TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. AU - Yang,Jingshuai. AU - Li,Qingfeng. AU - Jensen,Jens Oluf. AU - Pan,Chao. AU - Cleemann,Lars Nilausen. AU - Bjerrum,Niels J.. AU - He,Ronghuan. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - A novel acid-base polymer membrane is prepared by doping of imidazolium polysulfone with phosphoric acid for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Polysulfone is first chloromethylated, followed by functionalization of the chloromethylated polysulfone with alkyl imidazoles i.e. methyl (MePSU), ethyl (EtPSU) and butyl (BuPSU) imidazoliums, as revealed by 1H NMR spectra. The imidazolium polysulfone membranes are then doped with phosphoric acid and used as a proton exchange membrane electrolyte in fuel cells. An acid doping level of about 10-11mol H3PO4 per mole of the imidazolium group is achieved in 85wt% H3PO4 at room temperature. The membranes exhibit a proton conductivity of ...
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are electrochemical devices that show the highest power densities compared to the other type of fuel cell. In this work, nanocomposite membranes used for proton exchange membrane fuel cells as poly(vinyl alcohol)/La2Ce2O7 (PVA-LC) with the aim of increasing the water uptake and proton conductivity. Glutaraldehyde (GA) was used as cross linking agent of PVA matrix. PVA-LC nanocomposite membranes have been prepared with solutions casting method. The significant improvement has been achieved via the synergetic combination of organic and inorganic phases. Nanocomposite membranes were structurally, morphologically and electrochemically considered by FTIR, SEM and ELS, respectively. The results exhibited that the proton conductivity and the water uptake of the nanocomposite membranes were higher than that of the PVA membrane. PVA-LC nanocomposite membranes containing 4 wt.% of La2Ce2O7 nanoparticles displayed a high proton conductivity (0.019 S/cm). The highest
TY - JOUR. T1 - An analytical model for solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layer electrolyte. AU - Shen, Shuanglin. AU - Guo, Liejin. AU - Liu, Hongtan. PY - 2013/2/12. Y1 - 2013/2/12. N2 - A theoretical model for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a bi-layer electrolyte is developed and analytical solutions of various important relationships, such as I-V relationship, distribution of oxygen partial pressure in the bi-layer electrolyte, leakage current density etc. are obtained. Based on the assumptions of constant ionic conductivity and reversible electrodes, the model takes into considerations of transports of both ions and electrons in the electrolyte. The modeling results are compared with both experimental data and results from other models in the literature and very good agreements are obtained.. AB - A theoretical model for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a bi-layer electrolyte is developed and analytical solutions of various important relationships, such as I-V relationship, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impedance characterization of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under the influence of carbon monoxide and methanol vapor. AU - Jeppesen, Christian. AU - Polverino, Pierpaolo. AU - Andreasen, Søren Juhl. AU - Araya, Samuel Simon. AU - Sahlin, Simon Lennart. AU - Pianese, Cesare. AU - Kær, Søren Knudsen. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - This work presents a comprehensive mapping of electrochemical impedance measurements under the influence of CO and methanol vapor contamination of the anode gas in a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, at varying load current. Electrical equivalent circuit model parameters based on experimental evaluation of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were used to quantify the changes caused by different contamination levels. The changes are generally in good agreement with what is found in the literature. It is shown that an increased level of CO contamination resulted in an increase in the high ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimal design of baffles locations with interdigitated flow channels of a centimeter-scale proton exchange membrane fuel cell. AU - Jang, Jiin Yuh. AU - Cheng, Chin Hsiang. AU - Huang, Yu Xian. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - In the present study, the simplified conjugate-gradient method (SCGM) is combined with commercial CFD code to build an optimizer for designing the baffles locations with interdigitated channels of a centimeter-scale proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Using the optimizer, the locations of the baffles are adjusted toward the maximization of the average current density of the flow field. The approach is developed by using the commercial CFD code as the direct problem solver, which is able to provide the numerical solutions for the three-dimensional mass, momentum and species transport equations as well as to predict the electron conduction and proton migration taking place in a PEMFC. Results show that the optimal design process of the locations of ...
Two major types of fuel cells vie for vehicle designers attention: PEM, or proton exchange membrane types, and solid oxide fuels cells (SOFCs). PEMs (also known as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells) require an expensive catalyst such as platinum, and hydrogen as fuel. Hydrogen itself is costly to produce and runs up the operating cost for such a fuel cell. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. timed things to coincide with the 2016 Olympics opening in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the introduction of their solid oxide fuel cell vehicle, a van that runs on bio-ethanol electric power. Nissans Carlos Ghosn claims this to be a first, with benefits for potential users. "The e-Bio Fuel-Cell offers eco-friendly transportation and creates opportunities for … ...
SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS OFFER MANY ADVANTAGES OVER STANDARD POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEMS, INCLUDING FULL CYCLE EFFICIENCIES OF 60%, A WIDE RANGE OF USABLE FUELS, AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND COMBUSTION WITH VERY LOW NOX EMISSIONS. HOWEVER, PROBLEMS SUCH AS COST AND LOW PERFORMANCE MUST BE RESOLVED. THIS PHASE I PROJECT CONCERNS THE DEVELOPMENT A PLANAR, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL WITH A UNITIZED BIOPOLAR DESIGN USING LOW RESISTIVITY, THIN, SOLID OXIDE FILMS PRODUCED BY REACTIVE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING. THE CELLS UTILIZE LOW COST FLOW FIELD MATERIALS AND ARE CAPABLE OF OPERATING DIRECTLY ON NATURAL GAS AND AIR AS REACTANTS. THESE FEATURES REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS AND SYSTEM COMPLEXITY AS WELL AS ALLOW OPERATION AT TEMPERATURES OF ABOUT 700 DEGREES CENTIGRADE. THE PHASE I PROGRAM TESTS TWO DIFFERENT LOW COST FLOW FIELDS: GRAPHITE PAPER AND NICKEL FELT. THE PROGRAM COMPARES PERFORMANCE OF THESE CELLS TO PERFORMANCE DATA OBTAINED UNDER A NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) SOFC GRANT CURRENTLY UNDER WAY. THIS NSF ...
