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ABSTRACT Growth factors are thought to activate estrogen receptor-alpha ERα by phosphorylating the serines in the N-terminus of the receptor. However, this mechanism does not account for the conformational changes that occur in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of receptor to render the receptor active. It is hypothesized that epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates ERα through the PLC--calcium-calmodulin pathway by increasing intracellular calcium which, upon binding to the LBD, induces a conformational change that activates the receptor. In support of this hypothesis, treatment of MCF-7 cells with EGF (150 ng/ml) lead to an increase in intracellular calcium from 150 nM to 350 nM (+/-70 nM) and the induction of the ERα responsive genes, progesterone receptor (PgR) and pS2. The ability of EGF to induce PgR and pS2 mRNA was blocked by inhibitors of phospholipase C-, calmodulin, and calmodulin kinase II, the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and by an antiestrogen. Treatment with ...
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The distance between presynaptic VGCCs and exocytotic Ca2+ sensors is a major determinant of the latency from the peak Ca2+ current to the maximal vesicular release (Wadel et al., 2007; Bucurenciu et al., 2008; Eggermann et al., 2012; Nadkarni et al., 2012; Schneggenburger et al., 2012). PPRdecay was markedly suppressed by moderate concentrations of the slow Ca2+ chelator EGTA (Fig. 9), suggesting that within the single Ca2+ microdomain, the facilitation of Cav2.1 channel currents or an increase in the number of activated Cav2.1 channels leads to a higher peak free [Ca2+]i and greater activation of exocytotic Ca2+ sensors. The end result would be higher MVR.. Differential localization of VGCC subtypes at the presynaptic terminal may be involved in the induction of different types of PPF. Kulik et al. (2004) showed that Cav2.1 immunoreactivity is densely clustered at the active zone of GC axonal varicosities. At the calyx synapses, immunoreactivity for Cav2.2 and Cav2.3 subunits is more distant ...
We reported inhibition of growth of primary rat mammary carcinomas after infusions of tumor-bearer plasma absorbed with Protein A-Sepharose or inactivated CNBr Sepharose. Absorbed plasmas were depleted of the third component of complement (C3) (other complement components defined similarly) and C5 but not C1, C4, or C2. These results suggested that activation of the alternative pathway of complement might be involved in the observed antitumor effects. To test this concept sera were treated with ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid or [ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetraacetic acid before absorption with Protein A-Sepharose. Ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid, by chelating calcium and magnesium, prevents activation of both the alternative and classical complement pathways. [Ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetraacetic acid, by chelating calcium but not magnesium, permits activation of the alternative pathway but inhibits activation of the classical complement pathway. Sera in the presence or absence ...
The induction of both LTP and LTD was equally sensitive to loading of the postsynaptic cell with the rapidly equilibrating Ca2+ buffer BAPTA or the slower buffer EGTA. Therefore, the volume-averaged elevation of spine [Ca2+]i is an important factor for the induction of changes in synaptic strength. The putative Ca2+ sensors that trigger the induction of LTP or LTD presumably are separated from the Ca2+ entry site by several tens of nanometers (Neher, 1998). They might be mobile Ca2+ buffers, which compete with Ca2+ extrusion and additional fixed Ca2+ buffers. Another possibility is that the Ca2+ sensors have slower binding kinetics for Ca2+ than EGTA. In this case the Ca2+ sensors might be localized in close proximity to Ca2+ channels, but still they would be sensitive mainly to the volume-averaged increases in [Ca2+]i. In the case of LTP, calmodulin is a possible candidate Ca2+ sensor. It can activate Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which translocates to the plasma ...
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded G protein-coupled-receptor US28 is believed to participate in virus dissemination through modulation of cell migration and immune evasion. US28 binds different CC chemokines and the CX3C chemokine CX3CL1. Membrane-anchored CX3CL1 is expressed by immune-activated endothelial cells, causing redirection of CX3CR1-expressing leukocytes in the blood to sites of infection. Here, we used stable transfected cell lines to examine how US28 expression affects cell migration on immobilized full-length CX3CL1, to model how HCMV-infected leukocytes interact with inflamed endothelium. We observed that US28-expressing cells migrated more than CX3CR1-expressing cells when adhering to immobilized CX3CL1. US28-induced migration was G protein-signalling dependent and was blocked by the phospholipase Cβ inhibitor U73122 and the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. In addition, migration was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by competition from CCL2 and CCL5, whereas CCL3 ...
