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The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems ...
Abstract: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal, cultivated, forest and woodlands, inland water bodies, islands, marine, mountains (elevation), polar, and urban. The data set also includes socioeconomic reporting units and the location of regional MA projects. The data were used in a number of different ways in the assessment, contributing to an understanding of how humans have altered ecosystems, how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being, and how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades ...
Introduction. The scale, magnitude, and uncertainties permeating the current environmental crisis reveal how human activities have produced drastic environmental changes at the local and global levels, resulting in numerous serious health problems. Due to their very complexity, these problems require a search for alternative approaches that combine socioeconomic and biophysical aspects for better understanding and solutions.. The need to develop these alternative approaches has intensified at the transition from the 20th to the 21st century. The report of the World Resources Institute (WRI) 1 for 2000-2001 illustrates this process, pointing to the need to adopt an ecosystem approach premised on the capacity to contribute to: (1) the combination of diverse types of information that allows a careful weighing of the trade offs among various ecosystem goods and services and among environmental, political, social, and economic goals; (2) developing wiser policies and more effective institutions to ...
We examine the relationships between abundance of grassland nesting songbirds observed in the Boulder Open Space, CO, USA and parameters that described landscape and habitat characteristics, in order to provide information for Boulder Open Space planners and managers. Data sets included bird abundance and plant species composition, collected during three breeding seasons (1994-1996), and landscape composition and configuration measures from a satellite image-derived land-cover map. We used regression quantiles to estimate the limitations imposed on bird abundance by urban encroachment and decreasing areas of grassland cover-types on the landscape, and habitat characteristics within 200 m diameter sample plots. After accounting for the effect of landscape grassland composition on four species (Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)), change in abundance with proportion of urban area
The National Park Services draft discussion paper on ecosystem management recommends, The NPS should reduce the barriers to ecosystem approaches that result from artificially separating cultural and natural resources and strive to replace them with collaborative planning, research, and resource management efforts that reflect the real-world integration of material, human and natural features (National Park Service, 1994, Ecosystem Management in the National Park Service: Discussion Draft. NPS, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.). However, arguments concerning the value of archaeological data to ecosystem management fail to recognize the inherent limitations of traditional archaeological data. These limitations revolve around two central issues. First is that much of the data collected since the inception of cultural resource management some 20 years ago is fragmented, incompatible, and arbitrary. Personally I disagree with the first part of the assertion that, Given the wealth ...
TSUNAGARI aims to build an international network of researchers to link knowledge to action for the sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services in Asia. The project consists of 4 main objectives: (1) Establishing methodologies to integrate fine-resolution spatial information of ecosystems to broad-scale database; (2) Examining and understanding scale-dependency in the effects of multiple human-induced drivers on the variability in biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services, and in the decision-making processes of biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services used by societies at various levels; (3) Evaluating the importance of ecosystem connectivity (from forest to marine ecosystems) on the variability and changes in biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services, and investigating its effects on interactions among local communities at different sites within a watershed, and on their decision-making; (4) Developing new indicators and models for scenario analysis to achieve sustainable ...
Click to view larger image.. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) is a process-based ecosystem model that describes carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics of plants and soils for terrestrial ecosystems of the globe. The TEM uses spatially referenced information on climate, elevation, soils and vegetation as well as soil- and vegetation-specific parameters to make estimates of important carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes and pool sizes of terrestrial ecosystems. The TEM normally operates on a monthly time step and at a 0.5 degrees latitude/longitude spatial resolution, but the model has been applied at finer spatial resolutions (down to 1 hectare).. Improvements in computer resources and the interests of an increasing number of researchers have allowed TEM to evolve over time to better examine the influence of ecosystem processes and human activities on terrestrial biogeochemistry and how changes in this biogeochemistry may feedback to influence atmospheric chemistry, climate, water quantity and ...
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment was finalized and is being published on-line.. Started mid 2009, the assessment led by Robert Watson and Steve Albon, it is the first analysis of the UKs natural environment in terms of the benefits it provides to society and continuing economic prosperity.. The key findings of the assessment were made available on June 2nd (pdf here) while specific technical chapters will be made available through June.. Until then the 87 pages of the synthesis report should keep you busy! Below are some of the main points raised by the assessment:. The authors mention the need to increase food production while at the same time decreasing its negative effects on ecosystem services. In fact, the idea is to harness ecosystem services to actually increase production. This sustainable intensification is what the French call ecological intensification.. ...