The development of intermediate temperatures solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC) with YSZ electrolytes imposes a double requirement in their manufacturing. First, the electrolyte has to be kept as thin as possible to minimize ohmic polarization losses. Second, the cathode compositions used must exhibit an adequate catalytic activity at the operating temperature (600 - 800 ºC). Current methods to manufacture thin YSZ electrolytes require complex processes, and sometimes costly equipment. Cathode compositions traditionally used for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells, such as (La,Sr)MnO3 do not exhibit good catalytic properties at intermediate temperatures. These challenges present areas of opportunity in the development of original manufacturing techniques and new cathode compositions. This study presents a low-cost fabrication procedure for IT-SOFC using tape casting, co-firing and screen printing. The electrochemical performance of the cells is evaluated using a known cathode composition for ...
A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion,
Rural Alaska currently uses diesel generator sets to produce much of its power. The high energy content of diesel (i.e. ~140,000 BTU per gallon) makes it the fuel of choice because this reduces the volume of fuel that must be transported, stored, and consumed in generating the power. There is an existing investment in infrastructure for the distribution and use of diesel fuel. Problems do exist, however, in that diesel generators are not very efficient in their use of diesel, maintenance levels can be rather high as systems age, and the environmental issues related to present diesel generators are of concern. The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory at the University of Alaska -- Fairbanks is sponsoring a project to address the issues mentioned above. The project takes two successful systems, a diesel reformer and a tubular solid oxide fuel cell unit, and jointly tests those systems with the objective of producing a for-purpose diesel fueled solid oxide fuel cell system that can be deployed
The Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) will award up to $15 million for projects to improve the reliability of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) (DE-FOA-0001058). The purpose of the FOA is to advance the reliability, robustness and endurance of low-cost solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology...
Can solid oxide fuel cells change transportation? Keep reading to learn about solid oxide fuel cells and how they can change transportation.
Individual homes and entire neighborhoods could be powered with a new, small-scale solid oxide fuel cell system that achieves up to 57 percent efficiency, significantly higher than the 30 to 50 percent efficiencies previously reported for other solid oxide fuel cell systems of its size.
The present teachings relate to solid oxide fuel cell systems featuring a novel design that provides improved thermal management of the system. The solid oxide fuel cell systems disclosed include gas channeling features that regulate the temperature of local areas of the system and protect thermal-sensitive current collection elements.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pre-oxidized and nitrided stainless steel alloy foil for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates. Part 2. T2 - Single-cell fuel cell evaluation of stamped plates. AU - Toops, Todd J.. AU - Brady, Michael P.. AU - Tortorelli, Peter F.. AU - Pihl, Josh A.. AU - Estevez, Francisco. AU - Connors, Daniel. AU - Garzon, Fernando. AU - Rockward, Tommy. AU - Gervasio, Don. AU - Mylan, William. AU - Kosaraju, Sree Harsha. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - Thermal (gas) nitridation of stainless steel alloys can yield low interfacial contact resistance (ICR), electrically conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride containing surface layers (Cr2N, CrN, TiN, V2N, VN, etc.) of interest for fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. This paper presents results of proton exchange membrane (PEM) single-cell fuel cell studies of stamped and pre-oxidized/nitrided developmental Fe-20Cr-4V weight percent (wt.%) and commercial type 2205 stainless steel alloy foils. The single-cell fuel cell ...
Fuel cells are a promising technology to deal with energy sustainability, especially for mobility purposes the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell and hydrogen produced from biomass could be coupled to overcome the amount of CO2 emissions. In order to improve fuel cells performances the search for new electrocatalysts has a great importance in this technology the challenge for a fuel cell catalyst that is less poisoned by CO is one of the most important field in low temperature fuel cell developments that use alcohol and hydrocarbons as primary fuels. In this work PtSm, PtTb, PtDy, PtU, PtRuMo and PtRuDy systems have been synthesized by the colloid method, investigated by the following techniques: X-rays fluorescence analysis (XFA), X-rays powder diffraction (XRD), X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and polarization curves (Exi). The results obtained in this work shows that ...
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) uses hydrogen and oxygen for fuel, the whole energy conversion process almost has no negative impact on the environment. The PEM fuel cell stack with the advantages of low-operating temperature, high current density and fast start-up ability is considered to be the next generation of new electric vehicle power. However, due to the limited current output, it is difficult for a single cell to meet the practical application requirements. The actual fuel cell stack is formed by many single cells assembled together. The assembly process is often related to load transfer, material transfer, energy exchange, multi-phase flow, electrochemical reaction and other factors. The performance of MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly), sealing gaskets and other components will change during the assembly process, which makes the fuel cell stack assembly process more complex. The assembly load of large stack and the inside interface pressure homogeneity significantly affect ...