In the present study, we demonstrated that H2O2 modulates the relative levels of XO and XDH in endothelial cells via a pathway requiring ER calcium release. We also showed that ROS slowly released from Menadione and SIN-1 and stimulation of endogenous ROS using angiotensin II decreased the XDH content of endothelial cells in a manner similar to bolus H2O2. H2O2 evoked a progressive decline in XDH, and our metabolic labeling studies demonstrated that this was caused by conversion of XDH to XO. This conversion resulted in increased ROS production by XO as shown by ESR analysis. The effect of H2O2 was mediated by [Ca2+]i, because it was prevented by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and mimicked by the calcium ionophore A23187. Further, we demonstrated that H2O2 stimulated release of calcium from the ER, and that this was prevented by thapsigargin and the IP3 receptor antagonist 2-APB. The PLC activator m-3M3FBS mimicked the effect of H2O2, in keeping with the concept that PLC activation may be a ...
Author: Heidelberger, R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1994-10-06; Title: Calcium dependence of the rate of exocytosis in a synaptic terminal
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NGF induces neuronal differentiation by modulating [Ca2+]and the Akt pathway. by tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, either the [Ca2+]chelator(1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-alters neurite outgrowth through changes in the NGF-dependent transductional pathways (6, 9). In truth, the Ca2+ ion is definitely regarded as an essential essential second messenger in development cones because, depending on its focus level, it modulates the price, motility, […]. Read More ». ...
Studies using isogenic transductant strains mlpA+ and mlpA as well as reversion analysis suggested that the physiological consequences of a structural gene mutation in murein lipoprotein include (i) increased sensitivity toward chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetic acid, (ii) leakage of periplasmic enzyme ribonuclease, (iii) weakened association between the outer membrane and the rigid layer accentuated by Mg2+ starvation, resulting in the formation of outer membrane blebs, and (iv) decreased growth rate in media of low ionic strength or low osmolarity. It is suggested that the bound form of lipoprotein plays an important role in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the outer membrane of the Escherichia coli cell envelope. Other outer membrane components may also contribute to the anchorage of outer membrane to the rigid layer, probably through ionic interactions with divalent cations. Using the phenotype of ...
The secretory epithehum of the mantle of the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana is excitable. The ionic dependence of its action potentials was investigated. Two distinct phases could be recognized by their ionic dependences. The early spike phase, that appeared in all action potentials, was dependent on the Na+ concentration of the solution in the interstitial space and was insensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX) at concentrations as high as 36μmol l−1. It was inhibited by local anesthetics, and its repolarization was inhibited by veratrine. The data show this electrogenesis is caused by TTX-insensitive sodium channels located at the basolateral membrane of this epithelium. Cardiac-like action potentials were recorded in several specimens: the rapid Na+-dependent spike was followed by a slower repolarization phase that formed a plateau and increased the action potential duration. The plateau amplitude was markedly increased when the external Ca2+ concentration was increased to (60 mmol l−1 and it was ...
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) stimulates corticosteroid secretion from adrenal cells through activation of 5-HT4 receptors positively coupled to adenylyl-cyclase. In the present study, we investigated in frog adrenocortical cells the effect of 5-HT4 receptor agonists on cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and determined the sequence of events associated with 5-HT4 receptor agonist zacopride (10[-8] to 10[-5]M each in the vicinity of cultured adrenocortical cells caused a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i. Preincubation of the cells with the selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist [1-[2-(methylsulfonylamino)ethyl]-4- piperidinyl]methyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate maleate totally blocked the 5-HT-induced stimulation of [Ca2+]i. Chelation of extracellular calcium with ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N, N-tetraacetic acid (10 MM) suppressed the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on [Ca2+]i. Conversely, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of calcium ATPase activity, had no effect on the [Ca2+]i ...
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Calcium buffering describes the processes which help stabilise the concentration of free calcium ions within cells, in a similar manner to how pH buffers maintain a stable concentration of hydrogen ions. The majority of calcium ions within the cell are bound to intracellular proteins, leaving a minority freely dissociated. When calcium is added to or removed from the cytoplasm by transport across the cell membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium buffers minimise the effect on changes in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration by binding calcium to or releasing calcium from intracellular proteins. As a result, 99% of the calcium added to the cytosol of a cardiomyocyte during each cardiac cycle becomes bound to calcium buffers, creating a relatively small change in free calcium. The regulation of free calcium is of particular importance in excitable cells like cardiomyocytes and neurons. Within these cells, many intracellular proteins can act as calcium buffers. In cardiac muscle cells, the most ...
