NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): Basic Mechanisms of Health Effects (R01 - Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-17-476. ODP
E-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently attracted considerable attention for several reasons. Compared with combustible cigarettes, these (1) deliver nicotine without combustion, (2) are thought to be less toxic,1-8 (3) can be used to reduce nicotine craving/withdrawal,3 ,9-13 (4) tend to be less expensive2 ,3 ,8 ,14 ,15 and (5) can potentially help one quit combustible cigarette smoking/prevent relapse.1-4 ,6-8 ,15-21. While there is great variability in the design and performance of ENDS within and across brands, characterising features include the use of a battery or other power source, and a heating element that when activated delivers an aerosol mist from a solution most often containing tobacco-derived nicotine, flavourings and other ingredients.22 ,23 ENDS typically fall into three categories: disposable ciga-like products, rechargeable ciga-like products and larger rechargeable products (ie, personal vapourisers, tank systems). In addition to ...
Alison L. Glascoe, DDS, MS, and Ronald S. Brown, DDS, MS, discuss electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, including related regulatory and oral/public health issues. This article is peer-reviewed and available for 2 hours of CE credit. Learning Objectives: After participating in this CE activity, the individual will learn: Cigarette smoking and nicotine exposure is a co-factor for promoting periodontitis. Current status of electronic nicotine delivery systems including regulatory and public health issues. ...
Open peer review is a system where authors know who the reviewers are, and the reviewers know who the authors are. If the manuscript is accepted, the named reviewer reports are published alongside the article. Pre-publication versions of the article and author comments to reviewers are available by contacting [email protected] All previous versions of the manuscript and all author responses to the reviewers are also available.. You can find further information about the peer review system here.. ...
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Replacement cartridges are sold in packs, which had labels with more information than cartridges and cartridge wrappers. However, packs in general were not uniformly labelled within or between brands (figure 1B-E).. Except for NJOY and Crown Seven, no packs indicated nicotine concentration, although all manufacturers attempted to indicate strength (eg, high, medium, no nicotine) and flavour. VapCigs packs had only strength (on all packs) and flavour (some packs) plus the letters VC to indicate brand (figure 1B). Liberty Stix packs had flavour and strength with a handwritten dot next to a checkbox (figure 1C). Crown Seven indicated strength with a handwritten dot and flavour with either a handwritten dot or a small sticker (not shown). Terminology was inconsistent on Crown Sevens packs. For example, one pack had a handwritten dot next to espresso, while another had a coffee sticker. It was not clear if these were the same flavours. Although there was a checkbox for the Crown Seven ...
Tobacco use usually begins in adolescence, and tobacco companies have targeted this vulnerable and impressionable age group by offering flavored products that appeal to young palates (47). This is not a new strategy; internal tobacco company memoranda going back to the early 1970s have revealed that flavored tobacco has long been discussed as a means to introduce young people to smoking. A 1972 Brown and Williamson company document discussing a potential "youth cigarette" states that "Apples connote goodness and freshness and we see many possibilities for our youth-oriented cigarette with this flavor" (48). Fruit flavorings used in tobacco are often the same as artificial fruit flavorings used in candy. For example, the chemical flavorings used in "cherry" Jolly Rancher, Zotz, and Life Savers candies were also prevalent in cherry-flavored tobacco products, leading study authors to conclude that "[t]he same, familiar, chemical-specific flavor sensory cues that are associated with fruit flavors in ...
Networking Products. The International Trade Commission has terminated patent infringement investigation 337-TA-1131 of wireless mesh networking products and related components thereof with respect to one respondent at the request of complainant SIPCO LLC.. Nicotine Delivery Systems. The ITC received Nov. 20 on behalf of Juul Labs Inc. a second petition requesting that it institute a Section 337 investigation regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems and components thereof. The proposed respondents are located in China and the U.S. Information on Juuls first petition on these products can be found here.. Section 337 investigations primarily involve claims regarding intellectual property rights violations by imported goods, including the infringement of patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Other forms of unfair competition involving imported products, such as misappropriation of trade secrets or trade dress and false advertising, may also be asserted.. The ITC is requesting comments no ...