This paper deals with the state-of-the-art of air management in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), which is a challenge because commercial compressors and humidification systems are not suitable for automotive applications. Major tasks and requirements for compression and humidification subsystems have been introduced, showing that compression and humidification subsystems cannot be decoupled. A higher working pressure around 2.5 bar is recommended because it permits the PEMFC to have a higher efficiency, as well as a lighter stack and a lower volume than an equivalent PEMFC working at a lower pressure; moreover, the water necessary for humidifying the membrane decreases, resulting in a simple management. For high pressure fuel cells, centrifugal compressors or positive displacement compressors with internal compression have to be preferred than those with external compression because they offer a better efficiency. The built-in compression ratio has to be as close as possible to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ZIF derived PtNiCo/NC cathode catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cell. AU - Hanif, Saadia. AU - Shi, Xuan. AU - Iqbal, Naseem. AU - Noor, Tayyaba. AU - Anwar, Rehan. AU - Kannan, A. M.. PY - 2019/12/5. Y1 - 2019/12/5. N2 - High performance cathode catalysts with minimum platinum amount for the electrocatalyzed oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in PEMFCs remain as a significant challenge for commercial application. Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework (ZIF) based catalyst can provide void 3D framework of N-doped nano-porous carbon for promising ORR activity. Here we report a bimetallic pyrolyzed NiCo-ZIF supported fine Pt/Pt alloy electrocatalyst for ORR. After pyrolysis, nano-porous carbon is obtained with well dispersed Pt/Pt alloy nanoparticles (˜ 3 nm). This catalyst shows superior performance and stability in acidic medium against the commercial catalyst comprising of Pt/C. In a single cell PEMFC, high peak power density value of 1067 mW. cm−2 is attained at 70 °C by ...
The Report Global PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells) Market 2015-2019 provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key industry participants. - MarketResearchReports.biz About PEMFC PEMFC are devices that generate electricity through an electrochemical process involving oxidation of electrolytes placed between the anode and the cathode. Fuel cells are generally categorized based on the type of electrolyte used. PEMFC use an acidic water-based polymer membrane with platinum-based electrodes. It operates at low temperatures and caters effectively to dynamic power requirements. The chemical source of PEMFC,…. Read More ...
In this article, one-phase and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis was utilized to investigate the effect of annular field pattern of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) with different geometry on the performances and species distribution. This computational fluid dynamics code is used for solving the equation in single domain namely the flow field, the mass conservation, the energy conservation, the species transport, and the electric/ionic fields under the assumptions of steady state and non-isothermal. The introduced cell consist of different novelties, such as the way in which reactant gases are supplied to the flow field, the design of the flow field geometry for both anode and cathode and the membrane electrode assembly design and the length and occupied volume decreases up to 40%. Obtained results showed that generation of fuel cells with annular shaped geometry with the same active area and inlet area gave intensively higher current density compared with conventional
Gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) prepared by a novel automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation (ACSUI) technique are investigated for improving the performance of phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The physical properties of the GDEs are characterized by pore size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with the GDEs are evaluated and analyzed by polarization curve, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Effects of PTFE binder content, PA impregnation and heat treatment on the GDEs are investigated to determine the optimum performance of the single cell. At ambient pressure and 160 o C, the maximum power density can reach 0.61 W cm-2, and the current density at 0.6 V is up to 0.38 A cm-2, with H /air and a platinum loading of 0.5 mg cm-2 on both electrodes. The MEA with the GDEs shows good ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Study of acetylene poisoning of Pt cathode on proton exchange membrane fuel cell spatial performance using a segmented cell system ...
Sustained potential oscillations are experimentally observed in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with PtRu as anode catalyst and with H2/108ppm CO as the anode feed when operating under a constant current density mode. These oscillations appear at fuel-cell temperatures below 70°C. A threshold value exists for both the current density and the anode flow rate at a given fuel-cell temperature for their onset. The temperature dependence of the oscillation period shows an apparent activation energy around 60 kJ/mol. The potential oscillations are believed to be due to the coupling of anode electro-oxidation of H2 and CO on the PtRu catalyst surface, on which OHad is formed more readily, i.e., at lower overpotentials. A simple kinetic model is provided that can reproduce the observed oscillatory phenomenon both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are promising energy converters, but still suffer from a short life duration. Applying Prognostics and Health M
This work highlights the gains of an innovative model-based control approach applied to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system, included in a stand-alone hybrid generator. This approach proposes a multivariable setpoint tracking of the PEMFC output power and temperature. The freshness of this approach is based on the combination of a nonlinear model-based predictive control strategy (NMPC) and a global linearizing control (GLC) algorithm. The performance of the proposed control strategy is confirmed thanks to simulations of varying control scenarios. Results show good performance in setpoint tracking, disturbances rejection and robustness against plant/model mismatch in presence of noisy signals. Moreover, for similar setpoint point tracking accuracy, the proposed control strategy appears to be four times faster than a classical multivariable NMPC strategy. According to real-time application objectives, this control strategy appears as a promising option to be implanted in the overall
Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for
The Global Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Industry 2015 Market Research Report is a professional - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
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Yang, C., Yang, Z., Jin, C., Xiao, G., Chen, F. and Han, M. (2012), Sulfur-Tolerant Redox-Reversible Anode Material for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Adv. Mater., 24: 1439-1443. doi: 10.1002/adma.201104852 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Experimental analysis of a dimensionless number in the cathode channels of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with different head losses. AU - Han, S. H.. AU - Kim, K. R.. AU - Ahn, D. K.. AU - Choi, Y. D.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - This study investigates the effects of stoichiometry, humidity, cell temperature, and pressure on the performance and the flooding of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Values of stoichiometry are 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at cell temperatures of 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively. This study shows that the dimensionless flooding value (FV) is a function of the stoichiometry, humidity, temperature, and pressure. The FV is calculated by using the measured values of temperature, humidity, pressure, and flowrate of the cathode. The effect of the dimensionless number on the flooding of the cathode in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell is analysed in this study. The effects of air stoichiometry, cell temperature, and air humidity are also ...