Integrated ecosystem assessments (IEA) are a set of approaches for organizing science in order to inform decisions in marine ecosystem assessments at multiple scales and across sectors. IEAs collate and analyse information of a wide range of ecosystem components and pressures. IEAs provide knowledge of the status, changes, relationships, and processes in an ecosystem. Within ICES, several working groups targeting IEA for different geographical areas have been established over the recent years. Despite the ICES IEA WGs being well coordinated, different approaches are being explored and there remains a need for further exchange of methodological expertise and experiences. IEA-Exchange aims to enhance the scientific foundation for an ecosystem approach to management of, in particular, the Norwegian and Barents Seas by transfer of knowledge on methods for IEA from other regions. The intent is a two-way exchange of knowledge so that also the non-Norwegian project members will gain knowledge that can ...
Investing in habitat restoration and ecosystem resiliency projects provides sustainable and lasting benefits that reduce risks posed to coastal communities from extreme weather events, changing environmental conditions, and known or potential climate change impacts. The Coastal Ecosystem Resiliency Grants Program is intended to build the resilience of coastal ecosystems and communities in the U.S. This grant program funds projects that develop healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystems through on-the-ground habitat restoration and conservation.
The ecosystem approach to ocean management presents a major challenge, most notably in terms of perceptions, enactment, and synthesizing the needs and goals of the multiple industry sectors plying their trades within these ecosystems and marine spaces.. International experts assembled at the end of January 2016 in Copenhagen for the AORA-CSA workshop.. ...
Université Côte dAzur is pleased to invite you to the 16th annual meeting and 11th conference of HEPA Europe. The conference is jointly organized with WHO/Europe, in partnership with the City of Nice and the French Society of Public Health. This year, the HEPA Europe conference will focus on An ecosystem approach to health-enhancing physical activity promotion. Conference topics feature a wide range of issues, including policy, active transport, sport, determinants of physical activity, health outcomes, sedentary behavior and many others. ...
RD-8308701-0. A Shallow-water Coastal Habitat Model for Regional Scale Evaluation of Management Decisions in the Chesapeake Region. C. L. Gallegos, D. E. Weller, T. E. Jordan, P. J. Neale, J. P. Megonigal. Overview. Study Systems Stressors of Interest Objectives and Tasks Modeling Approach...
Ecosystem services are emerging as a key driver of conservation policy and environmental management. Delivery of ecosystem services depends on the efficient functioning of ecosystems, which in turn depends on biodiversity and environmental conditions. Many marine ecosystems are extremely productive and highly valued, but they are increasingly threatened by human activities. With contributions from leading researchers, this volume synthesises current understanding of the effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning caused by a variety of human activities and pressures at play in coastal marine ecosystems. The authors examine the likely consequences for ecosystem service provision, covering key topics including fisheries, aquaculture, physical structures, nutrients, chemical contaminants, marine debris and invasive species. Critically reviewing the latest developments, this is a unique resource both for environmental managers and policy-makers, and for researchers and students in marine ...
Concern about degradation of natural resources has led in the ecological community to the concept of ecosystem services. The intent is to identify more fully what environmental economists would refer to as use values of ecosystems, concrete goods and services that have value, albeit perhaps unrecognized, to the market economy, as opposed to non-use values such as the pleasure of knowing that a natural system exists. The ecological community has also coined the term agroecosystems, recognizing that agricultural lands are, albeit modified through management, ecological systems. As such, conventional food and forest products are the products of ecosystems. Biofuels may be another important ecosystem service. Conventional economic analysis can be applied because these are goods that enter markets in the conventional sense. The values of other ecosystem services are not so explicit in economic data. Here we extend an economic model to explicitly represent the recreation value of ecosystems ...
This week International Association of Dredging Companies (IADC) will present an update on Ecosystems Services during a PIANC-Seminar: Ecosystem Goods and Services: Identification, Assessment and Benefits for Navigation Infrastructure Projects. Following a 2-day colloquium (May 5 and 6) on Ecosystem Services ‒ Challenges and opportunities in managing flowing waters of the German Federal Institute of Hydrology, PIANC will organize the seminar May 7 in Koblenz, Germany.. In the morning plenary presentations will be held, focusing on:. ...