Recent improvements in light microscopic techniques, in particular laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy, in combination with optical stimulation methods, namely optical switches and caged molecules, have made it possible to study the structure and function of neurons and their synapses in intact brain tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. These novel techniques are increasingly making it possible to study the neuronal mechanisms underlying brain functions such as learning and memory. We have implemented and tested an optical technique based on epi-fluorescence microscopy to study neuronal communication at the level of single synapses. The idea was to be able to dynamically raise the concentration of Ca2+ ions in dendritic spines or presynaptic nerve terminals of neurons, affecting calcium dependent protein systems involved in synaptic transmission and therefore inducing synaptic plasticity. For this, we made use of photo-labile calcium chelators, known as calcium-cages, which ...
Large benthic foraminifera are unicellular calcifying reef organisms that can form symbiotic relationships with a range of different microalgae. However, the cellular functions, such as symbiosis and calcification, and other aspects of cellular physiology in large benthic foraminifera are not fully understood. Amphisorus kudakajimensis was used as a model to determine the detailed cellular characteristics of large benthic foraminifera. We used calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein AM) as a fluorescent indicator for live confocal imaging. We demonstrated that calcein AM is a useful fluorescent indicator to stain the fine network of reticulopodia and the cytoplasm in living A. kudakajimensis. We showed that at least two types of reticulopodia exist in A. kudakajimensis: the straight bundle of reticulopodia that spreads from the aperture and the fine reticulopodia along the surface of the aperture and chamber walls. The cytoplasm in outer chambers was highly branched and contained a few dinoflagellates. In
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MAIL VIA INTERNET FROM BIOSCI-REQUEST at genbank.bio.net THURSDAY 09/10/92 6:15:03 A.M. , , Received: from CU.NIH.GOV by NIHCU (Mailer) id 9613; , Thu, 10 Sep 92 06:15:03 EDT , Received: from GENBANK.BIO.NET by CU.NIH.GOV , with TCP; Thu, 10 Sep 92 6:15:00 EDT , Received: by genbank.bio.net (5.65/IG-2.0) , id AA05730; Thu, 10 Sep 92 03:15:24 -0700 , Received: by genbank.bio.net (5.65/IG-2.0) , id AA05723; Thu, 10 Sep 92 03:15:22 -0700 , Message-Id: ,9209101015.AA05723 at genbank.bio.net, , To: bio-soft at genbank.bio.net , From: Fergus_Doherty at vme.ccc.nottingham.ac.uk , Subject: Calculating free Ca2++ with EGTA buffers , Date: 10 Sep 92 10:00:35 GMT , Sender: list-admin at daresbury.ac.uk , Original-To: BIO-SOFT at uk.ac.daresbury , , Can anyone help me to calculate free Ca2++ in EGTA/CA buffers? Basically , I want to determine the effect of Ca on enzyme activity, and relatedly , translocation of an enzyme to membranes-which is Ca -dependent. I need , to include EGTA to completely inhibit the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ivana Y Kuo, Camille Keeler, Rachel Corbin, Andjelka Ćelić, Edward T Petri, Michael E Hodsdon, Barbara E Ehrlich].
54/97. Gonzalez-CA Hernandezpadilla-M Dominguez-S Mederos-A Brito-F Arrieta-JM Polymer Species in Aqueous-Solutions of Para- Phenylenediamine-N,N,N,N-Tetraacetic Acid (P-Phdta) with Cobalt(II), Nickel(II), Copper(II), Zinc(II) and Cadmium(II) - X-Ray Crystal-Structure of Na-4(Co-2(P- Phdta)(2))Center-Dot 8H(2)O POLYHEDRON 1997, Vol 16, Iss 17, pp 2925- ...
B-Ionic Magnesium is an easy to use one component liquid supplement which, when used with B-Ionic Calcium Buffer or kalkwasser, will not disrupt the ionic balance of closed marine aquaria.
The CSV is a delimited data format that has fields/columns separated by the semicolon character and records/rows separated by newlines. Fields that may contain a special character (semicolon, newline, or double quote), are enclosed in double quotes. For an easier handling, the list of Pre-registered substances is available in four parts ordered by EC number. They contain the same information as the following full list.. ...
