bio-electric signal VS may be of a conventional monitoring electrode design or a special electrode design fabricated for this specific purpose. The reference electrode design may also be a conventional reference electrode design, if desired, a single electrode or a composite of several electrodes, as is well known in the art of ECG monitoring. It is preferred that the reference electrode be in contact with the body tissue at a greater distance from the bio-electric tissue of interest than the sensing electrode. It is also preferred that the reference electrodes position be constant or experience less motion (less percent change in distance relative to the tissue generating the bio-electric signal of interest) than the sensing electrode. As shown in FIG. 1, the monitor may be a ...
Electrocatalytic mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO) on the highly dispersed Au microparticles electrodeposited on the surface of the glass carbon (GC) electrode in the alkaline Na2CO3/NaHCO3 solution and the surface characteristics of the Au microparticle-modified glass carbon (Au/GC) electrode were studied with in situ FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the final products of HCHO oxidation is HCOO- at the Au/GC electrode and CO2 at the bulk Au electrode. The difference may be ascribed to the different surface characteristics between the Au/GC electrode and the bulk Au electrode. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved ...
In this study, a carbon electrode electroless polymerization of polypyrrole, which formed a layer of conductive film interface,then absorped a layer of carbon nanotube particles by the way of self-assembled, is studied. The modified electrode is used to electrostatic adherence of formaldehyde dehydrogenase, with Nafion solution capped. Moreover this paper discusses the work of electrode position, PH value and scanning speed on the influence of the electrode response, the response potential is -1.2v, the optimal PH value is 7.5, and we also review the linear range of this electrode, we discovered taht this biosensor have a good linear relationship with the concentration of 1ug/ml-360ug/ml, the Correlation coefficient is 0.9983. In addition,with the stability of this electrode tested, it can be stored 15d at4°C.
Precis of the Global Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) Market 2017 Research Report Explore Professional Survey, Market Professional, and more!. The market research report provides a detailed analysis and data about the Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) market statistical study, the key players, growth dynamics, and geographical analysis. The report provides the information concerning the factors that impel the growth of the Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) global industry. The Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies(MEA) market constitute of the leading groups which play a vital role in the product sales, manufacturing, production, distribution of the products in order to meet the supply and demand chain. A detailed study of the global market share of the past and the future along with the predictable forecast trends is also mentioned in the present report.. ...
A NEW ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR BASED ON MODIFIED CARBON NANOTUBE-GRAPHITE MIXTURE PASTE ELECTRODE FOR VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF RESORCINOL
TY - CHAP. T1 - Microcoaxial electrode for local nitric oxide measurement in biological systems. AU - Kitamura, Yoshiichiro. AU - Uzawa, Tomoyuki. AU - Oka, Kotaro. AU - Komai, Yutaka. AU - Ogawa, Hiroto. AU - Kobayashi, Hirosuke. AU - Takizawa, Naosada. AU - Tanishita, Kazuo. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - A new nitric oxide (NO) selective electrode was developed. The tip diameter of the NO electrode is less than 10 μm. A working and a reference electrodes are located coaxially at the tip of the NO electrode. A stable NO donor SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine) and a putative NO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) was used to examine the response of the electrode. Considering the instantaneous concentration of NO secretion previously reported in biological systems, 0.1, 1 μM NO solution was used to calibrate the electrode. From the result of the test of the electrode with SNAP and Hb, we confirmed this microcoaxial NO electrode can detect NO released from SNAP directly and continuously. From the ...
A robust pH sensor from Endress+Hauser can now solve the problem of reference contamination commonly experienced during pH measurement in ultra harsh conditions such as mining slurries and paper & pulp applications.. pH measurement within ultra harsh applications that include high solid content poses several challenges. Because of the harmful ions that defuse into the pH electrode reference system and the high solid content, the potential to disable the electrode by blocking the diaphragm under these extreme conditions is high. The surface area of the pH electrode diaphragm therefore needs to be enlarged to avoid blockage. However this increases the risk of reference contamination as the diaphragm is porous and more harmful ions can now enter the reference system of the pH electrode.. Traditionally, these enlarged diaphragms have been made from wood due to its resistance to contamination, but the wooden diaphragm is relatively thick and slows down the electrodes response time. In most critical ...
An electrochemical impedance technique which measures the impedance between two reference electrodes placed on opposite sides of the working electrode, and which can be used for the determination of the effective conductivity in the pore electrolyte in a porous electrode is presented. Information about the electroactive surface area and kinetic parameters can also be obtained from these measurements. A theoretical expression for the evaluation of the experimental results has been derived and analysed. The high frequency intercept of the impedance curve with the real axis will give the external ohmic resistance for electrode materials with an infinitely high conductivity. Even at very low frequencies, some of the current passing through the electrode will pass through the electrode in the solid material. The relative importance of this transfer of current in the solid phase through the electrode can be determined for the general case by the dimensionless quantity λ, which depends on the ...
