TY - JOUR. T1 - Bioelectrical impedance analysis. T2 - Implications for clinical practice. AU - Jacobs, Danny O.. PY - 1997/12/1. Y1 - 1997/12/1. N2 - Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has received significant attention as a means of studying body composition and the relationship of changes in the bodys conductive and other electrical properties to changes in body water or its distribution. The application of this technology to the care of patients with nutritional and metabolic disorders is presently under investigation. In this review, a broad overview of recent literature is provided, after the background and rationale for BIA and factors affecting the accuracy of measurements are reviewed.. AB - Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has received significant attention as a means of studying body composition and the relationship of changes in the bodys conductive and other electrical properties to changes in body water or its distribution. The application of this technology to the care ...
Drug and bioactive molecule screening based on a bioelectrical impedance cell culture platform Sakthivel Ramasamy,1 Devasier Bennet,1 Sanghyo Kim1,2 1Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 2Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea Abstract: This review will present a brief discussion on the recent advancements of bioelectrical impedance cell-based biosensors, especially the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system for screening of various bioactive molecules. The different technical integrations of various chip types, working principles, measurement systems, and applications for drug targeting of molecules in cells are highlighted in this paper. Screening of bioactive molecules based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing is a trial-and-error process toward the development of therapeutically active agents for drug discovery and therapeutics. In general, bioactive molecule
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Body Composition Analyse. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Body Composition Analyse.
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Body Composition Analyse. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Body Composition Analyse.
This thesis work covered the fabrication and characterisation of impedance sensors for biological applications aiming in particular to the cytotoxicity monitoring of cultured cells exposed to different kind of chemical compounds and drugs and to the identification of different types of biological tissue (fat, muscles, nerves) using a sensor fabricated on the tip of a commercially available needle during peripheral nerve block procedures. Gold impedance electrodes have been successfully fabricated for impedance measurement on cells cultured on the electrode surface which was modified with the fabrication of gold nanopillars. These nanostructures have a height of 60nm or 100nm and they have highly ordered layout as they are fabricated through the e-beam technique. The fabrication of the threedimensional structures on the interdigitated electrodes was supposed to improve the sensitivity of the ECIS (electric cell-substrate impedance sensing) measurement while monitoring the cytotoxicity effects of ...
Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (ALM) estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were: 1) to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA) using theoretical models, and 2) to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for estimating body composition, and in particular body fat. Since the advent of the first commercially available devices in the mid-1980s the method has become popular owing to its ease of use, portability of the equipment. It is familiar in the consumer market as a simple instrument for estimating body fat. BIA actually determines the electrical impedance, or opposition to the flow of an electric current through body tissues which can then be used to estimate total body water (TBW), which can be used to estimate fat-free body mass and, by difference with body weight, body fat. Many of the early research studies showed that BIA was quite variable and it was not regarded by many as providing an accurate measure of body composition. In recent years technological improvements have made BIA a more reliable and therefore more acceptable way of measuring body composition. Nevertheless, it is not a "gold standard" or reference method. ...
In 20 mechanically ventilated patients who routinely undergo bronchoscopy Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) measurements whereby, evaluable data of 10 patients are needed, of about 1-2 minutes are performed directly before, directly after and 10, 30, and 60 minutes after bronchoscopy parallel to the following routine measurements: tidal volume, resistance, compliance, heart rate, blood pressure, SpO2 and blood gas values. Prior to the examination a rubber belt with 16 integrated electrocardiographic electrodes is placed around the thorax connected with an EIT- device. EIT data are generated by application of a small alternating current of 5mA and 50kHz and are stored and analyzed offline on a personal computer. The EIT provides a mapping of the distribution of the lung´s electrical impedance and exhibits a far temporal resolution of up to 40 tomograms per second. Because of electrical impedance of the pulmonal tissue is dependant to the air content, the air distribution within the lung over ...
Electrical bioimpedance measurement is widely used today for monitoring body condition. The applications include and go beyond, body composition assessment, nutritional status evaluation, and cancer detection. The modalities for interpreting the impedance information have also developed quickly over the recent decades from single frequency bioimpedance analysis to spectrum and to images.. Bioimpedance is measured by computing the relationship between voltage and current. In a current based bioimpedance measurement system, the stability of current source has a large influence on the performance of the system. This thesis compared three different voltage controlled current sources: enhanced Howland circuit, load-in-the-loop circuit driven by a current conveyor and double operational amplifiers circuit. These circuits were simulated in Multisim and manufactured into prototypes and tested in lab.. Effort has also been made to generate and collect signals with digital-to-analog convertor and ...
Application of bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometry as interchangeable methods to assess body composition of sportspersons.
0073]1A, 1B, 1C, 1D body fat measurement device [0074]10 control unit [0075]11 calculation processing section [0076]12 impedance measuring portion [0077]13 body fat mass calculating portion [0078]14 total fat mass calculating part [0079]15 site type fat mass calculating part [0080]16 visceral fat mass calculating part [0081]17 subcutaneous fat mass calculating part [0082]18 breathing state detecting portion [0083]21 constant current generation unit [0084]22 terminal switching unit [0085]23 potential difference detection unit [0086]24 physical information measurement unit [0087]25 subject information input unit [0088]26 display unit [0089]27 operation unit [0090]28 power supply unit [0091]29 memory [0092]30 body peripheral length measurement unit [0093]100A, 100A1, 100A2, 100B, 100C, 100D, 100D1 impedance measurement abdomen attachment unit [0094]101 device main body [0095]110A, 110A1, 110D, 110D1 abdomen rear surface side base portion [0096]112 support base [0097]112a one end [0098]112b other ...