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BAPTA has rapid-on-rate Ca2+-chelating properties that are useful for studying Ca2+ regulation of synaptic functions in close proximity to the Ca2+ source (e.g., the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel pore) (Eggermann et al., 2012), while EGTA has slow-on-rate Ca2+-chelating properties useful for studying Ca2+ regulation of synaptic functions within areas more distant from the Ca2+ source. Given the constant rate of Ca2+ diffusion in cytoplasm, the temporal kinetics of Ca2+ signals can also be measured and compared with Ca2+s spatial range. Thus, EGTA and BAPTA have been used to study the spatial and temporal Ca2+ regulation of neurotransmission (Adler et al., 1991; Augustine et al., 1991; Tymianski et al., 1994; Cummings et al., 1996; Dittman and Regehr, 1998; Angleson and Betz, 2001). In this study, using these chelators, we examined the kinetic organization of SV ability at the AZ for either low- or high-frequency AP signals in synaptically coupled SCG neurons (Mochida et al., 1994).. We first ...
The Ca2+ ionophore 4-Br A23187 is effective in increasing [Ca2+]i and eliciting secretion when ICRAC is inhibited by SK&F 96365. Antigen (Ag) (1 μg/ml) sti
The aim of this study was to investigate possible regulation of the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(f)) by cytosolic calcium in guinea-pig sino-atrial (SA) node cells. Isolated SA node cells were superfused with physiological saline solution (36 degrees C) and the perforated patch voltage-clamp technique used to record I(f) activated by hyperpolarizing voltage steps. A 10-min loading of SA node cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA (using 10 microM BAPTA-AM) significantly reduced the amplitude of I(f) at all potentials studied (69+/-8% at -80 mV, n=6). BAPTA loading also shifted the voltage of half-activation (V(h)) of the conductance from -83+/-2 mV in control to -93+/-2 mV in BAPTA (n=6) without significantly altering the slope of activation. The calmodulin antagonists W-7 (10 microM), calmidazolium (25 microM) and ophiobolin A (20 microM) caused similar reductions in I(f) amplitude (73+/-4, 86+/-9 and 59+/-6% at -80 mV, n=6, 5 and 4, respectively) and shifts in V(h) (11+/-3, 14+/-3 and 8+/-2
Three new bismacrocyclic Ln(3+) chelates consisting of triamide derivatives of cyclen with glycine, methyl and tert-butyl substituents (L1-3, respectively) linked to an acyclic EGTA-derived calcium chelator were synthesised as potential MRI contrast agents (EGTA -ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N, N, N, N-tetraacetic acid). Eu3+ and Yb3+ complexes of L1-3 were investigated as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents. Moderate to minor CEST effects were observed for Eu2L1, Eu2L2 and Yb2L2 complexes in the absence of Ca2+, with negligible changes upon addition of this metal ion. Luminescence steady-state emission and lifetime experiments did not reveal any changes in the coordination environment of the complexes, while the number of inner-sphere water molecules remained constant in the absence and presence of Ca2+. The protonation constants of Eu2L1 and Eu2L2 and stability constants of their complexes with Ca2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ were determined by means of potentiometric... ...
BioAssay record AID 225394 submitted by ChEMBL: Percent increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) using CHO cells, stably transfected with human muscarinic m3 acetylcholine receptor (AChR); nd=Not determined.
Calcium Indicators are small molecules that can chelate calcium ions. All these molecules are based on an EGTA homologue called BAPTA (with exception of coelenterazines), with high selectivity for calcium (Ca) ions versus magnesium (Mg) ions. This group of indicators includes fura-2, indo-1, fluo-3, BTC, Rhod-2, etc. These dyes are generally used with the chelator carboxyl groups masked as acetoxymethyl esters, in order to render the molecule lipophilic and to allow easy entrance into the cell. Once the indicator is in the cell, cellular esterases will free the carboxyl and the indicator will be able to bind calcium.. Fluorescent Chloride Indicators ...
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0017] The new curing compositions/mixtures for the curing of the liquid or low melting phthalonitriles may afford the ability to convert to a shaped, partially cured solid at temperatures below 250° C. There are no known prior reports of gelation being achieved at these temperatures. When used alone, most of the reactive aromatic diamines [e.g. 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene; m-APB or 1,4-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene; p-APB] used as a curing additive must be added to the melt or liquid of the phthalonitrile at 250° C. for quick reaction due to the volatility of the amine curing additive (Sastri et al, "Phthalonitrile Cure Reaction with Aromatic Diamines" J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 36, 1885-1890 (1998)). The less reactive thermally stable diamine, bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]sulfone; p-BAPS] has been typically used to cure the phthalonitriles due to its non-volatility and thermal stability up to 450° C. Conversion of the phthalonitrile monomer to a crosslinked polymer with this curing agent ...