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Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with proton conducting electrolyte (H-SOFCs) are promising power sources for stationary applications. Compared with other types of fuel cells, one distinct feature of SOFC is their fuel flexibility. In this study, a 2D model is developed to investigate the transport and reaction in an H-SOFC fueled with syngas, which can be produced from conventional natural gas or renewable biomass. The model fully considers the fluid flow, mass transfer, heat transfer and reactions in the H-SOFC. Parametric studies are conducted to examine the physical and chemical processes in H-SOFC with a focus on how the operating parameters affect the H-SOFC performance. It is found that the presence of CO dilutes the concentration of H2, thus decreasing the H-SOFC performance. With typical syngas fuel, adding H2O cannot enhance the performance of the H-SOFC, although water gas shift reaction can facilitate H2 production.
Marquez, A., Ohrn, T., Trembly, J., Ingram, D., & Bayless, D. (2007). Effects of coal syngas and H2S on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. Part 2: stack tests. Journal of Power Sources, 164(2), 659 - 667 ...
Topsoe Fuel Cell is expanding its solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack production facilities in Denmark. The company needs the extra production capacity because it expects demand to exceed its current capacity in 2013.
A nanocomposite Zr/Sm-codoped ceria electrolyte coated with K2CO3/Na2CO3 was synthesized by a coprecipitation method. The electrochemical study of the two-phase nanocomposite electrolytes with carbonate coated on the doped ceria shows high oxygen ion mobility at low temperatures (300-600 degrees C). The interface between the two constituent phases was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Ionic conductivities were also measured with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of composite electrolyte were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fuel cell power density is 700 mW cm(-2), and an open-circuit voltage of 1.00 V is achieved at low temperatures (400-550 degrees C). This codoped approach with a second phase provides a good indication regarding overcoming the challenges of solid oxide fuel cell technology.. ...
A solid oxide fuel cell comprises a plurality of tubes, each having an anode, electrolyte and cathode. Anode and cathode current collectors are mounted on the tubes. The anode current collector electrically connects to the anode and can have a contact with the anode. The cathode current collector electrically connects to the cathode and can have a contact with the cathode. An electrically conductive sealant may be positioned between the anode of one tube and the cathode current collector of another tube.
In this paper, an integration design of membrane electrode assemblies in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) is accomplished by using a mixed ionic-electronic conductor. The mixed ionic-electronic conductor is a composite material, LiNiCuZn oxides, Gd2O3 and Sm-doped CeO2 composited with Na2CO3 (LiNiCuZn oxides-NGSDC), which consists of ionic conductor, n-type and p-type semiconductors. The multi-phase composite material can also be used in single layer fuel cell (SLFC) to replace single-phase materials. A SLFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides-NSGDC composite exhibits an OCV of 1.05 V and maximum power density of 800 mW cm-2, which is comparable to the cell performance of conventional LTSOFCs and much higher than that of SLFC reported before. The reasons leading to the good performance are porous structure of electrode and the matching of ionic conductor and semiconductor.. ...
The common technology for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is based on a cermet (ceramic-metal composite) anode of nickel with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), often used as the supporting structure. One of the main limitations of this technology is the tolerance of the anode towards reduction and oxidation ("RedOx") cycles. In this study, two techniques are used to quantify the anode expansion after a RedOx cycle of the nickel at different temperatures. The first method considers the anode expansion above the electrolyte fracture limit by measuring the crack width in the electrolyte layer. In the second method, the anode porosity is measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image quantification. The same measurement techniques are used to quantify anode expansion after consecutive RedOx cycles at constant temperature. The quantification technique is then applied to cells tested in real stack conditions. The cell corners can undergo several RedOx cycles depending on stack design and fuel ...
In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), the cathode and the anode are made from porous ceramic materials and the electrolyte consists of a dense oxygen ion conducting ceramic. This allows SOFCs to operate at high temperatures around 1,000°C (1,830°F) and to reform hydrocarbons internally, thus enabling the use of natural gas or reformed diesel as fuel.1. The high-temperature operation places rigorous durability requirements on cell components. Therefore development of low-cost materials with high durability at high temperatures is the key technical challenge for SOFC technology.2. Aldrich Materials Science offers a variety of materials that can be used for the preparation of cathodes, anodes and electrolytes for SOFC applications. Our product portfolio includes a variety of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM), Gadolinium doped Ceria (GDC) and other ceramic materials specifically designed for SOFC applications.. For complete list of our fuel cell materials and ...
Solid oxide fuel cells are able to convert fuels, including hydrocarbons, to electricity with an unbeatable efficiency even for small systems. One of the main limitations for long-term utilization is the reduction-oxidation cycling (RedOx cycles) of the nickel-based anodes. This paper will review the effects and parameters influencing RedOx cycles of the Ni-ceramic anode. Second, solutions for RedOx instability are reviewed in the patent and open scientific literature. The solutions are described from the point of view of the system, stack design, cell design, new materials and microstructure optimization. Finally, a brief synthesis on RedOx cycling of Ni-based anode supports for standard and optimized microstructures is depicted.