Quantifying cell growth is essential for many applications in cell biology and biotechnology. It is required for optimizing cell culture conditions, for studying substances that inhibit or promote cell growth, for studying cancer progression, cytotoxicity assessment, biocompatibility characterization, etc. Traditional cell proliferation assays are label-based endpoint assays that require sample preparation and sophisticated lab equipment. An example of an alternative, label-free technique that is being currently employed for automating cell proliferation studies is electric cell-substrate impedance sending (ECIS). However, ECIS still requires external measurement instruments such as lock-in amplifiers and impedance analyzers. Researchers at the University of Maryland have developed a novel miniaturized technique in which CMOS capacitance sensors are employed to measure the capacitive coupling between on-chip sensing electrodes and the cellular matrix cultured on them, as a means of tracking cell ...
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL. ...
The analysis of electrical signals originating from biological cells and tissues have yielded a large amount of useful information over the past years. Technologies have been developed, wherein we can monitor the health of the biological material of interest using these electrical signals. Instruments for the study of living cells have historically been of significant importance for such things as basic neuroscience, cell biology, pharmaceutical screening, environmental monitoring, and toxin detection. One of the practical realizations of these methods was successfully implemented by Giaver and Keese with their Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) system. The purpose of this Masters Thesis is to showcase the use of a Cellular Impedance Biosensor setup based on the ECIS system in real-time monitoring of endothelial barrier function and quantify the dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton filaments induced by different drugs. The filaments of the endothelial cell cytoskeleton play a ...
A simple and very accurate method for measuring the viscosity of liquids is presented. A vibrating lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic polycrystalline resonator is totally immersed in a liquid and the oscillation behavior is studied both analytically and experimentally. The vibrating ceramic generates a shear wave traveling in the surrounding fluid normal to the surface of the resonator with heavy damping. The PZT is modeled as a vibrating thin plate. The resulting one-dimensional governing equation of motion, which includes the effect of damping, is solved with the appropriate damped boundary conditions using impedance methods. The resonance frequency of a PZT immersed in a fluid is shown to be a function of the PZT parameters and the product of the fluid density and viscosity. Fluid loading is shown to lower the resonance frequency of the ceramic and both diminish and broaden the impedance plot near resonance. Unlike previous methods utilizing crystal shear-mode resonators, this method is ...
More soldiers become ill or injured from disease and non-battle injuries than from combat, and providing good quality water supplies to the warfighter is a key element in preventing such injuries. Basic field water tests can detect only a few high priority threat chemicals, and comprehensive testing for additional chemicals can takes days or weeks. The ESB provides rapid toxicity identification for many industrial and agricultural chemicals in water. Rather than evaluating individual chemical constituents, the ESB system uses two individual biological-based sensors to identify toxic responses associated with the presence of chemicals: an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) device that measures changes electrical characteristics of a layer of vertebrate cells grown on fluidic biochips, and a pesticide sensor (also known as the ACE™ Rapid Test for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors, or ACE™ sensor) that measures enzyme inhibition caused primarily by carbamate and organophosphorus ...
Interelectrode impedance or electric field potential measurements are used to determine the relative orientation of one lead to other leads in the spinal column or other body/tissue location. Interelectrode impedance is determined by measuring impedance vectors. The value of the impedance vector is due primarily to the electrode-electrolyte interface, and the bulk impedance between the electrodes. The bulk impedance between the electrodes is, in turn, made up of (1) the impedance of the tissue adjacent to the electrodes, and (2) the impedance of the tissue between the electrodes. In one embodiment, the present invention makes both monopolar and bipolar impedance measurements, and then corrects the bipolar impedance measurements using the monopolar measurements to eliminate the effect of the impedance of the tissue adjacent the electrodes. The orientation and position of the leads may be inferred from the relative minima of the corrected bipolar impedance values. These corrected impedance values may also
Use of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimation of total body water and extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes in horses ...
SUNNYVALE, CA - November 17, 2008 - MDS Analytical Technologies, a leader in innovative solutions for drug-discovery and life-sciences research, today announced the delivery of the first three CellKeyTM384 Systems, the worlds first impedance-based, label-free, high-throughput instrument for use in drug-discovery research. Additional systems are scheduled to be delivered before the close of the calendar year.
RFS5005A is a development platform for Electrical Impedance Tomography systems. It allows to use single RCL bridge or Impedance analyzer and switch its terminals between up to 16 electrodes. The design ensures low crosstalk and fast switching times. The RFS5005A contains: RFS5003B T-switch multiplexer board, linear- regulated power supply (+5V; -5V; +15V; -15V) and a universal metal rack 19
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of the human electrical impedance indifferent point. T2 - A surrogate for the volume indifferent point?. AU - Jarvis, Sara S.. AU - Pawelczyk, James A.. PY - 2009/8/12. Y1 - 2009/8/12. N2 - Head-up tilt (HUT) redistributes ∼700 mL of blood to the dependent regions. In a gravitational field, hydrostatic pressure is balanced against vascular compliance, resulting in a hydrostatic indifferent point (HIP) whose location should be coincident with an indifferent point for volume (VIP). Cardiac filling is determined by the hydrostatic gradient between the HIP/VIP and right atrium. We employed segmental impedance to examine blood volume redistribution during HUT and estimate the location of the VIP. During HUT, impedance increased in the chest and decreased in the lower abdomen, presumably due to blood volume shifts. Using a non-linear model to relate blood volume shifts to the hydrostatic gradient, we estimated the location of the electrical impedance indifferent point ...