Heterotrophic respiration (Rh), microbial processing of soil organic matter to carbon dioxide (CO2), is a major, yet highly uncertain, carbon (C) flux from terrestrial systems to the atmosphere. Temperature sensitivity of Rh is often represented with a simple Q10 function in ecosystem models and earth system models (ESMs), sometimes accompanied by an empirical soil moisture modifier. More explicit representation of the effects of soil moisture, substrate supply, and their interactions with temperature has been proposed as a way to disentangle the confounding factors of apparent temperature sensitivity of Rh and improve the performance of ecosystem models and ESMs. The objective of this work was to insert into an ecosystem model a more mechanistic, but still parsimonious, model of environmental factors controlling Rh and evaluate the model performance in terms of soil and ecosystem respiration. The Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten (DAMM) model simulates Rh using Michaelis-Menten, Arrhenius, ...
Given the cross-scale interactions of agricultural ecosystems, it is important to collect ecosystem service data at the multiple spatial scales they operate at. Mapping of ecosystem services helps to assess their spatial and temporal distribution and is a popular communication tool of their availability and value. For example, maps can be used to quantify distance between areas of available ecosystem services and their beneficiaries and how services fluctuate with changes in land use patterns over time, allowing identification of synergies and trade-offs. However, a lack of local context and too large a resolution can reduce the utility of these maps, whilst masking heterogeneities in access due to equity dynamics. This review identifies and summarizes eight main methods of ESS mapping found in the literature—remote sensing, biophysical modelling, agent based modelling, economic valuation, expert opinion, user preference, participatory mapping, and photo-elicitation. We consider what spatial
Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that
Marine ecosystems are home to a host of different species ranging from planktonic organisms that form the base of the marine food web to large marine mammals. Many species rely on marine ecosystems for both food and shelter from predators. They are very important to the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. Coastal habitats are those above the spring high tide limit or above the mean water level in non-tidal waters. [2] They are close to the sea and include habitats such as coastal dunes and sandy shores, beaches , cliffs and supralittoral habitats. Coastal habitats alone account for approximately 30% of all marine biological productivity. The diversity and productivity are also important for humans. These habitats provide a rich source of food and income. They also support species that serve as animal feed, fertilizers, additives in food and cosmetics. Habitats such as mangroves and seagrasses protect the coastlines from wave action and erosion. Other areas provide ...
The lack of high-resolution measurements of 3D ecosystem structure across broad spatial extents impedes major advancements in animal ecology and biodiversity science. We aim to fill this gap by using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology to characterize the vertical and horizontal complexity of vegetation and landscapes at high resolution across regional to continental scales. The newly LiDAR-derived 3D ecosystem structures will be applied in species distribution models for breeding birds in forests and marshlands, for insect pollinators in agricultural landscapes, and songbirds at stopover sites during migration. This will allow novel insights into the hierarchical structure of animal-habitat associations, into why animal populations decline, and how they respond to habitat fragmentation and ongoing land use change. The processing of these massive amounts of LiDAR point cloud data will be achieved by developing a generic interactive eScience environment with multi-scale object-based image
Ecosystem Ecology is a lecture/discussion course that focuses on understanding the physical, chemical, and biological processes regulating the dynamics of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We discuss classic and current topics in ecology that have built our understanding of ecosystem organization and function. The course integrates across disciplines of physiological, microbial, population, and community ecology to understand how and why ecosystems differ in composition, structure, and function, and how ecosystems change over time. Students are expected to have a solid background in biology and ecology. We also expect that students will be able to use general principles of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology as tools to understand ecological processes occurring at the ecosystem level.. The scope of the course includes examples from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. Selected topics for discussion include: ...
Prompt and large scale action is needed to overcome losses of large marine ecosystem (LME) goods and services; to mitigate degradation due to climate change; and to achieve integrated adaptive ecosystem management of LMEs.
As environmental regulatory and management agencies (most notably the Environmental Protection Agency) move toward a broad set of management goals to protect ecosystem health, developing an adequate definition for ecosystem health has become increasingly important. This work is a multidisciplinary collection of perspectives on the concept of health as it relates to ecosystems. The contributors - leading ecologists, philosophers, and economists - analyze the normative, conceptual, and biological issues surrounding the idea of ecosystem health. They examine both theoretical and practical aspects of the issues, and look at philosophical and ethical underpinnings as well as implications for public policy and ecosystems management. Ecosystem Health is a groundbreaking attempt to formulate an understanding of the quality and health of natural environments so that regulatory mandates can be brought in line with legislative goals. Ultimately, it seeks a new ethic of sustainability that will serve to protect
Experts Warn Ecosystem Changes Will Continue to Worsen, Putting Global Development Goals At Risk - March 30, 2005 - Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainability for Human Well-Being - Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Media Coverage - Index - Library - GENI - Global Energy Network Institute
PAME has teamed up with the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) to investigate the current state of the Central Arctic Ocean. Together, they are working on an integrated ecosystem assessment of the waters surrounding the North Pole. These waters are mainly outside national jurisdiction. The objective of their joint ICES/PICES/PAME Working Group on Integrated Ecosystem Assessment for the Central Arctic Ocean (WGICA) is to provide scientific advice and to identify the appropriate authorities on issues such as possible future fisheries in the central Arctic Ocean and the ecosystems sensitivity and vulnerability to shipping-related activities (e.g. seabed mining, dumping, and extraction of marine living resources). This work will contribute to the implementation of ecosystem-based management in the Central Arctic Ocean. ...