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Smoking as we all know is injurious to health and in spite of being written in bold in each and every cigarette pack, it is still difficult for smokers to call it quits. Smoking nicotine is such an addiction. An alternate to this dangerous habit is discovered in the form of electronic cigarettes. A survey showed that only two percent of the US smokers used them in 2010 but that rose to thirty percent in 2012. Research by ASH also shows that usage has grown threefold from 700,000 to 2.1 million users in the last couple of years.. What is electronic cigarettes?. They are devices which are battery -powered, contain nicotine and flavourings like chocolate, mint or bubble gum and they vaporize the liquid in it. Not containing tobacco they arent cigarettes in the actual sense. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) or vaporisers are the alternate names and they are designed to look and feel actual. Since smoke is not produced, therefore it is marketed as less harmful.. The three categories of ...
A most recent US study is also providing preliminary evidence that use of electronic cigarette with higher nicotine concentrations by adolescents and young adults may increase subsequent frequency and intensity of smoking and vaping (3). In order to minimize the potential public health harm from electronic cigarette use, the Government of Canada, Health Canada, Canadian Medical Association (CMA) as well as respective provinces, will need to launch evidence based prevention efforts to discourage initiation of electronic cigarette use as well as adolescents transition from electronic cigarettes to other combustible tobacco products.. REFERENCE:. (1). Hammond D, Reid JL, Cole AG, Leatherdale ST. Electronic cigarette use and smoking initiation among youth: a longitudinal cohort study. CMAJ. 2017 Oct 30;189(43):E1328-E1336. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.161002.. (2). Soneji S, Barrington-Trimis JL, Wills TA, Leventhal AM, Unger JB, Gibson LA, Yang J, Primack BA, Andrews JA, Miech RA, Spindle TR, Dick DM, ...
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Health professionals and their patients have every reason to feel confused. One week the WHO issues a position paper calling for strict regulations on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), more commonly referred to as electronic cigarettes, including restrictions on marketing and a ban on using them in enclosed public spaces.1 The next week, a group of scientists attracts widespread media attention, with headlines claiming that these products could save 50 000 lives in the UK,2 although this figure appears nowhere in the corresponding paper.3 What is one to make of these conflicting messages?. Before reviewing the evidence, some context is necessary. For several decades the tobacco industry, which has been rapidly increasing its share of the market for ENDS sold in the UK,4 has actively sought to create confusion. It did this very successfully when it sought to block bans on smoking in public places, engaging in a massive campaign of deception.5 It sought to portray second-hand smoke as ...
As the American Council on Science and Health pointed out yesterday: "there is no rational basis for banning e-cigarettes. In fact, any truly rational thought process would result in promoting the e-cigarette as the effective smoking cessation option it is. ACSHs Dr. Gilbert Ross was dumbfounded by Hannons proposal. "I am simply flabbergasted that such a measure, the consequences of which would condemn many thousands of New York ex-smokers back to cigarette addiction and premature death, can be proposed by the Chairman of the Health Committee of our states Senate," he says. "Sen. Hannon should be expected, in that role, to know a little bit about the relative risks of smoking and modified risk products, including, of course, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or e-cigarettes). If he doesnt know, he should be given a quick course in preventing disease and saving lives. With this measure, the blood of smokers forced to give up e-cigarettes and resume smoking would be on his hands. ...
Traditional tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves, which are dried and fermented before being put in tobacco products. Tobacco contains nicotine, an ingredient that can lead to addiction, which is why so many people who use tobacco find it difficult to quit. There are also many other potentially harmful chemicals found in tobacco or created by burning it.. Vaping and electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, e-vaporizers, or electronic nicotine delivery systems, are battery-operated devices that people use to inhale an aerosol which typically contains nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals. They can resemble traditional tobacco cigarettes (cig-a-likes), cigars, pipes, or even everyday items like pens or USB memory sticks. Other devices, such as those with fillable tanks, may look different. Regardless of their design and appearance, these devices generally operate in a similar manner and are made of similar components. ...