Non-invasive single cell analyses are increasingly required for the medicaldiagnostics of test substances or the development of drugs and therapies on the single celllevel. For the non-invasive characterisation of cells, impedance spectroscopy whichprovides the frequency dependent electrical properties has been used. Recently,microfludic systems have been investigated to manipulate the single cells and tocharacterise the electrical properties of embedded cells. In this article, the impedance ofpartially embedded single cells dependent on the cellular behaviour was investigated byusing the microcapillary. An analytical equation was derived to relate the impedance ofembedded cells with respect to the morphological and physiological change ofextracellular interface. The capillary system with impedance measurement showed afeasibility to monitor the impedance change of embedded single cells caused bymorphological and physiological change of cell during the addition of DMSO. By fittingthe derived equation to
The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near
Experimental setup. (a) Interface impedance measurement (schematic of impedance measurement (left), fabricated MEA on PCB (right)); (b) Charge injection limit m
A portable bioelectric impedance monitor for monitoring extracellular fluid levels includes a tetrapolar electrode array lead with four electrodes arranged sequentially and axially along the lead, and circuitry coupled with the at least four electrodes configured to measure bioelectric impedance extracellular fluid in a human subject at a frequency of less than 15 kHz. The electrodes are adhered to a human subject/patient on the patients torso or one of the patients limbs. One embodiment includes a Tetrapolar Analog Front End Patient Interface circuit configured to convert two electrode operation of a commercial Impedance Converter, Network Analyzer into a tetrapolar operation for excitation and impedance measurement of the human subject.
Electrical properties of food materials can give information about the inner structure and physiological state of biological tissues. Generally, the process of drying of fruits and vegetables is followed by weight loss. The aim of this study was to measure the impedance spectra of carrot slices during drying and to correlate impedance parameters to moisture content in different drying periods. Cylindrical slices were cut out from the carrot root along the axis. The slices were dried in a Venticell 111 air oven at 50°C. The weight of the slices was measured with a DenverSI-603 electronic analytical and precision balance. The weighing of the samples was performed every 30 min at the beginning of drying and every 60 min after the process. The moisture content of the samples was calculated on wet basis. The magnitude and phase angle of electrical impedance of the slices were mea-sured with HP 4284A and 4285A precision LCR meters in thefrequency range from 30 Hz to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz to 30 ...
Measuring and Managing Healthy Living The US spends more on healthcare per capita ($8668) and more on healthcare as a percentage of GDP (17.2%) than any other nation. From 2011 data
Read chapter 7 Bioelectrical Impedance: A History, Research Issues, and Recent Consensus: The latest of a series of publications based on workshops sponso...
Personal and family medical history, smoking status, exercise, medication use, anthropometric data, and laboratory test results were collected during health check-ups. Subjects were categorized with regard to smoking status (never, past smoker, or current smoker). Exercise status was assessed via self-report questionnaires but frequency or time of exercise was not available (none or regular exercise).. Body weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated as kg/m2. Obesity was defined according to the criteria for the Asian and Pacific regions (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) [19]. Waist circumference was examined at the point between the upper iliac crest and the lowest rib after normal expiration. Blood pressure was measured by trained nurses using a mercury sphygmomanometer after at least 5 min of rest in a sitting position. Skeletal muscle mass for each limb (kg), fat mass (kg), and percent fat mass (%) were estimated via bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements using a multifrequency BIA ...
Abstract The acoustical scattering cross section is usually employed to evaluate the scattering ability of the bubbles when they are excited by the incident acoustic waves. This parameter is strongly related to many important applications of performance prediction for search sonar or underwater telemetry, acoustical oceanography, acoustic cavitation, volcanology, and medical and industrial ultrasound. In the present paper, both the analytical and numerical analysis results of the acoustical scattering cross section of a single bubble under multi-frequency excitation are obtained. The nonlinear characteristics (e.g., harmonics, subharmonics, and ultraharmonics) of the scattering cross section curve under multi-frequency excitation are investigated compared with single-frequency excitation. The influence of several paramount parameters (e.g., bubble equilibrium radius, acoustic pressure amplitude, and acoustic frequencies) in the multi-frequency system on the predictions of scattering cross ...
Michelle is Trained in and an accredited user of the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyser (BIA) for Body Composition analysis and cellular health Analysis. She is also Trained in the Bradford Blood Techniques (Live and Dry). These tools are used in your personalised Consultation. Michelle Continuously furthers her education to better help her patients each year by attending local and interstate trainings as well as scheduled monthly mentoring sessions with other practitioners. ...
Method and apparatus for monitoring a plurality of physiological factors contributing to physiological conditions of a heart, that determines a first impedance, corresponding to the plurality of physiological factors, across a plurality of vectors, and a second impedance, corresponding to the plurality of physiological factors, across the plurality of vectors subsequent to determining the first impedance. A relative change in impedance corresponding to the plurality of vectors is determined in response to the first impedance and the second impedance, first minimally contributing physiological factors of the plurality of physiological factors associated with a first physiological factor of the plurality of physiological factors are determined, and relative change in tissue resistivity corresponding to the first physiological factor in response to physiological factors of the plurality of physiological factors other than the first minimal contributing physiological factors and the relative change in
The invention provides a convenient and non-invasive means to prepare cells, tissues, and organs for electrical transmission and reception. In an embodiment of the invention, a control method comprises the use of at least one skin electrode, as a reference electrode, and an electrical sensor to measure periodically or continuously the skins electrical conductance at the site of preparation. The dynamic change in the conductance through the skin is measured while the ultrasound is applied. Signal processing is performed on the measurement and the level of skin impedance change is controlled by performing a mathematical analysis and using the results of such analysis to control the application of ultrasonic energy. A desired level of skin impedance can be set at a predetermined value or based on a chosen level of skin integrity, subjects sensation of discomfort, or duration of the ultrasound application.
Context: The use of predictive equations in hospital settings lacking access to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) can be beneficial because cachexia, muscle wasting and related increase in morbidity and mortality are known occurrences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Aim: To analyse the predictive performance of reported equations for fat-free mass (FFM) prediction against BIA-derived FFM in patients with stable COPD. Design/Materials and Methods: Seventy-two male patients aged between 40 and 75 years with stable COPD were evaluated for FFM by BIA. FFM was also predicted for the same patients using equations reported by Kulkarni et al., Solomon Yu et al., Janmahasatian et al., as well as Deurenberg equation. Statistical Analysis Used: The predictive performance was assessed by Bland-Altman plots, with subsequent calculations of bias, precision and accuracy. The performance was also analysed across the age and body mass index ...