The present invention provides a high-performance glucose sensor having excellent storage stability and an improved response characteristic. This sensor comprises: an electrically insulating base plate; an electrode system including at least a working electrode and a counter electrode formed on the base plate; and a reaction layer containing at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase, formed in contact with or in the vicinity of the electrode system, and the reaction layer contains at least one kind of additive selected from the group consisting of gluconic acid and salts thereof.
The present invention provides a high-performance glucose sensor having excellent storage stability and an improved response characteristic. This sensor comprises: an electrically insulating base plate; an electrode system including at least a working electrode and a counter electrode formed on the base plate; and a reaction layer containing at least pyrrolo-quinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase, formed in contact with or in the vicinity of the electrode system, and the reaction layer contains at least one kind of additive selected from the group consisting of gluconic acid and salts thereof.
Cardiology Specialty Multi-Function Electrodes, with a low viscosity gel that provides the best skin coupling, are designed to virtually eliminate dermal damage in special procedure areas of the hospital.. Radiolucent Multi-Function Electrodes are designed to provide an unobstructed view of the coronary arteries during x-ray studies. Available in solid or liquid gel.. Biphasic Multi-Function Electrodes are part of the complete Rectilinear Biphasic™ system -ZOLLs breakthrough technology-proven to achieve superior results in cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Lower energy levels combined with the unique liquid gel technology virtually eliminate post-procedural dermal damage.. Sterile Multi-Function Electrodes, with a unique two-pouch system that allows placement of the posterior electrode prior to surgery, are optimal for use in the operating room. They are also available with 10-foot (3-meter) lead wires.. Pacing Only Electrodes are long-term pacing electrodes proven to work with ZOLLs ...
A review. The data reported in literature demonstrate that screen-printed carbon electrodes are very suitable for supporting nucleic-acid layers and to transduce effectively the DNA recognition event and many works have been devoted to developing self contained screen-printed DNA chips. In an effort to develop a rapid and efficient scheme for immobilizing nucleic acids onto carbon screen-printed transducers, many authors took advantage of the strong adsorptive accumulation of these biomols. at the screen-printed carbon surfaces. In particular, many of them reported that electrochem. adsorption (adsorption controlled by a pos. potential) enhances the stability of the probe and this technique was preferentially chosen. Thus, this review will focus on an electrochem. genosensor developed using carbon screen-printed electrodes as the transducers; the methods to immobilize DNA probes onto carbon based surfaces will be reviewed and special emphasis will be given to the description of the electrochem. ...
Electrode combinations.Red electrodes are used for current injunction, and green electrodes are used for voltage measurement. The combinations can be divided in
Get the most from your R Series® resuscitation platform with OneStep Electrodes for adults and pediatrics. OneStep Complete Electrodes for adults offer high-current defibrillation and capture CPR quality. These electrodes can also be used for monitoring and for cardioversion, and to deliver constant-current pacing-without the need for a separate three-lead ECG cable.. OneStep Pediatric CPR Electrodes provide the only CPR support for children under 55 pounds, while also enabling defibrillation, pacing, and cardioversion. When pediatric electrodes are attached, the R Series automatically reduces the starting energy to 50 joules to ensure safe defibrillation.. OneStep Electrodes can remain pre-connected, even during a 30-joule shock test, because of a patented dual-circuit design. There is no need to disconnect the electrodes to test the defibrillator, meaning readiness is not compromised.. ...
Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzers (PEMEs) are the key to integrating renewable energy generation with energy storage to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global climate change. The commercialization of large PEME systems, however, requires improvements to electrode design, performance, and reduction of material costs. In particular, reducing the precious metal loading at the oxygen producing electrode (anode) is critical to making PEME commercially competitive. Measuring the electrode potentials separately is imperative to understanding and improving cell performance. A reliable reference electrode (RE) can provide much more precise information about the anode performance. A RE was developed for PEME application. The efficacy of the RE was confirmed by two parametric studies. The first parametric study served to demonstrate that the combined individual electrode potentials measured with the RE were exactly consistent with the overall potential difference of the cell. A ...
A defibrillation pulse generator and lead system particularly adapted to allow for implant in a single incision and subcutaneous pocket. The electrode system consists of a right ventricular electrode and a combined, subcutaneously implanted pulse generator housing and flexible periprerally extending electrode. The flexible electrode extends in a generally co-planar relation with respect to the major surfaces of the device housing and may comprise a plurality of electrode segments electrically connected in common with the device housing and distributed over a flexible electrode pad.