In a single set of ex periments, extracellular Ca2 was replaced with Ca2 totally free PSS to avoid influx of Ca2 as being a contributing mechan ism for alterations in i. A normal astrocytic response induced by ATP in Ca2 no cost PSS is presented in Figure 2C. It showed just one declining phase with no professional longed element of decay. The absence of the delayed phase of i in Ca2 no cost option is consistent with influx of extracellular Ca2 mediating this part of response. In 3 additional experiments, the secondary slow phase of response was absent in Ca2 totally free alternative. Total effects yielded a single time program of decay in Ca2 free of charge PSS was 28. 9 one. eight s. This decay time program was not appreciably diverse from your rapid time program of your con trol response evoked by one mM ATP.. The prolonged phase of i elicited by selleck ATP in standard PSS and its absence in Ca2 free PSS could reflect entry of Ca2 by way of SOC following the original release in the divalent ...
calcium How intracellular Calcium signaling, gradient and its role as a universal intracellular regulator points to design http://reasonandscience.heavenforum
16. An investigator places an isolated neuron in a calcium-free medium, gives the neuron a suprathreshold stimulus and then performs an assay to test whether neurotransmitter is released into the medium. Which of the following outcomes would you predict? ...
fprintf(\n); fprintf( Intercepts \n); fprintf( True , vgxvarx , backslash\n); fprintf(--------------------------------------\n); for j = 1:n fprintf( %8.4f , %8.4f , %8.4f\n,aTrue(j),EstMdl1.a(j),coeff(1,j)); end cB = coeff; cB = cB(:); fprintf(\n); fprintf( Coefficients \n); fprintf( True , vgxvarx , backslash\n); fprintf(--------------------------------------\n); for j = 1:r1 fprintf( %8.4f , %8.4f , %8.4f\n,bTrue(j),... EstMdl1.b(j),cB(n + j)); end fprintf(\n); fprintf( Innovations Covariance\n); fprintf( True , vgxvarx\n); fprintf(----------------------------------------------------------\n); for j = 1:n fprintf(%8.4f %8.4f %8.4f , %8.4f %8.4f %8.4f\n,... InnovCov(j,:),EstMdl1.Q(j,:)); end ...
1998 10 22.35003 02 17 47.55 +16 18 22.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 10 22.48311 02 17 46.87 +16 18 18.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 11 18.07069 02 15 27.92 +16 05 19.9 21.5R 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.14591 02 15 27.54 +16 05 17.6 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.23096 02 15 27.03 +16 05 15.2 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 12 14.83617 02 13 35.14 +15 53 37.6 22.7R 523955 950 Ca3601 1998 12 14.85345 02 13 35.07 +15 53 37.3 523955 950 Ca3601 1999 11 10.16227 02 22 34.50 +16 25 15.5 22.5R 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.18814 02 22 34.40 +16 25 14.7 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.24322 02 22 34.07 +16 25 12.9 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.31381 02 22 33.61 +16 25 10.7 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.37010 02 22 33.30 +16 25 09.0 22.7R 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.41551 02 22 33.04 +16 25 07.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.24109 02 22 28.74 +16 24 43.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.28637 02 22 28.51 +16 24 42.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.33656 02 22 28.17 +16 24 41.3 523955 696 Ca7321 2000 11 23.18416 02 27 52.14 +16 34 03.5 ...
1998 10 22.40628 03 08 48.43 +16 39 15.3 22.8R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 10 22.49369 03 08 47.93 +16 39 12.7 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.13535 03 06 18.37 +16 27 28.1 22.6R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.20454 03 06 18.00 +16 27 26.2 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 12 17.95527 03 03 45.48 +16 15 35.9 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.00257 03 03 45.30 +16 15 35.6 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.03799 03 03 45.12 +16 15 34.0 91205 950 Ca3601 1999 10 06.55934 03 17 46.28 +16 54 48.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.53349 03 17 33.50 +16 53 45.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.57011 03 17 33.32 +16 53 44.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.60427 03 17 33.15 +16 53 43.6 23.4R 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.63619 03 17 33.05 +16 53 42.9 23.3R 91205 568 Ca6740 2000 12 28.31163 03 18 17.672 +16 31 40.74 23.2R 91205 568 Cl4052 2000 12 28.38018 03 18 17.407 +16 31 39.64 23.0R 91205 568 Cl4052 2003 10 01.56099 03 48 19.49 +17 21 57.5 23.1R 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 10 01.59893 03 48 19.38 +17 21 56.8 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 12 21.158989 03 41 29.38 +16 54 ...