Healthy ecosystems can reduce the negative impacts of climate change. For instance, coastal habitats like mangroves provide natural flood defences, well-protected lakes retain water sources during droughts, and healthy forests reduce the risk of devastating wildfires. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is an approach that uses these ecosystem services as part of a holistic adaptation strategy. Often through win-win outcomes, EbA protects vulnerable communities from extreme weather while simultaneously providing a variety of benefits so crucial for human well-being, such as clean water and food ...
Decision makers now have a number of options for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ranging from improving energy efficiency and regulating emissions to sequestering carbon in geological reservoirs. While such strategies should be considered as part of a long-term solution, they may take some time to deploy. Ecosystems, meanwhile, can substantially offset human-generated emissions by naturally sequestering carbon, incorporating it through photosynthesis and storing it as organic matter. Ecosystem management therefore represents an effective and immediately available means of partially mitigating climate change.. Management strategies can help limit climate change by 1) accelerating the uptake of carbon into ecosystems and 2) preventing the release of carbon already stored. Current options range from protecting forests to reducing agricultural emissions to boosting carbon uptake above natural capacity. However, since ecosystems are sensitive to environmental change and their function is ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Ecosystem services valuation has achieved considerable prominence in research and policy circles in recent years. This paper reviews the studies that have tried to estimate the value of forest ecosystem services. Broadly, this study addresses the following questions: (1) What insights do these studies provide on the value of forest ecosystems? (2) What lessons do they offer from an economic and policy perspective? (3) What are the shortcomings of the existing studies, and what are the challenges and issues for future research? Evidence from a cross section of forest sites, countries and regions suggests that not only the total valuation of ecosystem services varies widely across studies but also the valuation of individual services. This variation suggests that policies to conserve ecosystems and their services should emphasise local contexts and values. This paper concludes by discussing the shortcomings of existing studies, and suggests that, among other things,
Dealing with grand challenges of the Anthropocene needs rigorous understanding of complex interactions between human and natural systems. Of particular concern is nonlinear dynamics of ecosystem change, which are hard to predict and are often costly for management, most probably impossible to reverse, if crosses the threshold. The mounting concerns about potential regime shifts from local to global scale, and better understanding of potential risks and consequences of such shifts has been identified as an urgent priority among scientists, stakeholders and policymakers.. Freshwater ecosystems, covering about 2.5% of the total water resources of the planet, have become one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. Cumulative effects of multiple drivers acting together at a time on freshwater ecosystems have caused substantial change on food webs, habitat change and ecosystem functions that have direct impacts on peoples livelihoods and well-being. How the functioning of freshwater ecosystems and ...
Thematic Group Leader Willem Ferwerda Thematic Group Co-Leader Simon Moolenaar SC Focal Point Ángela Ándrade In line with IUCNs work plan...
Species-rich semi-natural grassland are valuable habitats in the agricultural landscape as they may contain a high diversity of both plant and animal species, as well as provide essential ecosystem services like pollination. To keep these habitats open and to maintain the biodiversity in them, management like grazing or mowing is necessary. Due to changed agricultural practices many semi-natural grasslands have been lost, e.g. due to secondary succession after abandonment or use of more intense management practices. As limited resources are available for the management and restoration of semi-natural grasslands, research is needed to find the best available management method that maintains biodiversity at a low cost. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis was to use existing data to compare effects of different management methods and explore their effect on the biodiversity of semi-natural grasslands. More specifically, effects of grazing vs. mowing, different mowing frequencies and different ...
EVS is demonstrating the feasibility of integrating perennial biomass crops into agricultural landscapes to simultaneously produce bioenergy feedstock and commodity crops, while providing multiple ecosystem services.