METHODS: Stainless steel (SS) electrodes (n=4) were submerged in 37°C +/-0.5°C 1X phosphate buffered saline and incubated over ~200 hours during which EIS and CV were performed 3X daily using a three electrode system. During EIS, a sinusoidal stimulation with amplitude of 10 mV with respect to the open circuit potential was applied at frequencies from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. CV was completed by sweeping the potential on the working electrode from an initial voltage and upper limit of 0.8 V to a lower limit of -0.6 V using a scan rate of 1000 mV/s. The mean CSCc of the four experimental electrodes was then calculated and differences were quantified using a linear regression model. The initial 10 hours of incubation time during testing were excluded from models to focus on long term stability as opposed to initial electrode fluctuations ...
Lithium-ion battery technology remains to be the heart in operating the majority of new commercial mobile devices and electrical vehicles. Thus, even though it is more than 25 years ago Sony introduced the worlds first commercial Li-ion battery, there is still today a demand for cheaper and safer battery materials with higher energy density. In order to meet this demand, an increased fundamental understanding of the detailed structural and microstructural transformations and electrochemical reactions taking place in Li-ion batteries is needed. For this purpose we have developed special capillary-based micro-battery cells allowing diffraction information to be obtained from only the active electrode material during battery operation. We have used the cell to study structural and microstructural changes during battery operation by in situ / operando synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Operando XRPD studies of both cathode and anode materials will be presented as examples of the ...
Ceramic proton conductors have the potential to become an essential part of future clean energy systems - from fuel cells to steam electrolysers and catalytic membrane reactors. The project gathers world-leading industry (CoorsTek), high research excellence institute (SINTEF) and university (UiO FASE) to develop innovative segmented-in-series proton conducting ceramic cells integrating novel composite glass-ceramic interconnects and nanostructured electrodes for stable operation of highly efficient steam methane reforming reactors. To tackle this ambitious objective, the project builds on the core expertise of the partners and addresses two distinct research activities underpinning the development of these novel reactors: hierarchically porous electrodes with a nanostructured porous network for improved catalytic activity confined in a macroporous network ensuring fast mass transport; and development of an integrated composite interconnect and seal ensuring dual functions of gas tightness and ...
Dealing with complete cells is a lot to think about at once. Chemists recognized this and developed the notion that they could theoretically separate the anode and cathode parts of the cell (impossible in practice, or a complete circuit wouldnt be present). Using this assumption, they could consider only the oxidation or reduction reaction, one at a time. So the concept of an electrode potential value was born. The conventional standard conditions mentioned above express this as a standard electrode potential. Even then, as in all of thermodynamics, chemists cannot readily establish absolute values. All standard electrode potential values are established relative to a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is defined as having a potential of 0.000 volts. Students should consult their textbooks for details on the construction of a standard hydrogen electrode. The AP Chemistry Examination is unlikely to address this subject.. For student reference, the AP Chemistry Exam includes a table ...
In this study, Pt-Ir binary electrodes were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical techniques, and CO stripping. The effect of Ir loading in electrocatalytic activity was also explored. It was found that Ir doping up to 80 % resulted in an increase of the electrochemically active surface (EAS) area and better electrocatalytic performance toward methanol electrooxidation reaction (MOR). The above conclusion was confirmed by CO stripping experiments as well as during oxidation of methanol where the electrodes were used as anodes in a one-compartment cell. The electrode with the lower Pt loading (i.e., 20 %) exhibited better electrocatalytic activity than the pure Pt anode. The observed higher performances of Ir loading electrodes were attributed to the enhanced EAS of the Pt-Ir binary electrodes and the electronic interactions between Pt and Ir atoms.. Keywords: Pt-Ir electrodes ; Methanol oxidation ...
It is shown, for the first time, that a bare carbon paste electrode can be used for the simultaneous quantification of anti-inflammatory drugs: naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DCF) and acetaminophen (ACT) in aqueous media. The analytical features are: 19 ± 7, 4.1 ± 1.9 and 3.7 ± 1.5 μM as detection limits of DCF
An enzyme electrode based on a glass electrode for measuring penicillin-V concentration is described. In preparing this electrode, penicillinase is immobilized by cross-linking with a very fine film of glutaraldehyde, which is sprayed directly over the sensitive end of a pH glass electrode. The penicillin sensor was used for the determination of penicillin-V concentrations in phosphate buffer, fermentation broth and dairy milk, the ranges of concentrations detected being 1.5-15, 2.5-15 and 2-12 mM, respectively. The linearity, stability, sensitivity, reversibility and pH and buffer strength dependence of the electrode were examined and are discussed. An extremely short response time of less than 10 s is obtained with electrodes made in this manner.
Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide production via cathodic reduction of oxygen on self-made gas diffusion electrode was studied in an undivided system. The effects of mass ratio between graphite and PTFE, cathodic potential, pH, and gas flow rate on hydrogen peroxide output were investigated. When the mass ratio between graphite and PTFE was 2:1, pH=3, Na2SO4 concentration was 0.1 mol•L−1, oxygen flow rate was 0.4 L•min−1, and cathodic potential was −0.55 V (vs SCE), hydrogen peroxide concentration could reach about 60 mg•L−1 after 2 h. It had a good hydrogen peroxide output and current efficiency. The pH values applicable to hydrogen peroxide production could be extended to a wide range in this undivided system and this novel gas diffusion electrode system is expected to be applicable in waste water treatment. Key words: Gas diffusion electrode, Cathodic potential, Oxygen reduction, Hydrogen peroxide, Current efficiency ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in biphasic electrode impedance with protein adsorption and cell growth. AU - Newbold, Carrie. AU - Richardson, Rachael. AU - Millard, Rodney. AU - Huang, Christie. AU - Milojevic, Dusan. AU - Shepherd, Robert. AU - Cowan, Robert. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - This study was undertaken to assess the contribution of protein adsorption and cell growth to increases in electrode impedance that occur immediately following implantation of cochlear implant electrodes and other neural stimulation devices. An in vitro model of the electrode-tissue interface was used. Radiolabelled albumin in phosphate buffered saline was added to planar gold electrodes and electrode impedance measured using a charge-balanced biphasic current pulse. The polarization impedance component increased with protein adsorption, while no change to access resistance was observed. The maximum level of protein adsorbed was measured at 0.5 μg cm-2, indicating a tightly packed monolayer of albumin molecules ...
CarboGraphite Group was establishe in 1992, 27 years of production experience,which is one of the earliest and biggest suppliers of high-quality Graphite Electrode and carbon products in China.Which is specialized in R&D, manufactures and sales of various graphite electrodes. Including Electrodes For Sales Uhp,Uhp Graphite Electrode With Nipples,UHP Graphite Electrode,Price Uhp Graphite Electrode,Graphite Electrode Uhp For Arc Furnace, Uhp Graphite Electrode Spot. The company has a production capacity of 50,000 tons of graphite electrode,200,000 tons of Electrode Paste,150,000 tons of refined petroleumcoke,100,000 tons of pre-baked anode, 50,000 tons of carbon brick,special sealing paste, 50,000 tons of Refractory material. Our company has domestic advanced quality inspection system and perfect after-sales service team, to the masses of customers to provide quality products and good technical services, and is willing to cooperate sincerely with new and old friends. Raw Materials:Needle ...
In this paper, an electrochemical application of bismuth film modified glassy carbon electrode for azo-colorants determination was investigated. Bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) was prepared by ex-situ depositing of bismuth onto glassy carbon electrode. The plating potential was −0.78 V (vs. SCE) in a solution of 0.15 mg mL−1 Bi(III) and 0.05 mg mL−1 KBr for 180 s. In the next step, a thin film of chitosan was deposited on the surface of bismuth modified glassy carbon electrode, thus the bismuth-chitosan thin film modified glassy carbon electrode (Bi-CHIT/GCE) was fabricated and compared with bare GCE and bismuth modified GCE.Azo-colorants such as Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine were determined on these electrodes by differential pulse voltammetry. Due to overlapping peaks of Sunset Yellow and Carmoisine, simultaneous determination of them is not possible, so net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) was used for this determination. The results showed that coated chitosan can enhance ...
A process for producing an electrode material for a rechargeable lithium battery, comprising the steps of mixing a metal compound (a) of a metal (a′) capable of being electrochemically alloyed with lithium, a transition metal compound (b) of a transition metal (b′) and a complexing agent (c) with a solvent (d) to obtain a mixed solution, mixing a reducing agent (e) with said mixed solution to obtain a mixture, and oxidizing said reducing agent in said mixture to reduce ion of said metal (a′) and ion of said transition metal (b′) to obtain an amorphous alloy material capable of being electrochemically alloyed with lithium as said electrode material. An electrode structural body in which said electrode material is used, and a rechargeable lithium battery in which said electrode material is used.
2014 American Chemical Society. The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and establish a link between morphology and processing conditions. Our analysis indicates that vertical phase segregation of P3HT:PCBM blend strongly depends on the electrode material and thermal annealing schedule. A thin P3HT-rich film is formed on the top, regardless of ...
