Expression of murine soluble CD30 attenuates mousepox development.Groups of 15 susceptible BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with 100 pfu each of the indic
The accidental creation of a smallpox-related virus that kills mice by wiping out part of the immune system leaves us one step away from the ultimate bioweapon
Contraception may be less effective in overweight or obese women, according to an article in the Boston Globe. However, more studies are necessary to confirm this suspicion.. Many studies of contraceptive efficacy have excluded clinical trials on overweight or obese women, according to an article on uptodate.com. The doctors also concluded that the pill, the patch and contraceptive implants yield a higher failure rate in obese women.. The study also noted that "even if the risk of contraceptive failure is increased, the effectiveness probably remains relatively high.". Dr. Alan Calhoun, the medical director of University Health Services at the University of Massachusetts, shares the same sentiment.. "Birth control pills are still very effective for women who are overweight," Calhoun said.. Calhoun recommends oral contraceptives [pills] and intrauterine devices [IUDs], which are small, plastic, t-shaped devices that are inserted into the uterus.. Calhoun also said that pills are the most commonly ...
Ectromelia virus E3L protein: is a dsRNA-binding proein with a conserved C-terminal dsRNA-binding domain; amino acid sequence in first source
Of course, there are plenty of differences, too. For example, ectromelia is usually fatal during the liver stage, while for Plasmodium the liver is merely a
Relatively benign viruses can be converted into highly virulent viruses via the introduction of genes of interest. For example, Ectromelia virus, a natural pathogen of mice that causes mousepox, recently was recombined with interleukin-4 as part of an effort to develop a live virus immuno-contraceptive vaccine. Surprisingly, the recombined virus caused 60% mortality in 2 strains of mice, whereas the wild type virus caused no death [1]. A credible bioterrorism scenario might entail the release of such a recombined or chimeric virus tailored for maximum infectivity and pathogenicity but not readily detectable using our current "state-of-the-art" diagnostics (i.e., PCR and micro-array chips.) Accordingly, there is a need for methods that can identify unknown viral pathogens and which can reveal extensive genomic information. Such methods would not only prove useful for our defense against bioterrorism, but also would improve our capacities to identify and control outbreaks of naturally occurring ...
Rats were immunized with C57BL/10 mouse spleen cells enriched for T lymphocytes. Spleen cells were fused with NS-1 myeloma cells. The antibody reacts with an antigen, CD45, present on mouse lymph node and spleen cells but not on brain, kidney, liver or red blood cells. It antibody reacts with all isoforms of CD45. The CD45 antigen is common to all lines of leukocyte differentiation. Tested and found negative for ectromelia virus (mousepox).
Heres what you can learn from existing viral diseases such as flu to get ready for corona and emerging viral diseases While you should be cautious. ...
In 2001, the New Scientist (4) published an article on a deadly virus created accidentally by an Australian research team trying to genetically engineer a contraceptive vaccine for mice."They spliced a gene for the protein interleukin-4 (IL-4) into the relatively harmless mousepox virus (ectromelia virus) in the hope that IL-4 would boost the immune system to make more antibodies. When the researchers injected this vaccine into mice, all the mice died. In fact, this synthetic virus was so lethal that it also killed half of all the mice that had been vaccinated against mousepox.The work published in the Journal of Virology (http://jvi.asm.org/content/75/3/1205.long) revealed that hte mice used were genetically resistant to the mousepox viruis in the first place. Genetic resistance to mousepox varies among inbred laboratory mice, and depends on natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) responses to viral infection, both of which destroy cells that have been infected with virus so ...
In 2001, the New Scientist (4) published an article on a deadly virus created accidentally by an Australian research team trying to genetically engineer a contraceptive vaccine for mice."They spliced a gene for the protein interleukin-4 (IL-4) into the relatively harmless mousepox virus (ectromelia virus) in the hope that IL-4 would boost the immune system to make more antibodies. When the researchers injected this vaccine into mice, all the mice died. In fact, this synthetic virus was so lethal that it also killed half of all the mice that had been vaccinated against mousepox.The work published in the Journal of Virology (http://jvi.asm.org/content/75/3/1205.long) revealed that hte mice used were genetically resistant to the mousepox viruis in the first place. Genetic resistance to mousepox varies among inbred laboratory mice, and depends on natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) responses to viral infection, both of which destroy cells that have been infected with virus so ...
Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia ...