It is well established that individual organisms can acclimate and adapt to temperature to optimize their functioning. However, thermal optimization of ecosystems, as an assemblage of organisms, has not been examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we compiled data from 169 globally distributed sites of eddy covariance and quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), an ecosystem‐level property, to determine whether NEE shows thermal optimality and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the temperature response of NEE followed a peak curve, with the optimum temperature (corresponding to the maximum magnitude of NEE) being positively correlated with annual mean temperature over years and across sites. Shifts of the optimum temperature of NEE were mostly a result of temperature acclimation of gross primary productivity (upward shift of optimum temperature) rather than changes in the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration. ...
How will biodiversity loss affect ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services, and human well-being? In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
A sustainable multifunctional agricultural landscape has, beyond its role of providing us with food and fiber, other functions. This can be for example preventing eutrophication and regulating water flows, conservation of biodiversity, suitable habitats for pollinators and natural enemies as well as socio-economic viability for rural areas. These functions and processes, that direct or in direct are beneficial for humans, are what we call ecosystem services.. In this project (partly funded by Region Skåne), we will investigate how different groups of stakeholders perceive and value different ecosystem services produced in agricultural landscapes. Further we will together with stakeholders identify management options and by empirical studies evaluate their impact on multiple ecosystem services. In collaboration with stakeholders we will develop scenarios for future land use and illustrate the link between land use and services with spatially explicit models. The results of this project will be ...
Attempts to address declines in ecosystem services through legislation and policy reform began relatively early on, notably with the 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act. More recently EU policies, have driven changes in national policy and legislation, which along with technological developments and changing public and private sector attitudes and behaviours, have led to improvements in some ecosystem services.. Despite improvements, currently over 30% of services are still declining and many others are in a reduced or degraded state and still far below their full potential, with adverse effects on human well-being. A growing population, which will increase the demand for food and other basic services, coupled with human-induced climate change, will continue to place significant pressures on many ecosystems and their services. Responding to declines in ecosystem services will require the adoption of more resilient ways of managing ecosystems, and a better balance between ...
Ecosystem, community, population, species The levels of organization from lowest complexity to highest are: species, population, community, ecosystem, biome and biosphere. Since you are asking specifically about the levels of organization in an ecosystem, we leave out the levels of biome and biosphere since they are both more complex than ecosystem. The most inclusive level in an ecosystem is the ecosystem itself. An ecosystem includes all the living organisms and nonliving (abiotic) factors such as air, water, light etc. Community is the next level to discuss - a community in an ecosystem includes all of the living organisms which live in the defined area of the ecosystem. Population is the next least inclusive level - a population includes all the members of one species in a defined area. Finally the least inclusive level is that of a species. This would be one individual member of a species.
As our research focusses on ecosystem services, a concept linking biodiversity and human well-being, we naturally work at the science-society interface. This means collaborating across disciplines and political sectors to facilitate meaningful and participatory knowledge exchange processes. We use experiments and studies at the landscape level, analyses of large databases with multivariate statistics, modelling and geospatial analysis employing geographical information systems (GIS), as well as transdisciplinary workshops, focus groups, interviews and citizen science approaches. Our team is actively involved in the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the development of the German Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP-DE). Working with partners from other research institutions, learned societies and NGOs, we are developing a citizen science strategy and citizen science capacities for Germany (GEWISS project) to encourage innovative approaches to science ...
Fig. 1. Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. They include provisioning, regulating, and cultural services that directly affect people, and supporting services needed to maintain the other services. Biodiversity underlies all ecosystem services (source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report, http://www.maweb.org//en/Products.Synthesis.aspx).. ...
Both the systematic review and the second-order meta-analysis show that agricultural diversification practices enhance biodiversity and the delivery of several supporting and regulating ecosystem services pivotal to crop yield. Crop and noncrop diversification increased the provisioning of pest control and pollination, respectively (Figs. 1, D and E, and 2), which is in line with global results based on raw primary data (17). Services associated with soil quality, particularly soil fertility and nutrient cycling, responded in a consistent positive manner to several diversification practices, mainly to organic amendment and reduced tillage (Fig. 1), and presenting the smallest variabilities (Figs. 2 and 3). This is likely because these services are largely affected by the soil organic carbon pool, which is typically promoted by diversification measures (2). Our sensitivity analysis revealed that the similar responses of soil services were not merely due to using common indicators or correlations ...