در مخازن شکاف‌دار، میزان برداشت نفت به آشام خودبخودی آب در ماتریس و خارج ساختن نفت موجود در آن به سمت شکاف‌ها، بستگی دارد. اما این فرآیند زمانی امکان‌پذیر است که ماتریس بلوک‌ها، «آب‌تر» باشد. از آنجا که مخازن کربناته غالبا «نفت‌تر» می‌باشند، به کارگیری آشام خودبخودی در مخازن کربناته شکاف‌دار مستلزم تغییر ترشوندگی در حین عملیات سیلاب‌زنی می‌باشد. در این مقاله، تأثیر یون‌های مؤثر بر پتانسیل سطح (SO42- ،Ca2+ ،Mg2+) موجود در آب دریا در تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته و همچنین تأثیر دما و غلظت نمک NaCl در فرآیند آشام خودبخودی مورد تحقیق تجربی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور 13
Nerve transection is a condition in which nerve fibers that run throughout the body are cut. There are several common causes of...
Vibrio cholerae is the causative bacteria of the diarrheal disease cholera, but it also persists in aquatic environments, where it displays an expression profile that is distinct from that during infection. Upon entry into the host, a tightly regulated circuit coordinates the induction of two major virulence factors: cholera toxin and a toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). It has been shown that a set of bile salts, including taurocholate, serve as host signals to activate V. cholerae virulence through inducing the activity of the transmembrane virulence regulator TcpP. In this study, we investigated the role of calcium, an abundant mental ion in the gut, in the regulation of virulence. We show that whereas Ca2+ alone does not affect virulence, Ca2+ enhances bile salt-dependent virulence activation for V. cholerae. The induction of TCP by murine intestinal contents is counteracted when Ca2+ is depleted by the high-affinity calcium chelator EGTA, suggesting that the calcium present in the gut is a ...
TITLE decay of internal calcium concentration : : Internal calcium concentration due to calcium currents and pump. : Differential equations. : : Simple model of ATPase pump with 3 kinetic constants (Destexhe 92) : Cai + P ,-, CaP -, Cao + P (k1,k2,k3) : A Michaelis-Menten approximation is assumed, which reduces the complexity : of the system to 2 parameters: : kt = ,tot enzyme concentration, * k3 -, TIME CONSTANT OF THE PUMP : kd = k2/k1 (dissociation constant) -, EQUILIBRIUM CALCIUM VALUE : The values of these parameters are chosen assuming a high affinity of : the pump to calcium and a low transport capacity (cfr. Blaustein, : TINS, 11: 438, 1988, and references therein). : : Units checked using modlunit -, factor 10000 needed in ca entry : : VERSION OF PUMP + DECAY (decay can be viewed as simplified buffering) : : All variables are range variables : : : This mechanism was published in: Destexhe, A. Babloyantz, A. and : Sejnowski, TJ. Ionic mechanisms for intrinsic slow oscillations in : ...
TITLE decay of internal calcium concentration : : Internal calcium concentration due to calcium currents and pump. : Differential equations. : : Simple model of ATPase pump with 3 kinetic constants (Destexhe 92) : Cai + P ,-, CaP -, Cao + P (k1,k2,k3) : A Michaelis-Menten approximation is assumed, which reduces the complexity : of the system to 2 parameters: : kt = ,tot enzyme concentration, * k3 -, TIME CONSTANT OF THE PUMP : kd = k2/k1 (dissociation constant) -, EQUILIBRIUM CALCIUM VALUE : The values of these parameters are chosen assuming a high affinity of : the pump to calcium and a low transport capacity (cfr. Blaustein, : TINS, 11: 438, 1988, and references therein). : : Units checked using modlunit -, factor 10000 needed in ca entry : : VERSION OF PUMP + DECAY (decay can be viewed as simplified buffering) : : All variables are range variables : : : This mechanism was published in: Destexhe, A. Babloyantz, A. and : Sejnowski, TJ. Ionic mechanisms for intrinsic slow oscillations in : ...
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