Quantification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood samples is believed to provide valuable evidence of cancer progression, cancer activity status, response to therapy in patients with metastatic cancer, and possible cancer diagnosis. Recently, a number of researchers reported that CTCs tend to lose th
Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM) Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Jeff T. Irelan, Michael J. Smout, 2015. Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse ...
Gadolinium, yttrium and samarium-doped barium cerate pressed pellets were submitted to flash sintering experiments isothermally in the temperature range 800-1300oC under 200 V cm-1 electric field. The pellets were positioned inside a dilatometer furnace with Pt-Ir electrodes connected either to a power supply or to an impedance analyzer to evaluate the bulk and the grain boundary contributions to the electrical resistivity. Near full density was achieved in the sintered samples. The combined results of dilatometry and impedance measurements in conventionally and flash sintered specimens show substantial improvement of the electrical conductivity. Joule heating is assumed to be the primary effect for sintering. Improved grain-to-grain contact and the removal of depleted chemical species due to Joule heating at the space charge region are proposed, respectively, as the reasons for the decrease of the grain boundary component in the impedance diagrams and the improvement of the bulk electrical ...
A method and apparatus are provided for estimating an impedance through a node at an intersection between roads in a roadway network. The impedance may be measured in time or distance, for example. Characteristic information describes at least one feature of the intersecting roads. One or more pieces of characteristic information may impact the impedance of traffic through an intersection and are used to estimate the impedance through the node. Examples of characteristic information are speed information, road-type, network routing level, intersection angle information, one-way, and cross traffic turn information. An impedance factor, or a cost, is assigned to each piece of characteristic information. The cost may be positive if the characteristic information adds impedance to the node, or negative if the characteristic information subtracts impedance from the node.
Looking for impedance meter? Find out information about impedance meter. electrical impedance meter Explanation of impedance meter
Impedance across a load, such as a pair of face-to-face electrodes and/or a patients transthoracic and transmyocardial impedance, respectively, is modeled as a resistor in series with a capacitor, wherein the reactance component of the impedance equals 2π*frequency/capacitance. A reference square wave voltage is applied to the load in series with a selected load resistor, and a response voltage is measured across the load. Both the reference voltage and the response voltage are then used to estimate a transfer function between them. Equating this transfer function to a resistor-capacitor circuit model results in estimation of the actual resistance and capacitance components of the true impedance. Alternately, the impedance may be measured with a high current load, such as during a defibrillator discharge. In this case, the voltage input and outputs are sampled at a much faster rate for the resistance component estimation, with the capacitance initialization adapted for the specific type of
In this paper we demonstrate the use of the capillary pressure equilibrium theory (CPET) model to address the effects of partial saturation in order to estimate hydrocarbon saturation in a reservoir volume using acoustic impedances derived by seismic inversion. The data set used here has been donated by BHP Billiton, and is from an offshore oilfield called the Stybarrow field. The set comprises of a well with a 20-foot sandstone oil saturated pay section and 3D pre- and post-stack seismic volumes. Using the provided angle stacks and well log data, a statistical wavelet, and low impedance model, the final impedance model is computed. There are two final impedance models, derived from post-stack, and pre-stack data. The final impedance models are in agreement with one another at each of the well locations, with low impedance at the oil saturated well, and high impedance at the water saturated well. The corresponding CPET model is built based on the empirical porosity from the well log. The rock ...
Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a simple painless procedure which enables a doctor or healthcare provider to analyze the amounts of fat, muscle ...
In 2012 Coey proposed a theory on the mechanism of magnetic water treatment based on the gradient of the applied field rather than its absolute strength. We tested this theory by measuring the effect of very weak field magnets (≤ 10 G) containing strong magnetic inhomogeneities (ΔB = 2 kG·m−1) on tap water samples by the use of electric impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and laser scattering. Our results show an increased formation of nm-sized prenucleation clusters (dynamically ordered liquid like oxyanion polymers or
Video articles in JoVE about cell adhesion include Using Cell-substrate Impedance and Live Cell Imaging to Measure Real-time Changes in Cellular Adhesion and De-adhesion Induced by Matrix Modification, Analyzing Cell Surface Adhesion Remodeling in Response to Mechanical Tension Using Magnetic Beads, Adhesion Frequency Assay for In Situ Kinetics Analysis of Cross-Junctional Molecular Interactions at the Cell-Cell Interface, Bead Aggregation Assays for the Characterization of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules, Simultaneously Capturing Real-time Images in Two Emission Channels Using a Dual Camera Emission Splitting System: Applications to Cell Adhesion, Wet Chemistry and Peptide Immobilization on Polytetrafluoroethylene for Improved Cell-adhesion, Characterization of Cell Membrane Extensions and Studying Their Roles in Cancer Cell Adhesion Dynamics, Nanotopology of Cell Adhesion upon Variable-Angle Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (VA-TIRFM), Dissection of Organizer and
This is a randomized prospective study into metabolic adverse events during initial antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected men. The following regimens are compared: lopinavir-ritonavir + Combivir and lopinavir-ritonavir + nevirapine (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NRTI]-sparing). Prior to the start of therapy and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months thereafter the distribution of body fat and bone density (bioelectrical impedance analysis [BIA], computed tomography [CT] and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]), lipid spectrum, mitochondrial DNA (peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs] and adipose tissue biopsies) and vascular measurements are performed. In addition, insulin sensitivity is measured in a subgroup of sixteen individuals by using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and performing microvascular measurements. The aim of the study is to obtain prospective insight into the occurrence of various aspects of metabolic adverse events on the one hand and to compare an ...