CarboGraphite Group is specialized in R&D, manufaturing and marketing of various graphite electrodes.The company was established in 1992, 27 years of production experience,which is one of the earliest and biggest suppliers of high-quality Graphite Electrode and carbon products in China. We produce Size 450 Plus 2100 Mm,HP 450 Graphite Electrode,HP 500 Graphite Electrode,HP 550 Graphite Electrode,HP 600 Graphite Electrode.The products has exported to Italy,Russia,Egypt,Singpore,Iran,Pakistan,Ukraine. The company has a production capacity of 50,000 tons of graphite electrode , 150,000 tons of refined petroleumcoke, 100,000 tons of pre-baked anode, 50,000 tons of carbon brick, 200,000 tons of Electrode Paste, special sealing paste, 50,000 tons of Refractory material. ...
Eight randomized placebo-controlled trials provide further evidence that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) may benefit motor function of the paretic upper limb in patients with chronic stroke, say authors of a meta-analysis published online in Journal of Hand Therapy. Prior reviews on the effects of a-tDCS have shown the effectiveness of a-tDCS on corticomotor excitability and motor function in healthy individuals but nonsignificant effect in participants with stroke. To summarize and evaluate the evidence for the efficacy of a-tDCS in the treatment of upper limb motor impairment after stroke, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared a-tDCS with placebo and change from baseline.. A pooled analysis showed a significant increase in scores in favor of a-tDCS (standard mean difference [SMD]=0.40, compared with baseline). A similar effect was observed between a-tDCS and sham (SMD=0.49). APTA members Margaret Shuster, PT, Kevin Hurley, ...
Enhancement of pinch force in the lower leg by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Differential capacitances were measured in 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (PMIBF4) ionic liquid at three different electrode substrates (Hg, GC (glassy carbon) and Au) as a function of potential. Essentially different capacitance-potential curves were obtained at different electrodes. From the parabolic electrocapillary curve measured at dropping Hg electrode in PMIBF4, the potential of zero charge (PZC) was found to be −0.31 V vs. Ag/AgCl (wire). However, the capacitance-potential curve at Hg electrode was found not to show any valley related to the PZC, whereas at GC and Au electrodes a minimum was observed at 0.29 and −0.51 V, respectively. The results are in disagreement with the recent theoretical study which implies that the capacitance-potential curve should be of bell shape with the maximum value of capacitance at PZC. The parabolic capacitance-potential curve similar to those obtained in inorganic molten salts was also observed for the first time at GC electrode. Probable
The polarographic measurement of tissue oxygenation is one of the most widely used methods in clinical practice for the quantification of tumour hypoxia. However, due to the particular features of the electrode measuring process, the results of the measurements do not accurately reflect the tumour oxygenation. This study aimed to find a correlation between the electrode measurements and the tumour oxygenation in an attempt to improve the accuracy of the predictions regarding the response to treatment based on electrode measurements. A previously developed computer model that allows the simulation of tumour tissue and electrode measurements was used. The oxygenation of a large number of tumours with biologically relevant distributions of blood vessels was theoretically calculated. Simulations of electrode measurements allowed the comparison between the real tissue oxygenation and the results obtained with the electrode. A semi-empirical relationship between the hypoxic fraction measured by the ...
Orient Carbon Industry is one the largest carbon, graphite electrode supplier and manufacturer in the north of China. They are the only products that can sustain high heat levels. Graphite electrodes come into RP Graphite electrodes, HP Graphite electrodes.
The ability of alkali-substituted binders for composite Si and graphite negative electrodes to minimize capacity fade for lithium ion batteries is investigated. Polymer films and electrodes are described and characterized by FTIR following immersion in electrolyte (1:2 EC:DMC) for 24 h. FTIR analysis following electrode formation displayed similar alkali-ion dependent shifts in peak location suggesting that changes in the vibrational structure of the binder are maintained after electrode formation. The Si and graphite composite electrodes prepared using the alkali-substituted polyacrylates were also exposed to electrochemical cycling and it has been found that the performance of the Na-substituted binder is superior to a comparable density K-substituted system. However, in comparing performance across many different electrode densities attention needs to be placed on making comparisons at similar densities, as low density electrodes tend to exhibit lower capacity fade over cycling. This is ...
A fuel cell electrode material comprising a cermet which comprises metal particles consisting of cobalt and nickel and electrolyte particles consisting of solid oxides, wherein the metal particles comprise 20 to 90 mol % cobalt and the residue of nickel in terms of CoO and NiO, respectively, and a solid oxide fuel cell battery comprising a fuel cell which comprises a solid electrolyte base, a fuel electrode formed on a fuel compartment side of the base, and an air electrode formed on an air compartment side of the base, wherein the fuel electrode is formed from the electrode material of the present invention.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrocatalytic oxidation of dihydronicotineamide adenine dinucleotide on gold electrode modified with catechol-terminated alkanethiol self-assembly. AU - Nakano, Koji. AU - Ohkubo, Kimihiko. AU - Taira, Hiroaki. AU - Takagi, Makoto. AU - Imato, Toshihiko. N1 - Funding Information: This work was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture of Japan. Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/6/30. Y1 - 2008/6/30. N2 - Synthesis of a mercaptoundecaneamide derivative having a terminus of catechol is described. FT-IR spectroscopic characterization showed that the new molecular entry simply undergoes molecular self-assembly on Au substrate surfaces promoting intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form well-packed monolayers. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements on the monolayer-modified Au electrode revealed that the surface adlayer possesses specific electrochemical ...
