TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes to biological activity following acetylation of dendrotoxin I from Dendroaspis polylepis (black mamba). AU - Harvey, A.L.. AU - Rowan, E.G.. AU - Vatanpour, H.. AU - Engstrom, A.. AU - Westerlund, B.. AU - Karlsson, E.. PY - 1997/8. Y1 - 1997/8. N2 - The potassium channel blocker dendrotoxin I was acetylated with acetic anhydride. Mono-acetyl derivatives of all seven lysine residues (N-terminus blocked) and a di-derivative were isolated by chromatography on the cation-exchanger Bio-Rex 70 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The derivative acetyl-Lys 29 and the di-derivative of Tyr 24 and Lys 28 had more than 1000 times lower affinity than the native toxin as determined by inhibition of the 125I-dendrotoxin binding to synaptosomal membranes from rat brain. Lys 29 is part of the triplet Lys-Lys-Lys (28-30) which also occurs in the homologous alpha-dendrotoxin where the triplet is not in the functional site, as shown by site-directed mutagenesis. ...
1NTX: SECONDARY STRUCTURE DETERMINATION FOR ALPHA-NEUROTOXIN FROM DENDROASPIS POLYLEPIS POLYLEPIS BASED ON SEQUENCE SPECIFIC PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE ASSIGNMENTS
The amino acid sequence of the alpha-subunit of taipoxin, an extremely potent presynaptic neurotoxin from the Australian snake taipan has been determined. The very basic protein, by itself a moderately neurotoxic phospholipase, consists of a single polypeptide chain of 119 amino acids. The main fragmentation of the reduced and S-carboxymethylated derivative was accomplished by cleavage with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and trypsin. Chymotryptic peptides and cyanogen bromide fragments were used to align and complete the sequence, which was determined by automated Edman degradation. The taipoxin alpha-subunit is closely homologous to the other taipoxin subunits and to other elapid snake venom phospholipases A2.
Calciseptine (CaS) is a natural neurotoxin isolated from the black mamba Dendroaspis p. polylepis venom. This toxin consists of 60 amino acids with four disulfide bonds. Calciseptine specifically blocks L-type calcium channels, but not other voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels such as N-type and T-type channels. The Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) is generally considered to be of the deadliest snakes on the planet, and is responsible for many fatalities throughout its sub-Saharan Africa range. Without treatment, the bite of a Black Mamba causes a 100% mortality rate. The venom of the Black Mamba consists of more than 28 peptides. One of these peptides is calciseptine. It makes up 2.8% of the venom of the Black Mamba. When first purified, the peptide was called protein E3, which was later changed to calciseptine by Weille et al. Calciseptine has been shown to specifically inhibit the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and was the first natural polypeptide discovered with this property. Specific ...
Ever since killer Work That Skirt/Black Mamba Beat split tape made its way around stereos in 2008, its the height of understatement to say I was excited for this debut full length. And here it is! Courtesy of Jeektune Records the self titled first album from Black Mamba Beat is here! Celebrating its release recently at Ryans Bar, the London based South African band boasts none other than Mr Stix of the mighty Black Time as one of its members. Sure, its fair to say if you like Black Time youll dig Black Mamba Beat, but dont be surprised to find differences between the two. Scratchy guitars and lofi recordings are consistent with Black Time stuff, but, Black Mamba Beat is dominated by male vocals and takes post-punk in a pop-py direction. Featuring Where Was I? and Indigo Skatecamp from the the cassette plus ten new head bashing songs, Chief Sosati (guitar, vocals), Space Rat (Bass, vocals) and Rosie Skinz (drums) are some of UKs DIY finest. It seems few and far between with the sheer ...
Mambalgins are peptides found in the venom of the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis), an elapid snake. Mambalgins are members of the three-finger toxin (3FTx) protein family and have the characteristic three-finger protein fold. First reported by French researchers in 2012, mambalgins are unusual members of the 3FTx family in that they have the in vivo effect of causing analgesia without apparent toxicity. Their mechanism of action is potent inhibition of acid-sensing ion channels. Mambalgins known to date consist of 57 amino acid residues and fold into a characteristic three-finger toxin (3FTx) structure. Two isoforms were originally described, called mambalgin-1 and mambalgin-2, which differ by a single amino acid residue. A third variant which differs by a single residue at another site, has subsequently been reported from venom profiling of the Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis augusticeps). The X-ray structure of mambalgin-1 has been solved and consists of a three-finger protein ...