The early years are characterized by dramatic growth and the development of healthy behaviours, such as physical activity (PA). The objectives of this thesis were to assess one year tracking of fitness and PA in preschoolers and to investigate the relationship between fitness and PA over a one-year period. Four hundred preschoolers (201 boys, 199 girls; 4.5±0.9 years) participated in year 1 and year 2 assessments, 12.1±0.7 months apart. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Two components of fitness were assessed: short-term muscle power (STMP) with a 10-second modified Wingate Anaerobic Test, and aerobic fitness with the Bruce Protocol progressive treadmill (TM) test. Peak Power (PP) and Mean Power (MP) were measures of STMP. TM time and 60-sec heart rate recovery (HRR) were indicators of aerobic fitness. PA data were collected for 7 days with ActiGraph accelerometers, and PA ...
This scale actually can do so many things that its really amazing. It can measure your weight of course - but it also can calculate body fat, muscle mass, bone measurements and hydration. You can enter your age, height, gender and weight on the scale and it generates an estimate of all of these measurements for you. The scale uses an avanced bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to calculate your date, which I had never heard of before. It sounds very scientific though, I might say. I did read these warnings in the instruction manual: "BIA sends a harmless signal through the body. Do not use this product if you have a pacemaker or other internal medical device. When in doubt, contact your physician." It also says: "This product is not intended for children or pregnant women." ...
Looking for impedance matrix? Find out information about impedance matrix. A matrix Z whose elements are the mutual impedances between the various meshes of an electrical network; satisfies the matrix equation V = ZI , where V and... Explanation of impedance matrix
Up to 370 overweight and obese children, aged 6-18 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed with fasting serum Gpc4, lipid profiles, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) measured. Insulin sensitivity and β-cell function indices were calculated from plasma glucose and serum insulin levels derived from the OGTT. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed for body fat determination. Comparisons of serum Gpc4 levels among the groups of children with various degrees of obesity were performed.. ...
This basic course for EKG includes EKG Tracings & its analysis along with the measurements of EKG intervals. Bradycardias, Techycardias, Blocks and Ventricular Arrhythmias are the essential ingredients of this course.
The proprietary NERVONIX Nerve Imaging Technology is based on the ability of nerves to alter tissue distribution parameters of electrical fields. Since depolarization of the neuronal cell membrane is not required for this effect, extremely low-intensity electrical fields can be employed for image construction. Impedance changes measured at the skin surface are translated into data to pinpoint and construct a two-dimensional image of the underlying nerve structures, which appear in the form of peaks on a topographical map. The highest impedance levels show up as the brightest peaks on the map. The technology operates non-invasively and without any unpleasant sensations.". http://www.nervonix.com/products.php. ...
جودة عالية Conductive agent that can adjust electric resistance scope of coatings, suitable for electrostatic coatings Defom EA-33 من الصين وكيل موصل مصنعين - وكيل موصل الجملة مباشرة من الصين وكيل موصل المورد
In this work, we demonstrate a novel and cost-effective approach to implement a disposable microfluidic contactless impedance cytometer. Conventional methods for single cell impedance cytometry use microfabricated electrodes in direct contact with the buffer to measure changes of its electrical impedance whe
F = Female. #### Experimental Design. Testing was performed between 9:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. in a temperature-controlled laboratory maintained at 21.6 ± 0.7oC and 28.2 ± 5.5% relative humidity. Prior to testing, each subject was instructed to avoid the consumption of alcohol, refrain from heavy exertion for 48 hours, and avoid smoking and caffeine consumption the day of testing. Subjects were also instructed to consume 2 liters of water the day before testing in an effort to promote normohydration.. #### Anthropometry and Physical Activity Assessment. After voiding their bladders, subjects changed into minimal clothing and removed footwear for measurement of body mass and height, conducted on a calibrated scale and stadiometer (Detecto, Webb City, MO). Body mass was measured to the nearest 0.2 kg and height was assessed to the nearest 0.5 cm. The PA-R was used to assess the average weekly physical activity patterns of each participant in the 6 months prior to testing (7).. ### Bioelectric ...
This paper presents multi-frequency operation for increasing the number of resolvable sources in high-resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation using co-prime arrays. A single-frequency operation requires complicated and involved matrix completion to utilize the full extent of the degrees of.... Full description. ...
The present invention includes a method of determining the dry body weight of a patient undergoing dialysis by means of segmental bioimpedance analysis. In preferred embodiments, dry body weight is determined by comparison to the bioimpedance values of normal subjects or by monitoring changes in bioimpedance during dialysis, One embodiment of the present invention is a device for determining dry body weight during dialysis.
The 87004I-03 is a low skew, ÷1, ÷2 ÷3, ÷4 ÷5, ÷6 ÷8, ÷16 LVCMOS/LVTTL Fanout Buffer/Divider. The 87004I-03 has selectable clock inputs that accept single ended input levels. Output enable pin controls whether the output is in the active or high impedance state. The 87004I-03 is characterized at 3.3V, 2.5V and mixed 3.3V,2.5V, 3.3V,1.8V, 2.5V,1.8V input/output supply operating modes.Guaranteed bank, output, and part-to-part skew characteristics make the 87004I-03 ideal for those applications demanding well defined performance and repeatability.. ...
Tanita is a world leader in precision electronic scales. A household name in Japan, Tanitas success and expanding global presence is the result of superior technology, unique design, and high manufacturing standards that have earned ISO 9001 certification, CE marking, membership in the JQA (Japanese Quality Association), FDA clearance and the Good Housekeeping Seal. In addition to the parent company headquarters in Tokyo, Tanita maintains five sister companies strategically located to meet the challenges of international business.