Physics Assignment Help, Principle of electric motor, An electric motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Principle of electric motor : An electric motor essentially consists of a rectangular coil ABCD. Let the coil be connected to a battery cell B. Imagine the pl
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Tobacco is defined as all tobacco-derived or containing products, including but not limited to, cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, cigarillos, bidis, kreteks; all smokeless and dissolvable tobacco products, including but not limited to, dip, spit/spit-less, chew, snuff, snus and nasal tobacco; and any product intended to mimic tobacco, containing tobacco flavoring or delivering nicotine, included but not limited to, electronic nicotine delivery systems, e-cigarettes, e-cigars, e-hookas, vape pen or any other product name or descriptor, or the use of any other type of tobacco or nicotine product for the purpose of circumventing the prohibition of tobacco in this policy. This does not included products specifically approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the purpose of cessation of nicotine replacement therapy. ...
Up to 95% of people entering treatment for use of alcohol or other drugs (AOD) smoke tobacco. Smokers receiving treatment for AOD use are interested in quitting and make quit attempts, but relapse is more common and rapid compared with the general population of smokers. New ways to address smoking in this population are needed. Electronic nicotine devices (ENDs) or electronic cigarettes hold significant potential as both cessation aids and harm reduction support. This study focuses on the potential of ENDs to facilitate smoking cessation and to sustain it in the medium term among people in treatment for AOD use. The aim of this trial is to explore the effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of ENDs for smoking cessation compared with combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for clients after discharge from a smoke-free AOD residential withdrawal service. The study is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. In total, 100 participants will be recruited following admission to a smoke-free
House passes HB 7200, which would prohibit the sale of cigarettes, tobacco products, electronic nicotine delivery systems, and vapor products to persons under twenty-one.
In another change, the company is in the process of discontinuing the sale of fruit- and dessert-flavored electronic nicotine delivery systems.
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After many other more or less successful attempts with relatively weak rotating and reciprocating apparatus Prussian Moritz von Jacobi created the first real rotating electric motor in May 1834. It developed remarkable mechanical output power. His motor set a world record, which Jacobi improved four years later in September 1838.[16] His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river. It was also in 1839/40 that other developers managed to build motors with similar and then higher performance. The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832.[17] Following Sturgeons work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor was built by American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. The motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools and a printing press.[18] Due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially ...
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TY - GEN. T1 - A low power configurable bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) ASIC with simultaneous ECG and respiration recording functionality. AU - Xu, J.. AU - Harpe, P.J.A.. AU - Pettine, J.. AU - Van Hoof, C.. AU - Yazicioglu, R.F.. PY - 2015/10/30. Y1 - 2015/10/30. N2 - This paper presents a power-efficient ASIC for bio-impedance spectroscopy, as well as ECG and respiration recording. The ASIC includes a wideband stimulation current source with a pseudo-random binary sequence, a low-noise instrumentation amplifier, and a low power 12b SAR ADC. This ASIC is able to measure bio-impedances from 1ω to 10kω with 0.1ω resolution, and covers a frequency range up to 125kHz. Furthermore, the ASIC can simultaneously record ECG and respiration while consuming only 31μW from a 1.8V supply.. AB - This paper presents a power-efficient ASIC for bio-impedance spectroscopy, as well as ECG and respiration recording. The ASIC includes a wideband stimulation current source with a pseudo-random binary ...
As awareness about and use of e-cigarettes has grown across the globe (ASHES Vol. 9(6)), these devices have come under more scrutiny from researchers and public policy experts. E-cigarettes are gaining popularity because like nicotine patches, they provide a low dose of nicotine, contain fewer toxins than cigarettes, and simulate behavioral and sensory dimensions of smoking. However, because e-cigarettes are a relatively new technology, there is a paucity of research to inform discussions about safety and efficacy. This weeks ASHES reviews a recent randomized control trial examining the efficacy of e-cigarettes compared to placebo and nicotine patches for smoking cessation...
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