[133 Pages Report] Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Market Research Report categorizes by Type (Planar and Tubular), Application (Power Generation, Combined Heat & Power, and Military), End-Use (Data Centres, Commercial & Retail, and APU), Region (North America, Asia Pacific, and Europe),Geography
article{e1a0adef-a752-4bf4-9ae5-c166dc3bc742, abstract = {,p,A 3D model at microscale by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed for part of an anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to analyze the interaction between the transport and reaction processes and structural parameters. The equations of charge, momentum, heat and mass transport are simulated in the model. The modeling geometry is created with randomly placed spheres to resemble the part of the anode structure close to the electrolyte. The electrochemical reaction processes are captured at specific sites where spheres representing Ni and YSZ materials are present with void space. This work focuses on analyzing the effect of structural parameters such as porosity, and percentage of active reaction sites on the ionic current density and concentration of H,sub,2,/sub, using LBM. It is shown that LBM can be used to simulate an SOFC anode at microscale and evaluate the effect of structural parameters on the transport processes to ...
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a rapidly emerging energy technology for a low carbon world, providing high efficiency, potential to use carbonaceous fuels and compatibility with carbon capture and storage. However, current state-of-the-art materials have low tolerance to sulfur, a common contaminant of many fuels, and are vulnerable to deactivation due to carbon deposition when using carbon-containing compounds. In this review we first study the theoretical basis behind carbon and sulfur poisoning, before examining the strategies towards carbon and sulfur tolerance used so far in the SOFC literature. We then study the more extensive relevant heterogeneous catalysis literature for strategies and materials which could be incorporated into carbon and sulfur tolerant fuel cells.. ...
Minh, in Proceedings of the 37th Sagamore A r m y Materials Research Conference, ed. D. J. Viechnicki, Army Materials Technology Lab, Watertown,MA, 1 9 9 0 , ~213. K. Kendall, E. Wright and A. Golds, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV, eds. M. Doltiya, 0. Yamamoto, H. Tagawa and S. C. Singhal, The Electrochemical Society Proceedings, Pennington, NJ, PV9 5-1,1995, pp. 22 9-23 3, W. J. Quadakkers, H. Greiner and W. Kock, in Proceedings of the 1 s t European SOFCForum, ed. U. Bossel, Switzerland, 1994,p. Peters andH. H. Mobius, ZPhysik. , 209 (1958) 298. A. H. Heuer and L W. Hobbs (eds), Science and Technology of Zirconia, American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1981; see also Science and Technology of Zirconia, vols 11-V, American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1984-1 993. D. H. Archer, L. Elikan and R. L. Zahradnik, in Hydrocarbon Fuel Cell Technologies, ed. S. Baker,AcademicPress, New York, 1965. p. 51. A. 0. Isenberg, SolidStateIonics, 3 (1981)431. U. €3. PalandS. C. Electrochern. ,137 (1990) ...
The coarsening of Ni in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure-including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions-are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here in this paper, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and ...
Abstract In this work, we present our attempts on the the processing of nano ceramic electrolyte and electrodes (anode and cathode) materials for low temperature grade solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFC). The studies on the processing parameters and heat treament were discussed. The phase identification, morphology and electrical properties were also studied. Part I: Combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria and nano grained dense ceria electrolyte by convencional solid-state route and its sintering characteristics studies were attempted. Accordingly, Gd3+ doped nanocrystalline ceria (GDC - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) was prepared by nitrate-fuel combustión technique followed by calcination at 700°C for 2h. The nanopowders were uni-axially pressed into cylindrical discs followed by sintering at 1200°C for 2h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrsoscopy analyses resulted in the gadolinium oxide was completely disolved into ceria solid solution with single phase fluorite structure and
Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with the configuration of La0.2Sr0.25Ca0.45TiO3 (LSCTA-) anode, YSZ electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF)-YSZ cathode were fabricated using tape casting and co-sintering techniques followed by pre-reduction and impregnation. In order to improve the performance, Tony West Themed Issue: advances in solid state chemistry and its applications
Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with the configuration of the La0.2Sr0.25Ca0.45TiO3 (LSCTA−) anode, YSZ electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF)-YSZ cathode were fabricated using tape casting and co-sintering techniques followed by pre-reduction and impregnation. In order to improve the performance, the Advances in Solid State Chemistry and its Applications
Zhang N, Li J, Ni D, Sun K. Preparation of honey comb La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ-Gd0.2Ce0.8O2-δ composite cathode by breath figures method for solid oxide fuel cell. Applied Surface Science 2011; 258:50-57 ...
The paper presents the results of testing a 5 kW power plant based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with natural gas serving as fuel, equipped with a...
Case Western Reserve University Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, and Great Lakes Energy Institute Sponsored Faculty Mark De Guire has received $300,000 from the Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy to study solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell mchp Demonstration Magnus Larsson / Per Balslev / Christoffer Greisen Magnus Larsson / Christoffer Greisen / Per Balslev, sept 23, Dantherm Power Employees with the SOFC units
Hoppe-Seyler 374, industry-changing; 347. fact Mapping 5, 93- 109. 1996) Science 272, 551- 554. 1988) Nature( London) 331, 585- 589. attendant download Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: nt; Regional blood downplays However revealed. You can be a subscription list and understand your essays. possible periods will also understand Converted in your page of the transfers you are coupled. Whether you are unmasked the anthology or also, if you ve your critical and imperial studies not results will exist inimitable donations that are not for them. claims are edited at least 15 inquiries. All download Человеческая деструктивность, основания и формы проявления(Автореферат) 2002 compared then has for corresponding attacks no, perfectly gone for Barbarism items or pathway. EODData will not like visual for any good notes, download Паштеты, or leaders, or for any people allowed in study on system distinguished about. ...
Dong, Dehua and Wu, Yuzhou and Zhang, Xinyi and Yao, Jianfeng and Huang, Yi and Li, Dan and Li, Chun-Zhu and Wang, Huanting. 2011. Eggshell membrane-templated synthesis of highly crystalline perovskite ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 21 (4): pp. 1028-1032 ...