Today I want to write about a very dangerous snake, the black mamba. Here are five interesting facts about them: These guys are Africas longest venomous snakes, growing up to 4.3 metres long, although they more often grow to about 2.5 metres. Strangely, the black mamba gets its name from the colour of the inside of…
TY - JOUR. T1 - The molecular basis of cross-reactivity in the Australian Snake Venom Detection Kit (SVDK). AU - Winkel, K.. AU - Carroll, T.. AU - Williamson, N. A.. AU - Ignjatovic, V.. AU - Fung, K.. AU - Purcell, A. W.. AU - Fry, B. G.. PY - 2007/12/15. Y1 - 2007/12/15. N2 - The Snake Venom Detection Kit (SVDK) is of major medical importance in Australia, yet it has never been rigorously characterised in terms of its sensitivity and specificity, especially when it comes to reports of false-negative and false-positive results. This study investigates reactions and cross-reactions of five venoms the SVDK is directed against and a number of purified toxins. Snakes showing the closest evolutionary relationships demonstrated the lowest level of cross-reactivity between groups. This was, instead, far more evident between snakes that are extraordinarily evolutionary separated. These snakes: Pseudechis australis, Acanthophis antarcticus and Notechis scutatus, in fact displayed more false-positive ...
All elapids have a pair of proteroglyphous fangs that are used to inject venom from glands located towards the rear of the upper jaws. The fangs are the first two teeth on each maxillary bone, which are enlarged and hollow, and usually only one is in place on each side at any time. The maxilla is intermediate in length and mobility between typical colubrids (long, less mobile) and viperids (very short, highly mobile). When the mouth is closed, the fangs fit into grooved slots in the buccal floor; in the longest-fanged elapids (e.g. Acanthophis, Oxyuranus) it is common for the fangs to pierce right through the intermandibular skin, which does not seem to endanger the snake. The fangs are usually below the front edge of the eye and are angled backwards; due to this construction, most elapids must actually bite in order to envenomate. This action is therefore not as quick as with the viperids, that can envenomate with only a quick, stabbing motion. Some elapids (Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, and ...
... Molecular weight 7036 Calciseptine (CaS) is a natural neurotoxin isolated from the black mamba Dendroaspis p. polylepis venom. This
Polyvalent snakebite antivenoms derive their therapeutic success from the ability of their antibodies to neutralize venom toxins across multiple snake species. This ability results from a production process involving immunization of large mammals with a broad suite of toxins present in venoms. As a result of immunization with this wide range of toxins, many polyvalent antivenoms have a high degree of crossreactivity to similar toxins in other snake venoms e a cross-reactivity which cannot easily be deconvoluted. As a proof of concept, we aimed at exploring the opposite scenario by performing a highthroughput evaluation of the extent of cross-reactivity of a polyclonal mixture of antibodies that was raised against only a single snake venom fraction. For this purpose, a venom fraction containing short neurotoxin 1 (SN-1; Uniprot accession number P01416, three-finger toxin (3FTx) family), which is the medically most important toxin from the notorious black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), was ...
Police in the northern suburbs are blaming a pet exotic snake for the death of one of its owners. The animals bite is poisonous and almost always fatal.
Police in the northern suburbs are blaming a pet exotic snake for the death of one of its owners. The animals bite is poisonous and almost always fatal.
Id like to know Why are Australian snakes SO Toxic? If we assume that the LD50 tests on mice would have similar outcomes for humans, then what mak...
African villagers and experts alike fear the intense pain and suffering the mamba inflicts on its victims. Its poison is neuro-toxic. Unlike most poisonous snakes where the venom travels slowly through the blood stream, allowing a victim time to get treatment and to isolate the poison using a tourniquet, the black mambas poison goes straight for the nerves, attacking the central nervous system and shutting down major organs. Twenty minutes after being bitten you may lose the ability to talk. After one hour youre probably comatose, and by six hours, without an antidote, you are dead.. When feeling very threatened, the Black Mamba usually delivers multiple strikes, injecting its potent neuro- and cardiotoxin with each strike, often attacking the body or head, unlike most other snakes. It can strike up to 12 times in a row. A single bite from a Black Mamba can inject enough venom to kill up to 10-25 grown men, easily killing one unless the appropriate anti-venom is administered in time. When ...