The aim of this thesis work has been to study textile and screen printed smartware electrodes for electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements both in terms of their electrode properties and possibility to further improve their robustness to movement induced noise by using signal processing. Smartware electrodes for ECG measurements have previously been used in various applications but basic electrical electrode properties have not sufficiently been looked into. Furthermore, we believe that there is a possibility to reduce disturbances in the smartware ECG by adding redundant sensors and applying sensor fusion signal processing.. Electrical properties of conductive textiles have been evaluated in terms of stability and electrode impedance. Three yarns and textile electrode surfaces were tested. The electrodes made from pure stainless steel and 50\% stainless steel/ 50\% polyester showed acceptable stability of electrode potentials. All electrode measurements were performed on skin.. Furthermore, we ...
Electrodeposition of Silver Amalgam Particles on Screen-Printed Silver Electrodes in Voltammetric Detection of 4-Nitrophenol and Artificial Nucleosides dTPT3 and d5SICS
In addition to the two parallel plate electrodes (denoted as Counter and Working electrode), a third voltage reference electrode is placed close to the polarization layer and measures the voltage difference of the polarization double layer capacity to the working electrode. In contrast to dielectric, conductivity and impedance material spectroscopy where all electrodes are made of inert metal as e.g. gold, stainless steel or platinum, this applies for the electrochemical cell only for the counter electrode feeding current into the electrolyte.. The working electrode consists of the metal to be characterized in combination with the electrolyte. The reference electrode is usually an open tipped glass capillary filled with a standard electrolyte coupled to a standard metal in order to create a defined electrochemical potential to the electrolyte.. The total potential drop across the cell is summed up by all contributions of the chemical process like mass transport, chemical and adsorption steps, ...
Electrodes used only with LIFEPAK EXPRESS AED, LIFEPAK CR Plus AED, LIFEPAK 1000 defibrillator, or LIFEPAK 500 Biphasic AED with a pink connector. AUDIENCE: Risk Manager, Emergency Medicine. ISSUE: Physio-Control announced it is launching a voluntary field action for specific production lots of Infant/Child Reduced Energy Defibrillation Electrodes (defibrillation electrodes) produced by Cardinal Health. The company is notifying customers of an issue with the artwork on the defibrillation electrodes, as manufactured by Cardinal Health, which shows incorrect electrode placement for an infant. There is no issue with the performance or function of the defibrillation electrodes; this is limited to incorrect artwork on the defibrillation electrodes within the packaging.. If the user incorrectly places the defibrillation electrodes, it may result in ineffective energy delivery to the patient and serious injury or death.. BACKGROUND: The defibrillation electrodes are used only with LIFEPAK EXPRESS AED, ...
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a phenomenon in which force exerted on a dielectric particle when it is subjected to a nonuniform electric field. There are many applications of dielectrophoresis and one of them is the separation of particles. In this paper, castellated and straight electrodes are being introduced for negative dep filter of an artificial kidney. In order to avoid the filters from clogging, negative dep will take part to repel the particles. Thus, a simulation by using COMSOL Multiphysics had been done to compare the electrical performances of electrodes. The intensities of electric field were stimulated on the planar electrodes from top to bottom and left to right. Electrodes are made of aluminum and both have thickness of 50μm. Distance between the castellated electrodes are 100μm while the straight electrodes are 300μm. Three graph of electric field vs. length had been compared. The first comparison shows that both designs have similar flow of electric field. The second graphs ...
Autori: Radoi, A, Litescu, SC, Eremia, SAV, Miu, M, Danila, M, Dinescu, A, Radu, GL. Editorial: MICROCHIMICA ACTA, 175, p.97-104 , 2011.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: Carbon nanotubes; (Poly)crystalline gold; Glassy carbon electrode; NADH. ...