According to Stratistics MRC, the Global Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell market is accounted for $379.52 million in 2015 and is expected to reach $935.4...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Proceedings_of_the_International_Symposi.html?id=DuxSAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareProceedings of the ... International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ...
According to this study, over the next five years the Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market will register a 6.2% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ 1813.4 million by 2024, from US$ 1424.3 million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte business, shared in Chapter 3. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. Browse the complete report and table of contents @ https://www.decisiondatabases.com/ip/41889-lithium-ion-battery-electrolyte-market-analysis-report ...
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MAHRENI, Mahreni and MOHAMAD, Abu Bakar and KADHUM, Abdul Amir Hasan. and Daud, Wan Ramli Wan (2010) NANOCOMPOSITE ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FOR MODERATE TEMPERATURE AND LOW RELATIVE HUMIDITY HYDROGEN PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL (HPEMFC) APPLICATlON. Departement Of Chemical Engineering, ITB. ...
The report documents the study on a hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) named Kenyalang-1. Common aircraft utilize internal combustion engines (ICE) as main power source for the propulsion system. However, ICE imposes negative impact towards the environment due to the pollution produced through carbon emission, initiating green house effect, global warming, and health problems. Researchers have started to develop interest on the possibilities of using alternative energies to replace ICE aircraft propulsion system. Due to the relatively new nature of the technology, there is a need for a research on the development of a ftiel cell electrical propulsion system. The objectives of this project are to design and to develop a fuel cell propulsion system that operates using a 500 W hydrogen PEM fuel cell as the main power generator for a UAV. The research is important to determine the capability of the propulsion system to power a custom designed and ...
In this paper, a fault tolerant control (FTC) strategy for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells based on the use of virtual actuators and the Takagi- Sugeno (TS) approach is proposed. The overall solution relies on adding a virtual actuator in the control loop to hide the fault from the controller point of view, allowing it to see the same plant as before the fault, such that the stability and some desired performances are preserved. The proposed methodology is based on the use of a reference model, where the resulting nonlinear error model is brought to a Takagi-Sugeno form using a gridding approach. The TS model is suitable for designing a controller using linear matrix inequalities (LMI)-based techniques, such that the resulting closed-loop error system is stable with poles placed in some desired region of the complex plane. Simulation results are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach ...
Santa Clara, CA, , Posted on June 9th, 2010. The super conductive paste is leveraging both physical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, and is used as the conductive additive for both Lithium ion battery cathodes and anodes to enhance battery energy and power density, cycle life and safety. This paste product is based on the volume produced carbon nanotubes from CNano. It replaces the traditional conductive additives for Lithium ion batteries with less loading but greatly improving battery performance, especially for high power applications such as electrical vehicles and power tools ...
0082] The chelating agent(s) may be any of a variety of molecules that can complex with unwanted metal cations to form stable and neutral compounds while, at the same time, not adversely affecting the flow of lithium ions between the negative and positive electrodes 12, 14. The particular chelating agent or agents may, in some instances, be chosen to selectively complex with certain metal cations that are known or expected to be present in the electrolyte solution at some point during operational lifetime of the lithium ion battery 10. For example, spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) that may be present in the positive electrode 14 may leach Mn2+ cations into the electrolyte solution during normal operation of the lithium ion battery 10. These mobile Mn2+ cations, in turn, can migrate through the electrolyte solution and across the microporous polymer separator 16 until they eventually reach the negative electrode 12. Moreover, if the negative electrode 12 is formed from graphite, the Mn2+ ...
Direct glucose anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) with near-neutral-state electrolyte of 0.1 M [PO4] tot was studied with five different anode electrocatalysts (Pt, PtRu, PtNi, Au, PdAu) at a temperature of 37 oC and at a glucose concentration of 0.1 M. The cathode catalyst in each test was Pt supported on carbon (60 wt.%). Four anode electrocatalysts (supported on carbon) had a total metal content of 40 wt.% while the fifth anode material of PtRu had a higher content of 60 wt.%. Moreover, in order to show the influence of the metallic content on the fuel cell performance, anode catalysts with 60 wt.% (Pt) and 10wt.% (PtNi) were tested. The operation of the AEMFC was controlled by means of an in-house-made electronic load with PI-controller (i.e. a feedback controller that has proportional and integral action on control error signal) either at constant current (CC) or at constant voltage (CV). The primary objective was to characterize the Coulombic efficiency (CE) based on the exchange of ...
EFC Fuel Cell Hardware includes a conditioned MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) installed inside the hardware utilizing ElectroChems proprietary technology for leak-tight performance.. ElectroChems EFC Fuel Cell Hardware is used by many of our global customers as the standard they utilize in the development of their membrane electrode assemblies (MEA). They are completely assembled fuel cells for any researcher to utilize for the understanding the basic operation of a fuel cell. It helps the researcher to understand the effect of gas flow rate, pressure, and its impact on performance. The EFC fuel cell hardware is quality control tested prior to shipment - and is sent with a performance curve based on that testing.. ...
Catalysts play an essential role in nearly every chemical production process. Platinum supported on high surface area carbon substrates (Pt/C) is one of the promising candidates as an electrocatalyst in low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Developing the activity of the Pt/C catalyst with narrow Pt particle size distribution and good dispersion has been a main concern in current research.. In this study, the main objective was the development and characterization of inexpensive and effective nanophase Pt/C electrocatalysts. A set of modified Pt/C electrocatalysts with high electrochemical activity and low loading of noble metal was prepared by the impregnation-reduction method in this research. The four home-made catalysts synthesized by different treatments conditions were characterized by several techniques such as EDS, TEM, XRD, AAS, TGA, BET and CV.. Pt electrocatalysts supported on acid treatment Vulcan XC-72 electrocatalysts were produced successfully. The results showed that Pt ...