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Australian scientists have accidentally created a virus that kills mice by crippling their immune systems, and warn that the technique might threaten to produce deadlier forms of human viruses and new kinds of biological weapons. Mice infected with the pathogen died, even many of those who had been vaccinated against mousepox. Because people have the same immune system gene, a similar step could in theory create a pathogen deadly to people.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of H 2L gene products in virus immune T cell recognition. Evidence for an H 2L restricted T cell response. AU - Biddison, W. E.. AU - Hansen, T. H.. AU - Levy, Robert B. AU - Doherty, P. C.. PY - 1978/12/1. Y1 - 1978/12/1. N2 - The H-2L locus is closely linked to H-2D and codes for antigenic specificities present on a 45,000 mol wt glycoprotein that is distinct from the molecule which bears the D region private specificity. It was found that BALB/c-H-2(db) mice, which lack detectable cell-surface H-2L gene products, were able to generate influenza- and vaccinia-immune cytotoxic T cells which lyse D region-compatible target cells, although they have been reported to be incapable of making a similar response to ectromelia virus (7). Thus, the lack of H-2L antigenic specificities does not produce a general loss of responsiveness for other viruses even when a highly cross-reactive pox virus (vaccinia) was studied. Antisera-blocking experiments utilizing sera specific for ...
In recent years our understanding of the role of NK cells in the response to viral infection has grown rapidly. Not only do we realize viruses have many immune evasion strategies to escape NK cell responses, but that stimulation of NK cell subsets during an antiviral response occurs through receptors seemingly geared directly at viral products and that NK cells can provide a memory response to viral pathogens. Tremendous knowledge has been gained in this area through the study of Herpes viruses, but appreciation for the significance of NK cells in the response to other types of viral infections is growing. The function of NK cells in defense against poxviruses has emerged over several decades beginning with the early seminal studies showing the role of NK cells and the NK gene complex in susceptibility of mouse strains to Ectromelia, a poxvirus pathogen of mice. More recently, greater understanding has emerged of the molecular details of the response. Given that human diseases caused by poxviruses
The poxvirus infection is caused by a DNA virus from the Poxviridae virus family, specifically from the Orthopoxvirus genus. This is a relatively common transmitted virus, but it can be readily inactivated by several types of viral disinfectants.
On a virology and immunology level, this is a very interesting result. But the implications go far beyond that. The goal of the research was certainly benign, but the study provided the first evidence to suggest that all it takes to transform an innocuous virus into a deadly virus is the insertion of a single gene. Something that was thought to be hard - increasing the pathogenicity of a virus - appears, in this case, to be easy. This has some alarming implications for the development of biological weapons. Up until now the concerns regarding biological weapons centred on the use of existing pathogens. A terrorist s ultimate aim would be to obtain a sample of smallpox. It has been 23 years since anyone s immune system has seen the smallpox virus. Smallpox vaccination is no longer included in the standard course of childhood vaccinations, and stocks of the vaccine are low. But smallpox is very difficult to obtain, so the next best options are bacterial pathogens - Bacillus anthracis (which causes ...
The Federation of American Scientists Biosecurity Project has prepared a brief online survey to collect feedback on our "Case Studies in Dual-use Biological Research." To thank participants for completing the survey, we will enter them into a drawing for an 8GB iPod nano. Click here to go to the case studies or here to go directly to the survey. The survey is open now through May 31, 2007.. If you have any colleagues, students or friends involved in biological research or biosecurity, please let them know about the Case Studies and the survey. Thank you for your feedback!. The first four case studies include an introduction to biosecurity, the poliovirus synthesis experiments conducted in Eckard Wimmers laboratory at the State University of New York at Stony Brook; the porous particle development work of David Edwards at Harvard University; and the mousepox experiments conducted by two Australian researchers, Ron Jackson and Ian Ramshaw.. We include in-depth interviews with the researchers to ...
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PAM Use Considerations: Always add PAM slowly to turbulent water; NEVER ADD WATER TO PAM. If water is added to PAM, or if PAM is added to water so fast that wet PAM grains or emulsion drops contact each other before completely dissolving, a gel layer forms around the partially hydrated drops. This essentially stops the remaining PAM from dissolving. Globs (sometimes called "fish eyes" because of their appearance) or gel slabs form that do not dissolve. These globs can clog pipes, dispensers etc. They can be washed away in the water flow without providing any benefit in the field, resulting in under-application because of incomplete dissolving of dispensed PAM. An exception to this rule is use of the PAM patch application method, in which 0.5 to 1 ounce of PAM is sprinkled along the furrow-bottom just below the water source prior to turning in the water. With the patch method, you are intentionally forming a small gel slab at the inlet of the furrow. The slow dissolving of the slab by the furrow ...
Genetic resistance testing helps facilitate HIV drug selection by identifying the types of resistant mutations in person's so-called "viral pool."
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Vaccine-Induced Protection against Orthopoxvirus Infection Is Mediated through the Combined Functions of CD4 T Cell-Dependent Antibody and CD8 T Cell Responses