In this work, a TiO2 nanoparticle modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was employed as a sensitive sensor for the investigation of the electrochemical behavior of indomethacin (IND). This nanocomposite sensor has been fabricated by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles and the ionic liquid 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate (HPFP). The surface of the electrode was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for quantification of sub-micromolar amounts of IND. Electrochemical parameters of the electrode reaction of IND, including the electron transfer coefficient (α) and the electron-transfer number (n), were calculated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) methods. Under selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear for the concentration of IND in the broad range of 1.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 M with the detection limit of 2.1× 10-8 M. Moreover, the analytical performance of the proposed method for the determination of IND content in plasma
The present invention is generally directed to various methods of controlling gate electrode doping, and various systems for accomplishing same. In one illustrative embodiment, the method disclosed herein comprises performing at least one process operation to form a doped layer of gate electrode material, measuring a sheet resistance of the doped layer of gate electrode material and adjusting at least one parameter of at least one process if the measured sheet resistance does not fall within acceptable limits. In one embodiment, the system is comprised of a process tool for performing at least one process operation to form a doped layer of gate electrode material, a metrology tool for measuring a sheet resistance of the doped layer of gate electrode material and a controller for adjusting at least one parameter of at least one process operation if the measured sheet resistance of the doped layer of gate electrode material does not fall within acceptable limits.
The response time of thermal electrolytic Ag/AgCl reference electrodes is defined by the porous structure that limits the rate at which traces of any previous solution are diluted by any new solution environment. The electrode stabilisation time when transferred from one electrolyte to another has been shown to change when different structural designs to the conventional sphere of Ag/AgCl are used. Electrodes fabricated with cylindrical architectures of Ag/AgCl have shown improved stability and reach equilibrium faster than spherical electrodes. This work has positive implications for the accuracy and throughput of primary pH measurements made using the Harned cell.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavior Modification of Nanostructured PbO₂ Electrodes in Lead Acid Batteries Changing Electrolyte Concentration and Separator. AU - Inguanta, Rosalinda. AU - Sunseri, Carmelo. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Currently, lead acid battery is extensively investigated owing to its prevalent use as a starting-lighting and ignition device. An essential role for electrochemical reactions is played by the surface area available for conversion reactions and a possible approach is the use of nanostructured electrodes. In this work, lead dioxide nanostructured electrodes were tested in order to investigate the dependence of the charge and discharge behaviour on some parameters such as electrolyte concentration, and a new type of thin separator. In this last case, it is possible to reduce the size of the cell by using a very thin separator comparable to the nanostructured electrode thickness. Besides, a low concentration of electrolyte was also tested for studying its influence on the ...
In the present work, an electrochemical sensor for detection of paracetamol was fabricated by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) decorated with bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) based on using the drop dry technique. The prepared composite electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and square wave voltammetry (SWV) were used to study the behavior of paracetamol. The modification process improved the redox kinetics of paracetamol as shown by increased peak currents. The peak current varied linearly with increment of paracetamol concentration in the range of 0.02 to 28 μM with a sensitivity of 1.133 μA μM−1. A detection limit of 0.0052 μM was obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of paracetamol in biological samples
The concentration of bile acids is an important parameter in hepatobiliary tract diseases. This work deals with the electrochemical oxidation of the chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) at boron dopped diamond (BDD) electrode in comparison with the oxidation at glassy carbon (GCE) and platinum electrode (PtE), in a mixed environment of acetonitrile and water (0.26 % from 0.1 mol·l-1 HClO4, supporting electrolyte). The measurement was carried out in an electrochemical cell with salt bridge containing 0.5 mol·l-1 NaClO4 separating the working and the Pleskovs reference electrode (0.01 mol·l-1 AgNO3 and 1 mol·l-1 NaClO4 in acetonitrile). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) characterization of BDD electrode by a redox pair [Fe(CN)6]4-/3- (c = 0.1 mmol·l-1) in 1 mol·l-1 KCl was performed. Quasi-reversible behaviour was observed and the difference of the anodic and the cathodic peak potential ranged from 80 to 200 mV, depending on the scan rate. Alumina polishing (4 min) of the BDD electrode was ...
Monodispersed Pt nanocatalyst-doped and undoped assemblies of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were aligned with high anisotropy on a multi-layered ceramic/metal electrode system (MLES), which was used as a cheap and cost-effective electrode system, by dielectrophoretic orientation to form linear dens
Lithium-ion batteries have become the rechargeable energy storage system of choice for portable electronic devices due to their high energy density and specific energy capacity compared to other commercial battery technologies. They have enabled important development possible especially in portable consumer electronics such as smart phones, laptop computers since their first use in 1991. However, even the best batteries available provide insufficient energy density and durability for emerging electric transportation systems, including hybrid and fully electric vehicles (EVs). One way to address the capacity and cycle requirement of batteries for EVs is to pursue the development of new electrode materials.. Commercial lithium-ion batteries use graphite as anode material, which has a theoretical specific capacity of only 372 mAh g-1. Lithium (Li) reacts with graphite via intercalation mechanism, which is the insertion/extraction of Li ions in interstitial sites of the host lattice. In contrast, ...
The Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode makes the measure of potassium ions portable. When used with a Vernier LabQuest 2, the Potassium ISE can be used to take readings in the field at lakes or streams. This sensor is easier to set up and use than other methods of measuring potassium ion concentration in aqueous solutions. Because it is a stick-style sensor, its use is similar to using a conductivity probe or a pH sensor in a laboratory setting or in the field. Ion-Selective Electrodes require good chemical technique and careful calibration to obtain accurate results. They are not recommended for middle school or elementary students. We recommend that you do not purchase Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode replacement modules too far in advance of their expected time of use; degradation occurs while replacement modules are stored on the shelf.
The Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode makes the measure of potassium ions portable. When used with a Vernier LabQuest 2, the Potassium ISE can be used to take readings in the field at lakes or streams. This sensor is easier to set up and use than other methods of measuring potassium ion concentration in aqueous solutions. Because it is a stick-style sensor, its use is similar to using a conductivity probe or a pH sensor in a laboratory setting or in the field.. Ion-Selective Electrodes require good chemical technique and careful calibration to obtain accurate results. They are not recommended for middle school or elementary students.. We recommend that you do not purchase Potassium Ion-Selective Electrode replacement modules too far in advance of their expected time of use; degradation occurs while replacement modules are stored on the shelf. ...
An electrolytic cell is provided that can include: a first electrode plate including a first surface that can include a graphite material; a second electrode plate including a second surface that can include a graphite material opposing the first surface; an electrolytic reaction zone between the first surface and the second surface; and an inlet to and an outlet from the electrolytic reaction zone. The first electrode plate and the second electrode plate can include resin-impregnated monolithic graphite plates. The first electrode plate and the second electrode plate can form opposite internal walls of a chamber for the electrolytic reaction and thus can be provided without a container for containing the electrode plates. Methods are also provided for flow-through-resin-impregnating porous, monolithic graphite plates to form electrode plates.
In this paper, the behavior of the salicylate anion-selective electrode was studied using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. Considering the diagram of the charge transfer resistance and -logarithm of the double layer capacitance versus -logarithm of the concentration, linear range concentration increased to 1.0×10^{-8}-1.0×10^{-1} M and 1.0×10^{-9}-1.0×10^{-1} M, respectively. Among the other characteristics of this study, it can be pointed out a wide pH range of 4.0-10.0. Then one-impedance for one-concentration method was used to measure the salicylate ion at the linear range of 1.0×10^{-8}-1.0×10^{-1} M. Finally, the impedance spectra of this electrode were simulated in which the obtained results of this simulation indicate proximity of experimental and simulation data.
Working with Prof. Barsoums group, we have investigated MXenes as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. MXenes have an advantage over other electrode materials, which is an excellent ability to handle high cycling rates. Also, we have studied some of the MXene materials as electrodes for supercapacitors and their performance is highlighted by high volumetric capacitance.. ...
Optical roughness of a pyrolytic graphite electrode with basal (PGEb) and edge orientation (PGEe), a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and the same electrodes modified with mercury (MFE) was studied by an optical diffractive element (DOE) based sensor. Electrochemical characterisation of these electrodes used was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and capacitance measurements (C-E curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS). The kinetics of phase transients of adenosine adsorbed on PGEb, and GCE modified with mercury layer of different thicknesses (thickness was changed from 0.02 to 2 mum) was studied by chronoamperometry (j-t curves) and capacitance measurements (C-E curves). In acidic (pH 5) solution adenosine forms two different two-dimensional (2D) physisorbed condensed layers on the MFE. The first of these (region 1) is located at more positive potential; the centre of this adlayer is situated around -0.4 V. The second 2D physisorbed film (region 111) is formed at more negative ...
A hydrogen-occlusion electrode and a method of manufacturing the electrode are described. The hydrogen-occlusion electrode comprises from about 42-84 vol. % of a hydrogen-occlusion alloy, from about 3-13 vol. % of a bonding material, from about 3-15 vol. % of an electroconductive material, and has residual pores in an amount of 10-30 vol. %. The electroconductive material has an average particle size of 1.3 .mu.m or less. The bonding material is preferably polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdf). In manufacturing the foregoing hydrogen-occlusion electrode, a formed electrode plate body including PVdF as a bonding material is heat-treated in a vacuum or inert gas atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 160.degree. C. to about 200.degree. C. An electrode is thereby obtained wherein the alloy particles are prevented from separating from the electrode resulting in an improvement of mechanical strength and electroconductivity in the electrode. When the
Horiba Chloride Ion Electrode - 8002-10C Horiba Ion Selective Electrodes This electrode is for measuring the chloride ion concentration in aqueous samples. The measurement range is 0.35 to 35,000 mg/L Cl-.