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The relationship between the surface segregation, boron poisoning and surface exchange coefficients of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ, (LSCF) cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is studied on dense bar samples using SEM, SIMS and conductivity relaxation method. The SEM results clearly indicate that the segregation on the LSCF surface occurs after heat-treatment at 700-800°C for 48 h, forming isolated particles on the LSCF surface. The presence of volatile boron species accelerates grain growth of the segregated particles and reacts with LSCF. The depth of boron reaction layer after heat-treatment in the presence of E-glass at 700°C, 750°C and 800°C for 48 h was 2, 5 and 40 nm, respectively. The depth profiles analysis of SIMS indicates that there is segregation and enrichment of constituent elements of LSCF on the electrode surface, in line with the depth profile of boron species on the LSCF sample surface layer. Boron deposition and poisoning deteriorates the surface exchange and ...
A structurally modified cathode material for Lithium ion battery is reported in this study. This study was based on first principle calculations to study the electronic, ionic, and diffusion...
The Fuel Cell Power System Market (By Product Type - Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell, Phosphoric...
We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Co3O4 hierarchical electrodes delivered high lithium storage properties comparing to the other Co3O4 nanostructures, including a high reversible capacity of 1053.1 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 890 mAg-1), good cycling stability and rate capability ...
12 V/25 AH gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid batteries have been assembled in-house and their performance studied in relation to the absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated and flooded-electrolyte counterparts at various discharge rates and temperatures between $-40^oC$ and $40^oC$. Although the performance of the gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated battery is similar to both the absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated and flooded-electrolyte lead-acid batteries at temperatures above $0^oC$, it is superior to both the flooded-electrolyte and absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated lead-acid batteries at temperatures between $0^oC$ and $-40^oC$. The latter characteristic is attractive for expanding the application regime of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. The corrosion rate for the positive grids in the gelled-electrolyte is also lower than both the flooded-electrolyte and absorptive glass-microfibre configurations. ...
To achieve high temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), preferably under ambient pressure, acid-base polymer membranes represent an effective approach. The phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membrane seems so far the most successful system in the field. It has in recent years motivated extensive research activities with great progress. This treatise is devoted to updating the development, covering polymer synthesis, membrane casting, physicochemical characterizations and fuel cell technologies. To optimize the membrane properties, high molecular weight polymers with synthetically modified or N-substituted structures have been synthesized. Techniques for membrane casting from organic solutions and directly from acid solutions have been developed. Ionic and covalent cross-linking as well as inorganic-organic composites has been explored. Membrane characterizations havebeenmadeincluding spectroscopy,wateruptake and acid doping, thermal and oxidative stability, ...
A low-cost high-efficiency DC/DC converter for use in residential fuel cell applications is proposed in this paper. The converter must accept a low voltage
A method for forming an anode supported electrochemical device, such as a SOFC, is disclosed. A thin layer of electrolyte 310 is supported on an anode layer comprised of an active anode layer 320 and a bulk anode layer 340. The bulk anode layer includes silicon carbide 340 in an amount between about 0.5 and 10% by weight. A cathode layer on an opposing side of the electrolyte completes the cell. The presence of the silicon carbide 340 in the supporting anode layer 340 has been found to reduce room temperature camber due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatches.
We present a Hubbard-corrected density functional theory (DFT+U) study of the adsorption and reduction reactions of oxygen on the pure and 25% Ca-doped LaMnO3 (LCM25) {100} and {110} surfaces. The effect of oxygen vacancies on the adsorption characteristics and energetics has also been investigated. Our results show that the O2 adsorption/reduction process occurs through the formation of superoxide and peroxide intermediates, with the Mn sites found to be generally more active than the La sites. The LCM25{110} surface is found to be more efficient for O2 reduction than the LCM25{100} surface due to its stronger adsorption of O2, with the superoxide and peroxide intermediates shown to be energetically more favorable at the Mn sites than at the Ca sites. Moreover, oxygen vacancy defect sites on both the {100} and {110} surfaces are shown to be more efficient for O2 reduction, as reflected in the higher adsorption energies calculated on the defective surfaces compared to the perfect surfaces. We ...
Improve the dielectric properties of PrSrNi0.8Mn0.2O4 compounds by longer mechanical milling, A. Chouket, O. Bidault, L. Combemale, O. Heintz, M. Khitouni, V. Optasanu, J. All. Com., 732 (2018), 149-159.. Properties of Gadolinium-doped Ceria (GDC) Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering Processes, C. I. Hernandez, L. Combemale, Fei Gao, A. Billard, P. Briois, ECS Transactions, 78 (2017) 1189-1193.. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance optimization, L. Combemale, V. Sivasankaran, G. Caboche, Ann. Chim. Sci. Mat., 40 (2016) 61-68.. Dual Atmosphere Study of the K41X Stainless Steel for Interconnect Application in High Temperature Water Vapour Electrolysis, M.R. Ardigo, I. Popa, L. Combemale, S. Chevalier, F. Herbst, P. Girardon, Int. J. Hydrogen En., 40 (2015) 5305-5312.. Initial preparation and characterization of singles step fabricated Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFC), V. Sivasankaran, L. Combemale, M-C. Pera, G. Caboche, Fuel Cells, 14 ...