Total left ventricular external power and aortic input impedance spectra were calculated from recordings of pulsatile pressure and flow in the ascending aorta of 22 human subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization. Eleven subjects had increased aortic pressure (systolic 153 +/- 3.8[SEM] mm Hg, p less than .001; diastolic 91 +/- 2.4 mm Hg, p less than .03; mean 118 +/- 2.4 mm Hg, p less than .001) and constituted the group with mild hypertension (average age 50 +/- 1.9 years). The other 11 (age-matched) subjects had normal arterial pressures and constituted the control group. Cardiac output in the hypertensive group was abnormally high (6.9 +/- 0.3 liters/min, p less than .04) compared with that in control subjects (6.1 +/- 0.2 liters/min), so that peripheral resistance was similar. Characteristic aortic impedance (index of aortic elastance) was increased in the hypertensive group (142 +/- 19 vs 72 +/- 4.5 dyne-sec-cm-5, p less than .002), as was the fluctuation of impedance moduli and phase. ...
A method of calculating eddy-current impedances for giant magnetostrictive materials during dynamic magnetization is suggested. The method is based on solving the power-balance equation for each time step of the recorded data. The experimentally obtained impedances can be used for accurately modeling the magnetostrictive process. ...
[79 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Flow Cytometry Market 2016-2020 report by Technavio. Flow cytometry is a laser or impedance-based technology used...
This summer, Risto Kojcev, sponsored by the Google Summer of Code (GSOC) and directed by the Open Source Robotics Foundation (OSRF) and the ROS-Industrial (ROS-I) Consortium developed a user friendly ROS Interface to control and change a manipulator into Cartesian Impedance control mode. The external forces that the robot applies to the environment can also be set with the developed interface.. Risto shares:. Our first goal was to create a set of common messages containing the necessary parameters for setting Impedance and Force control. This allows interaction between the ROS ecosystem and the ROS driver of the robot. The messages are created based on the commonly used parameters for Impedance/Force control and discussion with the ROS community. The relevant current set of ROS messages are available in the majorana repository. I would also like to encourage the Robotics community to contribute to this project by sharing their suggestions. I believe that this set of messages could still be more ...
A pacing system and method for providing multiple chamber pacing of a patients heart, and in particular, pacing programmed for treatment of various forms of heart failure. The system utilizes impedance sensing for determining optimum pacing parameters, e.g., for pacing the left ventricle so that left heart output is maximized. The impedance sensing also is used for determination of arrhythmias or progression of heart failure. Impedance sensing is provided for between selected pairs of the four chambers, to enable optimizing of information for control and diagnosis. In a preferred embodiment impedance measurements are obtained for determining the timing of right heart valve closure or right ventricular contractions, and the timing of delivery of left ventricular pace pulses is adjusted so as to optimally synchronize left ventricular pacing with the right ventricular contractions. Impedance sensing in the left heart also provides timing of mechanical contraction, and the pacemaker controls pacing to
How is Xilinx Controlled Impedance Technology abbreviated? XCITE stands for Xilinx Controlled Impedance Technology. XCITE is defined as Xilinx Controlled Impedance Technology rarely.
Abstract Fluid overload is associated with adverse outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Two bedside methods are increasingly utilized to evaluate objectively fluid status-bioimpedance and lung ultrasonography, but there is no available direct, head-to-head comparison of their prognostic significance. Importantly, their predictive abilities have never been tested in a HD popul...
Principal Investigator:TSUZAKI Koichi, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
1. Electrical impedance mammography is a simple, affordable and inexpensive method; it is radiation-free and non-invasive. In addition to visual assessment the method enables the examiner to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the mammograms, which is extremely important in differential diagnostics of various breasts states and their pathologies.. 2. The method has no contraindications and can be used as often as requited which is very important for case monitoring of women with breast pathologies as well as for case management, assigning of combined oral contraceptives or hormone replacements therapy.. 3. It allows to examine pregnant women and puerpera.. 4. The electrical impedance mammograph can be used in inpatient and outpatient departments of hospitals, maternity welfare centres, doctors offices and other institutions of public health. Thanks to its portability and compactness the device can be used for breast examination in remote areas, which lack stationary equipment.. 5. The method ...
Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
Our broadband systems for dielectric and impedance material spectroscopy cover a frequency range of more than 16 decades from 3 μHz to 3 GHz. Most system operate in the frequency domain and measure directly the complex impedance of a sample capacitor as a function of frequency, temperature, ac voltage, dc bias, pressure and time (or any combinations of these quantities up to 4 dimensions). From the sample impedance, the other dielectric parameters like complex dielectric function or complex conductivity are calculated.. In addition, at frequencies from 1 MHz - 3 GHz, measurements of the magnetic complex permeability are supported.. Three temperature control systems from −160 °C to 400 °C are available as an option and maybe combined with any dielectric and impedance measurement system. For frequencies below 1 MHz, a high pressure - temperature control system and high temperature control systems up to 1600 °C are offered.. Thermally stimulated depolarization (TSDC) and time domain ...
N. C. KANSIL & SONS - Exporter, Manufacturer, Supplier, Trading Company of Ohms Law & Electrical Resistance Chart based in New Delhi, India
OSD Audio- ISS6 Single Source Speaker Selector with Impedance Protection (6-Zone) (ISS6) The OSD Audio ISS6 Single-Source Speaker Selector with Impedance Protection speaker selector is a powerful audio distribution system that can deliver audio to six zones. Completely flexible and an excellent unit if you plan on expanding later, individual on/off selectors for each listening zone distribute one stereo speaker-level signal to six stereo listening zones. The manual power protection switch engages 10_/15-watt resistors wired in parallel, two per channel. This selector is capable of handling 140 watts per channel total input power without the manual protection engaged and 70 watts per channel with the protection engaged.
Also known as impedance. (electricity) The total opposition that a circuit presents to an alternating current, equal to the complex ratio of the voltage to the current in complex notation. Also known as complex impedance. The ratio of the maximum voltage in an alternating-current circuit to the maximum current; equal to the magnitude of the quantity in the first definition. ...