... : B-cell epitopes are the sites of molecules that are recognized by antibodies of the immune system of the Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis DTX-K ...
Snakebite envenoming is a serious condition requiring medical attention and administration of antivenom. Current antivenoms are antibody preparations obtained from the plasma of animals immunised with whole venom(s) and contain antibodies against snake venom toxins, but also against other antigens. In order to better understand the molecular interactions between antivenom antibodies and epitopes on snake venom toxins, a high-throughput immuno-profiling study on all manually curated toxins from Dendroaspis species and selected African Naja species was performed based on custom-made high-density peptide microarrays displaying linear toxin fragments. By detection of binding for three different antivenoms and performing an alanine scan, linear elements of epitopes and the positions important for binding were identified. A strong tendency of antivenom antibodies recognizing and binding to epitopes at the functional sites of toxins was observed. With these results, high-density peptide microarray ...
Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
The "black," or black-mouthed, mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) inhabits rocky savanna and can often be encountered on the ground, where it seems to be fond of termite mounds. Ranging in color from gray to dark brown, its name derives from the blackened inside of its mouth. The black mamba is feared because it is large and quick, and it possesses an extremely potent venom that kills of most of its human victims. Despite its aggressive reputation, unprovoked attacks on humans have not been proved, and it is responsible for only a small number of deaths annually.. ...
Snake venom shows that even vertebrates with small populations can evolve huge gene families that specifically bind diverse proteins, with massive evidence of duplication, mutation, and selection as the mechanisms, and with intraspecific variation in regulation, sequence, and specificity. Is Someone actively designing rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) venom in the American Midwest [7] and fine-tuning the specificity of black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) toxins for subtypes of mammalian muscarinic acetylcholine receptors [8 ...
Case histories of three individuals who survived bites from the Coastal Taipan, Oxyuranus scutellatus, Australias most dangerous snake.
The Black Mambas are found in pairs or small groups. They are very nervous, and head away fast when a human approaches. When the mamba feels threatened it will raise its front and head about 3-4 feet off the ground, open its mouth, spread a flat hood, and shake its head. When they attack they will make several quick strikes, and escape as fast as they can. They can strike from 4-6 feet away. Before antivenoms were developed, a black mamba bite was 100% fatal. They are invulnerable, because no animal can actually kill them.( mostly). Their venom can kill just about anything, so they dont have much to worry about. The mamba is mainly threatened by habitat destruction ...
The Jamesons Green Mamba is very similar to its counterparts, the Eastern and Western Green Mamba. The Jamesons Green Mamba can grow up to 8 feet and 8 inches (2.64 meters) long, with a dull green color across the back that blends into a pale green. Its scales are normally edged with black. They inhabit parts of Africa and prefer landscapes such as primary and secondary rainforests, woodland, and forest-savanna. However, they are highly adaptable and can be found many times in urban areas. Their venom is highly neurotoxic and death can occur between 30-120 minutes.. ...
The Jamesons Green Mamba is very similar to its counterparts, the Eastern and Western Green Mamba. The Jamesons Green Mamba can grow up to 8 feet and 8 inches (2.64 meters) long, with a dull green color across the back that blends into a pale green. Its scales are normally edged with black. They inhabit parts of Africa and prefer landscapes such as primary and secondary rainforests, woodland, and forest-savanna. However, they are highly adaptable and can be found many times in urban areas. Their venom is highly neurotoxic and death can occur between 30-120 minutes.. ...