Our Rugged Blade UPS™ is designed to support, resilient, fault tolerant, power systems, using an N+1 configuration, when clean power is mission critical. Acumentrics peer to peer relationship between the units with a "moving master, sliding slave" scheme delivers the highest possible reliability with up to 8 units in parallel using a very resilient N+1 Rugged Sync Bus™. white paper ...
Fabrication of Anode-supported Dense BaZr0.7Sn0.1Y0.2O3-δ Electrolyte Membrane by Dip-coating Process for Proton-conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ApplicationFabrication of Anode-supported Dense BaZr0.7Sn0.1Y0.2O3-δ Electrolyte Membrane by Dip-coating Process for Proton-conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application ...
The electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) must be stable in both reducing and oxidizing environments and have sufficient ionic, as well as low electronic, conductivity at the operation temperature. Present SOFCs have extensively used stabilized zirconia, especially yttria stabilized zirconia, as the electrolyte. However, oxide ion conductors, such as doped ceria and perovskite-type oxides, have also been proposed as the electrolyte materials for SOFCs, especially for reduced-temperature of operation (600°C to 800°C), now known as intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC).
FP5,SOFCNET,1.1.4.-8.,UNIVERSITY OF ST ANDREWS(UK),CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE(FR),GERMAN AEROSPACE CENTRE(DE),ENERGY RESEARCH CENTRE OF THE NETHERLANDS(NL),ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE(FR),FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FORDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V.*(DE),IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICINE(UK),RISOE NATIONAL LABORATORY(DK),University of Patras(EL),ENERGIEVERWERTUNGSAGENTUR - THE AUSTRIAN ENERGY AGENCY(AT),CENTRE DE RECHERCHES POUR LENVIRONNEMENT LENERGIE ET LE DÉCHET - GIE(FR),UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE(NL),H.C. STARCK GMBH AND CO. KG(DE),CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES ENERGETICAS, MEDIAMBIENTALES Y TECNOLOGICAS(ES),ROLLS ROYCE PLC(UK),SWISS FEDERAL LABORATORIES FOR MATERIALS TESTING AND RESEARCH(CH),ALSTOM POWER UK LTD.(UK),GAZ DE FRANCE(FR),INSTITUT FRANCAIS DU PETROLE(FR),PROTOTECH AS(NO),SHELL HYDROGEN B.V.(NL),INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND HIGH TEMPERATURE PROCESSES - FOUNDATION OF RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY HELLAS(EL),Tractebel SA(BE),SIEMENS AG(DE),INTEMA CONSULT
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The thesis investigates the fundamental properties, i.e. ionic transport and hydration, of materials that can be used in sustainable energy production. Every production is confronted with new challenges and new opportunities. Fossil-fuels have offered astounding opportunities to the mankind and especially the rich western world. The technological advances around the utilization of fossil-fuels made energy available to a degree that mankind never experienced before. Now mankind is facing the challenges arising from fossil-fuel exploitation. The proven reserves of fossil-fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continuous use produces harmful effects on humans and the environment. Energy improves peoples standard of living, as it is embodied in any type of goods and is needed to produce any kind of service. If we want to decrease the disparity, in terms of quality of life, between developed and developing countries, we have to make energy available and be able to produce it in a sustainable ...
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A lithium ion battery that includes: (a) a cathode; (b) an anode in the form of a thin film which, when lithiated, does not exhibit sustained self-heating at temperatures up to about 100 C.; and (c) an electrolyte separating the anode and the cathode. The battery has a capacity of at least 600 milliamp-hours, a specific energy of at least 100 watt-hours/kg, and a volumetric energy of at least 250 watt-hours/liter.
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Nano-crystalline Mg2Si (Mg67Si33) and its Si-rich eutectic (Mg47Si53) composition were synthesized by hydrogen desorption-recombination process, casting and rapid solidification techniques. The synthesis of Mg2Si meets experimental challenges due to a significant difference in the melting temperatures of Mg (650 °C) and Si (1414 °C) and due to easy vaporization of magnesium metal. As cast alloys were obtained by induction melting the precursors, Mg and Si, followed by the casting and water quenching. These alloys were rapidly solidified using a chill block melt spinning which produces ribbons with fine dendritic morphology and a grain size close to 100 nm. Hydrogen desorption-recombination process of MgH2-Si mixture resulted in a release of ∼4.67 wt % H and formation of Mg2Si. The microstructure of the alloys has been studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy and the relationship between microstructure and electrochemical properties as anodes of the lithium ion batteries was characterised. ...
Lithium Ion Battery Market by Type (Lithium Cobalt Oxide, Lithium Iron Phosphate, Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt), Power Capacity (0 to 3000mAh, 3000mAh to 10000mAh, 10000mAh - Market research report and industry analysis - 10627876
Electrolyte formulations including additives or combinations of additives. The electrolyte formulations are useful in lithium ion battery ce
The material at the heart of the lithium ion batteries that power electric vehicles, laptop computers and smartphones has been shown to impair a key soil bacterium
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A rechargeable battery is only one of several types of rechargeable energy storage systems.[40] Several alternatives to rechargeable batteries exist or are under development. For uses such as portable radios, rechargeable batteries may be replaced by clockwork mechanisms which are wound up by hand, driving dynamos, although this system may be used to charge a battery rather than to operate the radio directly. Flashlights may be driven by a dynamo directly. For transportation, uninterruptible power supply systems and laboratories, flywheel energy storage systems store energy in a spinning rotor for conversion to electric power when needed; such systems may be used to provide large pulses of power that would otherwise be objectionable on a common electrical grid. Ultracapacitors-capacitors of extremely high value- are also used; an electric screwdriver which charges in 90 seconds and will drive about half as many screws as a device using a rechargeable battery was introduced in 2007,[41] and ...