Whats the problem, who pays - and what about the rest of the natural world? Whats the problem? Ecosystem services and Payment for Ecosystem Services have gained in prominence in recent years. The UN The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) and the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UK NEA) reports have highlighted the importance of the natural environment to the economy. Ecosystem services are the goods and services which arise from the natural environment. Whilst the value of some ecosystem services can be seen through market transactions, such as for timber or wood for fuel, many are non-market common pool resources or public goods - such as regulation of the climate, maintaining water quality, mitigating flooding and biodiversity. | The Glory of the Garden
Criterion A seeks to identify ecosystem types that are currently declining in extent or may decline in the near future. The minimum data required for application of criterion A are two measures of the distribution of an ecosystem type, taken at different points in time and calibrated to the time scales of Red List of Ecosystems assessments [4,5]. To maximize repeatability of assessments of decline in distribution, assessors should be explicit and clear about what constitutes absence (i.e. local collapse) of the ecosystem type. In other words, how it was decided which areas were no longer occupied by the ecosystem type (e.g. replaced by agriculture, urban expansion or another ecosystem type) should be explicit.. Change in geographical distribution may be inferred from a time series of maps, written accounts or any other reliable data source that provides information on the distribution of an ecosystem type through time (figure 3). Assessors should include relevant maps in their account or provide ...
In a bid to work out a consistent and standard methodology that enhances understanding and capacity of partners for application of ecosystem assessment concepts, tools, and approaches, a regional orientation training on ecosystem services assessment was held from 3-7 April 2014.
Enhancing biodiversity in cropping systems is suggested to promote ecosystem services, thereby reducing dependency on agronomic inputs while maintaining high crop yields. We assess the impact of several diversification practices in cropping systems on above- and belowground biodiversity and ecosyste …
We are a group of scientists and students from diverse backgrounds with a shared passion for ecology, and for plant communities and forest ecosystems in particular. We study how global environmental changes in climate, land-use (including forest management), biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem trophic structure, and invasions of non-native species affect biodiversity and the structure and function of terrestrial plant communities and forested ecosystems. Our goal is to advance ecological theory and to apply it in improving practices in ecosystem management, restoration, and nature conservation. We are interested in conceptual questions rather than particular plant taxa or ecosystems; consequently, our studies examine diverse plant groups (e.g., trees, herbs, and bryophytes) in varied ecological settings (e.g., temperate conifer and deciduous forests, tropical dry forests, old-fields, and tree-grass ecosystems) and locations (e.g., eastern U.S., Midwest, and the Pacific Northwest; northwestern ...
Select an ecosystem in your area (forest, lake, desert, grassland).. Write a 525- to 700-word paper explaining the following:. 1) Describe the structure of your ecosystem including important abiotic features and dominant plant and animal species. 2) Explain some functions/processes of your ecosystem including one nutrient cycle and one food chain. 3) Give two examples of species interactions (predation, competition, mutualism, etc.) that occur in your ecosystem. 4) Identify an invasive species in your ecosystem. Explain its effects on the ecosystem and efforts to control or eradicate it.. Include two outside references.. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.. I will pay 10.00 including the down payment charge. Please do the paper on desert ecosystem.. ...
My research interests include disturbance and recovery dynamics in coastal and estuarine ecosystems, biodiversity prioritization to inform ecosystem management, statistical modeling including the identification of multiple stressor interaction effects, marine spatial planning, ecosystem services frameworks and climate change impacts on marine systems. My primary research focuses on the recovery of marine benthic communities from disturbance and potential interaction effects of multiple stressors. I have approached these specific research areas using a combination of models and field studies to predict community resilience to disturbance and multiple stressors. This knowledge provides the required biophysical science to quantify stressor footprints, determine ecological responses of ecosystems to multiple stressors and identify tipping points that transform ecosystems into non-desirable states. Increasingly research of stressor footprints and multiple stressor effects will be required to ...
Plant functional traits reflect different evolutionary responses to environmental variation, and among extant species determine the outcomes of interactions between plants and their environment, including other plant species. Thus, combining phylogenetic and trait-based information can be a powerful approach for understanding community assembly processes across a range of spatial scales. We used this approach to investigate tree community composition at Phou Khao Khouay National Park (18 degrees 14-18 degrees 32N; 102 degrees 38-102 degrees 59 E), Laos, where several distinct forest types occur in close proximity. The aim of our study was to examine patterns of plant community assembly across the strong environmental gradients evident at our site. We hypothesized that differences in tree community composition were being driven by an underlying gradient in soil conditions. Thus, we predicted that environmental filtering would predominate at the site and that the filtering would be strongest ...