A regular Habanero hot sauce averages about 20,000 to 30,000 Scoville units. The "extract" sauces (usually named stuff like Devils Drool, or Blairs Mega Death, and have entertaining packaging) contain much higher concentrations of Capsaicin extract and range from 250,000 to 550,000 Scoville units. Needless to say that is extremely hot. So much so they carry warnings that they are to be dilluted and used on a per drop basis, and should be kept in a safe place. Generally 300,000 to 550,000 Scoville unit sauces are the apex of heat for even the seasoned "chileheads", and will undoubtedly induce a lot of sweating, eye tearing and nasal drip for a good 10 minutes or so in small applications. The Black Mamba however is in a group of maybe four or five in the world that carry the highest concentraions of Capsaicin at inordinately high levels. Black Mamba was tested and shown to have several million Scoville units per bottle! What this means is a toothpick sized droplet will burn burn burn in a way ...
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Directed by Chris Duke. With Chris Duke, Olivia Korte. Chris Duke shows you how to install sub-frame connectors, control arms, an electric fan/radiator, and sway bars on a 1987 Ford Mustang GT.
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Absorption of snake venoms (for Australian elapid snakes) occurs principally via lymph channels. If the bite is on a limb, the rate of venom absorption can be very much retarded by firm external compression of the lymph channels (pressure) and by not exercising the muscles of the limb (immobilisation). The aim of this pressure-immobilisation technique for bites on limbs is to minimise entry of venom into the circulation and to buy time so the person can reach medical care where specific anti-venom is available. As absorption is not directly into the venous system at the bite site, a torniquet is unnecessary and should NOT be used ...
You ve probably seen the Internet quiz on the topic, but in case you haven t, answer this question: What s the most dangerous animal?. The cape buffalo? Pufferfish? Black mamba snake?. They re all dangerous, and we don t recommend tangling with any of them.. Cable television celebrates shark week, and we recently saw a photo of a hunter mauled by a grizzly bear in Montana, requiring 90 stitches in his head to close the wound.. Not counting people themselves as dangerous animals, it s the lowly mosquito that claims the most human lives each year.. They live on every continent except Antarctica, and thanks to diseases they carry such as malaria, Chikungunya, encephalitis, elephantiasis, yellow fever, dengue fever, West Nile and Zika virus, 700 million people are sickened and about 725,000 people die every year thanks to mosquitos.. The World Health Organization notes that more than half of the human population is at risk of mosquito-borne illnesses, and Southwest Nebraska is not immune.. The ...
Sve mambe su visoko otrovne. Njihovi otrovi se uglavnom sastoje od neurotoksina (poznatih kao dendrotoksini). Osim neurotoksina, oni takođe sadrže kardiotoksine[2][3] i fascikuline. Druge komponente mogu da budu kalcikludin, koji je poznata komponenta otrova istočnih zelenih mambi, i kalciseptin, koji je komponenta otrova crne mambe. Toksičnost individualnih primeraka unutar iste vrste i podvrste može znatno da varira u zavisnosti od nekoliko faktora, kao što je geografski region. Čak i metereološke prilike i nadmorska visina mogu da utiču na toksičnost (Ernst and Zug et al. 1996). Ujed može da bude fatalan za ljude kojima nije dotupna odgovarajuća prva pomoć i naknadni tretman, jer njihov otrov zaustavlja pluća i srce. Zapadna zelena mamba (D. viridis), istočna zelena mamba (D. angusticeps), i Džamesonova mamba (D. jamesoni) poseduju otrov sličnog sastava i dejstva sa otrovom crne mambe (D. polylepis). Međutim, njihovi otrovi su manje toksični (po osnovi LD50 studija), ...
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Buy Colletts Snake (Pseudechis colletti) by Shannon Wild as a Art Print, Canvas Print, Framed Print, Photographic Print, Metal Print, or Greeting Card
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Venom from the worlds deadliest snake - the black mamba, which can kill a person within half an hour, could actually be a painkiller at par with morphine, researchers say. Anne Baron from the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology in
We house one of the largest snake species - Green anacondas, and also some of the most venomous - the Black mamba and Puff adder. We regularly breed our Morelets crocodiles, the only collection in Europe that has bred this species.. ...