Read 17 reviews and find the lowest price for the Tanita InnerScan BC-571. Overall, this Activity / Fitness Trackers is rated 74/100 Good.
A system method that tracks one or more points on the surface of a cardiac tissue throughout a cardiac cycle and collect various types of data points which are then subsequently used to generate a corresponding model of the tissue and display the model as a 3D color coded image is described. In one embodiment, the system determines the position and orientation of a distal tip of a catheter, manipulates the catheter tip so as to maintain constant contact between the tip and a region of cardiac tissue using the impedance method, acquires positional and electrical data of the tip-tissue configuration through an entire heartbeat cycle, repeats the measurements as many times as needed in different tissue regions, and forms a 3D color coded map displaying various mechanical and electrical properties of the heart using the acquired data.
As I feared, N8ZM isnt subscribed to the vna at tapr.org list, so his very informative reply to my message bounced. Its attached below. John -------- Original Message -------- Thanks, John...I think? First, lets assume that the instrument has been calibrated to the point where the bottom end of the coax connects. This will give us a very good measurement of the coax/antenna combination impedance, and this can be swept over whatever frequency range you desire, even well out of the band. The analyzer doesnt care about SWR, it just measures it, with one caveat: A VNA is a 50 ohm centric instrument, which means that it is very accurate when the impedance it sees is near 50 ohms. Just as on a Smith chart, the farther you are away from the center, the more difficult it becomes to resolve the measured value accurately. Determining the antenna impedance at the far end of an unknown T-line can be done, keeping in mind that the accuracy is not going to be as good as if the coax was not included. ...
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The 74LVC07A is a high performance hex buffer operating from a 1.2 V to 5.5 V supply. High impedance TTL compatible inputs significantly reduce current loadin
The 87004I-03 is a low skew, ÷1, ÷2 ÷3, ÷4 ÷5, ÷6 ÷8, ÷16 LVCMOS/LVTTL Fanout Buffer/Divider. The 87004I-03 has selectable clock inputs that accept single ended input levels. Output enable pin controls whether the output is in the active or high impedance state. The 87004I-03 is characterized at 3.3V, 2.5V and mixed 3.3V,2.5V, 3.3V,1.8V, 2.5V,1.8V input/output supply operating modes.Guaranteed bank, output, and part-to-part skew characteristics make the 87004I-03 ideal for those applications demanding well defined performance and repeatability.. ...
Bell System Technical Journal, 60: 1. January 1981 pp 89-116. High-Frequency Behavior of Waveguides with Finite Surface Impedances. (Dragone, C.)
Buy the Tannoy CMS 803DC PI 8 Ceiling Speaker with Low Impedance/Transformer Operation, Pre-Install Model without Backcan at Full Compass. The Tannoy CMS 803DC is a full bandwidth, high power-handling and high sensitivity loudspeaker built around CMS 3.0 â the third generation of Tannoyâ s revolutionary Ceiling Monitor System technolo
Although examined, Mr Underwood was the download Scattering of Waves by Wedges and Cones with Impedance Boundary Conditions: ISMB Series 2013 that his enrichment found their roles customer and announced him certification. He well was to diversity, took up at community and wanted his toxification was usually on third-, was Miss Hacking. Later that field he found his novels lake to the Evidence.
Large depth and impedance mismatching condition test result.Left: the active echo spot under 8.5 cm deep chicken breast tissue. Right: the active echo spot belo
Asymptotic expressions for the fields scattered by an anisotropic impedance wedge at oblique incidence are derived in the context of the uniform geometrica
Many use simple brass rods bent in an "L" shape also known as divining rods but many also use the wooden Y-rods and even bent wire coat hangers. According to some dowsers who use divining rods, brass allows the rod to attune to magnetic fields emanated by the target without the earths EM field interfering, as would be the case with a metal such as steel. The end of the rod to be held by the dowser is often encased in a material that provides a constant electrical impedance, to prevent the dowsers own conductivity from interfering with the dowsing process. However, it is undetermined as to how it exactly works. Basically, a person concentrates on what they are looking for and when they find the right spot, the rods will either bend downwards or will cross over one another. They are supposed to point in the direction of any energy (ghosts, anomalous energy and even dimensional portals) they detect ...
The Coulter Principle is the reference method for studying particle size and dynamics, which is based on measurable variations in electrical impedance that is produced by non-conductive particles in an electrolyte solution. Today it is also used as limit test for particulate matter in parenteral solutions of large volumes.
Weight alone is not sufficient to determine your overall condition. With impedance analysis scales you can assess what proportion of your...
On Nov 23, 2014, at 2:52 PM, Uzi Segal ,uzi.segal at bc.edu, wrote: , , hi , , does tex live support the pspic package? , , best , , uzi segal Howdy, The pspic package doesnt exist on CTAN. Do you mean the pspicture package? If so it not only supports it but it is part the TeX Live distribution so doesnt have to be installed. Good Luck, Herb Schulz (herbs at wideopenwest dot com ...
What Defines a Good Body Fat Scale A good scale (that ranks high in body fat scale reviews) is the Tanita scale, which measures a true body fat range. The Tanita name is known as one of the leading manufacturers of body fat scales. Good scales can vary in price, with the most expensive ones usually being the most precise ones. Options they carry might include being able to provide a complete body fat chart for children, adults, and athletes.. ...
Some publications are reviewed showing that those Tanita body fat scales using impedance, are capable of being accurate, and one of these is not boring.
In many methods for analyzing genomic data in general, and gene expression in particular, the end result is some collection of gene sets (e.g., clusters of co-expressed genes, or functional modules). At that point, we are often interested in knowing whether genes assigned to the same gene set are functionally related. Genomica allows you to automatically answer this question, by loading pre-existing gene sets compiled from other sources and checking which of them are enriched in the gene set collection. For instance, in a clustering application, you can instantaneously identify which functional groups are enriched in each cluster ...