Its an hour before sunrise. My sole source of light-my headlamp-is aimed at the ground as I carefully make my way to the lab tent, searching for the black lines of biting siafu ants. Stepping on one of these lines means spending the next few hours slapping at sudden jabs of pain all over your body. (There are also black mambas and puff adders to worry about; while their presence in camp is much rarer than that of the siafu, a bite from either would require an emergency airlift.) At the tent I meet my fellow early risers. I check the memory cards in my cameras as we load up, filling mugs with fresh goats milk chai and pocketing granola bars to hold us over until our return for breakfast in three hours. This is how my days have started for the past week; for Tracy Montgomery 10, this is how her days have started for most of the past seven months.. OK, its 6:03 a.m. Whats todays date? The 4th or the 5th? The 5th. Its March 5, 2011 and we are leaving camp for morning obs. We have TMM … and ...
The Lakers have had some of the greatest players this league has ever seen, including the five-time champion Kobe Bryant. Bryants 2012-13 season came an end after suffering an Achilles injury and sadly we did not get a chance to see the Black Mamba compete for another title.. Over the years, Bryant has been one of the most entertaining players in the NBA and he has always increased his level of play in the postseason.. As the NBA gears up for the 2013 Finals, it is looking back at some of the most memorable moments in recent memory. The league has added another installment to its BIG commercials and it features Bryant in the 2002 NBA Finals. It spotlights Bryants monster dunk on Todd MacCulloch of the New Jersey Nets en route to a Lakers 99-94 victory in Game 1.. ...
On a pen kick of late I ve always carried a pen but lately I m up to three in my bag or inside jacket pocket This week An Aurora Black Mamba .... new
The Black Mamba is set to get things going in the Kobe Line by dropping the initial run of the Nike Zoom Kobe 8. The "Sulfur" version is Lakers away colorway draped in black and yellow and featuring that leafy graphic imprinted onto the new Engineered Mesh upper. The lucky folks on the west coast will be able to snag a special edition packaging that features a slide out box and includes matching elite socks, sleeve, and a special Kobe System origami paper airplane. These will be exclusive to Nike Vault in Los Angeles which will raffle 24 sets tonight at midnight for a very fitting $224 a pop.. ...
3V9M: Mechanistic studies on the anticoagulant activity of a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Australian King Brown Snake (Pseudechis australis)
using Distributed @everywhere using Mamba ## Data salm = Dict{Symbol, Any}( :y =, reshape( [15, 21, 29, 16, 18, 21, 16, 26, 33, 27, 41, 60, 33, 38, 41, 20, 27, 42], 3, 6), :x =, [0, 10, 33, 100, 333, 1000], :plate =, 3, :dose =, 6 ) ## Model Specification model = Model( y = Stochastic(2, (alpha, beta, gamma, x, lambda) -, UnivariateDistribution[( mu = exp(alpha + beta * log(x[j] + 10) + gamma * x[j] + lambda[i, j]); Poisson(mu)) for i in 1:3, j in 1:6 ], false ), alpha = Stochastic( () -, Normal(0, 1000) ), beta = Stochastic( () -, Normal(0, 1000) ), gamma = Stochastic( () -, Normal(0, 1000) ), lambda = Stochastic(2, s2 -, Normal(0, sqrt(s2)), false ), s2 = Stochastic( () -, InverseGamma(0.001, 0.001) ) ) ## Initial Values inits = [ Dict(:y =, salm[:y], :alpha =, 0, :beta =, 0, :gamma =, 0, :s2 =, 10, :lambda =, zeros(3, 6)), Dict(:y =, salm[:y], :alpha =, 1, :beta =, 1, :gamma =, 0.01, :s2 =, 1, :lambda =, zeros(3, 6)) ] ## Sampling Scheme scheme = [Slice([:alpha, :beta, :gamma], [1.0, 1.0, ...
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Notechis ater NaI protein: composed of two protein subunits (alpha and beta) for complex of approximately 110 kDa; amino acid sequence in first source
View mouse Nptx1 Chr11:119538719-119547753 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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Nile Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq: NLTX), today announced preliminary data from its recently completed multi-center, open-label, ascending-dose Phase 1b clinical study of CD-NP, a novel
Packaging: Pack of 2Description: BRUSH, CHANNEL CLEANING 8"X.079" S/S HANDLE (2/PK)Brand: Manufacturer: Key SurgicalManufacturer #: BR-08-079Application: Container Type: Contents: For Use On: Overall Dimensions: Scent ...