SO GOOD PROTEIN!® to produkt uzyskany z połączenia doskonałej jakości białka serwatki z liofilizowanymi kawałkami owoców lub naturalnymi kawałkami wanilii, czekolady.. Białko serwatki posiada najwyższą wartość odżywczą i aktywność biologiczną spośród wszystkich białek pokarmowych dostępnych na rynku. Charakteryzuje się łatwością trawienia i bardzo dobrym zestawem aminokwasów, dzięki czemu jego wartość odżywcza jest tak wysoka. Ze względu na fakt iż białka przyczyniają się do wzrostu masy mięśniowej i pomagają w jej utrzymaniu oraz pomagają w utrzymaniu zdrowych kości spożywanie produktów dostarczających białka zapewnia prawidłowy przebieg wielu procesów metabolicznych, szczególnie przy ćwiczeniach fizycznych oraz w okresach zwiększonego zapotrzebowania na spożycie białka podczas odchudzania.. Liofilizowane owoce dostarczają w skondensowanej formie naturalne witaminy i minerały oraz zestaw antyoksydantów niezbędnych człowiekowi dla ...
Situated in Białka Tatrzańska by the road leading from Nowy Targ to the Polish-Slovak border, Pensjonat Burkaty is 100 metres from the Białka River.
Diagram wstążkowy kompleksu pVHL (niebieski) - HIF1alfa (różowy) - elongina B (fioletowy) - elongina C (czerwony)[1] Białko VHL (pVHL) - białko, kodowane przez gen
Hint for 6.14 a) Under what condition does XC short out the lower portion of the voltage divider? When XC is open, what is the result of the voltage divider? b) Find the effective impedance of the parallel combination of R2 and C, then use the voltage divider formula to find an expression for the gain. Hint for 6.18 When there is both inductive and capacitive reactance present, what happens to the voltage divider at resonance? off-resonance? Hint for 6.20 I find ...
Polimērus mēdz izmantot kā skaņas izolatorus, tad svarīgi aplūkot to akustiskās īpašības. Ātrums, ar kādu skaņa tiek pārvadīta caur cieta materiāla slāni, ir proporcionāls šī materiāla Junga modulim un apgriezti proporcionāls tā blīvumam. Polimēros skaņas ātrumam ir atkarība no šī polimēra stāvokļa, jo mainās materiāla īpašības. Piemēram, skaņas viļņi daudz ātrāk izplatīsies polimērā, kas ir stiklveida stāvoklī nekā viskozi tekošā stāvoklī. Superelastīgā stāvoklī esošā polimērā skaņa tipiski izplatās aptuveni 100 reizes lēnāk nekā stiklveida stāvoklī. Virs kušanas temperatūras skaņas ātrums samazinās atkarībā no temperatūras, jo pieaug polimērmateriāla blīvums, taču palielinās atkarībā no spiediena. Ja skaņas viļņa ceļā ir robežvirsma starp diviem materiāliem ar dažādām īpašībām, tad skaņas vilnis var atstaroties, atstarotās skaņas daļa ir atkarīga no materiālu akustiskās impedances. Lai pēc ...
The inductive branch has an impedance of 2.3k + j0.57k or 2.4k \/ 14 deg. Sign error previously shown for the inductive branch was corrected via anonymous suggestion. Thanks! ...
The aim of the British Society for Gene and Cell Therapy is to accelerate scientific progress and promote ethical and efficient transfer of gene- and
1 mm.: x cm. Gewicht gr/m? 2 mm.: x cm. Gewicht gr/m? 3 mm.: x cm. Gewicht gr/m? 5 mm.: x cm. Gewicht gr/m? 10 mm.: x cm. Gewicht gr/m?. Houdbaarheid: 10 jaar indoor. 3 jaar outdoor. Brandnorm: Zelfdovend, Din - B2/M1 Downloaden van de.]
TY - CONF. T1 - Evaluating plant growth by electrical impedance tomography analysis. AU - Kobata, Kenji. AU - Honda, Satoshi. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - This paper shows how to evaluate plant growth by using electrical impedance tomography. Generally electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is used for human body and materials. By using the advantage that plants can be applied electricity inside, we can expect that more information is acquired. First, the problem is solved with a simple model analytically. Secondly, the problem with more precise model is solved numerically. In the previous work we showed how the electrical potential is distributed enough for using EIT.[7] This paper shows that how the inverse problem is solved and the advantage works.. AB - This paper shows how to evaluate plant growth by using electrical impedance tomography. Generally electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is used for human body and materials. By using the advantage that plants can be applied electricity ...
1] Scott-Conner CE, Dawson DL. Operative Anatomy, 3rd ed. Lippincott & Wilkins, Philadelphia; 2009.. [2] Teschner E, Imhoff M. Electrical impedance tomography: The realiza- tion of regional lung monitoring. Dräger Medical GmbH EIT Booklet, Germany, 2011.. [3] Karsten J, Steuber T, Voigt N, Teschner E, Heinze H. Influence of dif- ferent electrode belt positions on electrical impedance tomography imaging of regional ventilation: a prospective observational study. Crit Care 2016;20:3.. [4] Bikker IG, Preis C, Egal M, Bakker J, Gommers D. Electrical impedance tomography measured at two thoracic levels can visualize the ven- tilation distribution changes at the bedside during a decremental positive end-expiratory lung pressure trial. Crit Care 2011;15:R193.. [5] Newell JC, Isaacson D, Cheney M, Saulnier GJ, Gisser DG, Boble JC, Cook RD, Edic PM, Newton CA. In Vivo impedance images using si- nusoidal current patterns. University College London, 1993, Clinical and Physiological Applications of ...