The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the Convention. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems ...
Abstract: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal, cultivated, forest and woodlands, inland water bodies, islands, marine, mountains (elevation), polar, and urban. The data set also includes socioeconomic reporting units and the location of regional MA projects. The data were used in a number of different ways in the assessment, contributing to an understanding of how humans have altered ecosystems, how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being, and how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades ...
Introduction. The scale, magnitude, and uncertainties permeating the current environmental crisis reveal how human activities have produced drastic environmental changes at the local and global levels, resulting in numerous serious health problems. Due to their very complexity, these problems require a search for alternative approaches that combine socioeconomic and biophysical aspects for better understanding and solutions.. The need to develop these alternative approaches has intensified at the transition from the 20th to the 21st century. The report of the World Resources Institute (WRI) 1 for 2000-2001 illustrates this process, pointing to the need to adopt an ecosystem approach premised on the capacity to contribute to: (1) the combination of diverse types of information that allows a careful weighing of the trade offs among various ecosystem goods and services and among environmental, political, social, and economic goals; (2) developing wiser policies and more effective institutions to ...
We examine the relationships between abundance of grassland nesting songbirds observed in the Boulder Open Space, CO, USA and parameters that described landscape and habitat characteristics, in order to provide information for Boulder Open Space planners and managers. Data sets included bird abundance and plant species composition, collected during three breeding seasons (1994-1996), and landscape composition and configuration measures from a satellite image-derived land-cover map. We used regression quantiles to estimate the limitations imposed on bird abundance by urban encroachment and decreasing areas of grassland cover-types on the landscape, and habitat characteristics within 200 m diameter sample plots. After accounting for the effect of landscape grassland composition on four species (Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)), change in abundance with proportion of urban area
The National Park Services draft discussion paper on ecosystem management recommends, The NPS should reduce the barriers to ecosystem approaches that result from artificially separating cultural and natural resources and strive to replace them with collaborative planning, research, and resource management efforts that reflect the real-world integration of material, human and natural features (National Park Service, 1994, Ecosystem Management in the National Park Service: Discussion Draft. NPS, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.). However, arguments concerning the value of archaeological data to ecosystem management fail to recognize the inherent limitations of traditional archaeological data. These limitations revolve around two central issues. First is that much of the data collected since the inception of cultural resource management some 20 years ago is fragmented, incompatible, and arbitrary. Personally I disagree with the first part of the assertion that, Given the wealth ...
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment was finalized and is being published on-line.. Started mid 2009, the assessment led by Robert Watson and Steve Albon, it is the first analysis of the UKs natural environment in terms of the benefits it provides to society and continuing economic prosperity.. The key findings of the assessment were made available on June 2nd (pdf here) while specific technical chapters will be made available through June.. Until then the 87 pages of the synthesis report should keep you busy! Below are some of the main points raised by the assessment:. The authors mention the need to increase food production while at the same time decreasing its negative effects on ecosystem services. In fact, the idea is to harness ecosystem services to actually increase production. This "sustainable intensification" is what the French call "ecological intensification".. ...
Integrated ecosystem assessments (IEA) are a set of approaches for organizing science in order to inform decisions in marine ecosystem assessments at multiple scales and across sectors. IEAs collate and analyse information of a wide range of ecosystem components and pressures. IEAs provide knowledge of the status, changes, relationships, and processes in an ecosystem. Within ICES, several working groups targeting IEA for different geographical areas have been established over the recent years. Despite the ICES IEA WGs being well coordinated, different approaches are being explored and there remains a need for further exchange of methodological expertise and experiences. IEA-Exchange aims to enhance the scientific foundation for an ecosystem approach to management of, in particular, the Norwegian and Barents Seas by transfer of knowledge on methods for IEA from other regions. The intent is a two-way exchange of knowledge so that also the non-Norwegian project members will gain knowledge that can ...
... to ocean management presents a major challenge, most notably in terms of perceptions, enactment, and synthesizing the needs and goals of the multiple industry sectors plying their trades within these ecosystems and marine spaces.. International experts assembled at the end of January 2016 in Copenhagen for the AORA-CSA workshop.. ...
Université Côte dAzur is pleased to invite you to the 16th annual meeting and 11th conference of HEPA Europe. The conference is jointly organized with WHO/Europe, in partnership with the City of Nice and the French Society of Public Health. This year, the HEPA Europe conference will focus on "An ecosystem approach to health-enhancing physical activity promotion". Conference topics feature a wide range of issues, including policy, active transport, sport, determinants of physical activity, health outcomes, sedentary behavior and many others. ...
RD-8308701-0. A Shallow-water Coastal Habitat Model for Regional Scale Evaluation of Management Decisions in the Chesapeake Region. C. L. Gallegos, D. E. Weller, T. E. Jordan, P. J. Neale, J. P. Megonigal. Overview. Study Systems Stressors of Interest Objectives and Tasks Modeling Approach...
Ecosystem services are emerging as a key driver of conservation policy and environmental management. Delivery of ecosystem services depends on the efficient functioning of ecosystems, which in turn depends on biodiversity and environmental conditions. Many marine ecosystems are extremely productive and highly valued, but they are increasingly threatened by human activities. With contributions from leading researchers, this volume synthesises current understanding of the effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning caused by a variety of human activities and pressures at play in coastal marine ecosystems. The authors examine the likely consequences for ecosystem service provision, covering key topics including fisheries, aquaculture, physical structures, nutrients, chemical contaminants, marine debris and invasive species. Critically reviewing the latest developments, this is a unique resource both for environmental managers and policy-makers, and for researchers and students in marine ...
Concern about degradation of natural resources has led in the ecological community to the concept of "ecosystem services." The intent is to identify more fully what environmental economists would refer to as "use values" of ecosystems, concrete goods and services that have value, albeit perhaps unrecognized, to the market economy, as opposed to "non-use values" such as the pleasure of knowing that a natural system exists. The ecological community has also coined the term "agroecosystems," recognizing that agricultural lands are, albeit modified through management, ecological systems. As such, conventional food and forest products are the products of ecosystems. Biofuels may be another important ecosystem service. Conventional economic analysis can be applied because these are goods that enter markets in the conventional sense. The values of other ecosystem services are not so explicit in economic data. Here we extend an economic model to explicitly represent the recreation value of ecosystems ...
Heterotrophic respiration (Rh), microbial processing of soil organic matter to carbon dioxide (CO2), is a major, yet highly uncertain, carbon (C) flux from terrestrial systems to the atmosphere. Temperature sensitivity of Rh is often represented with a simple Q10 function in ecosystem models and earth system models (ESMs), sometimes accompanied by an empirical soil moisture modifier. More explicit representation of the effects of soil moisture, substrate supply, and their interactions with temperature has been proposed as a way to disentangle the confounding factors of apparent temperature sensitivity of Rh and improve the performance of ecosystem models and ESMs. The objective of this work was to insert into an ecosystem model a more mechanistic, but still parsimonious, model of environmental factors controlling Rh and evaluate the model performance in terms of soil and ecosystem respiration. The Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten (DAMM) model simulates Rh using Michaelis-Menten, Arrhenius, ...
Ecosystem Ecology is a lecture/discussion course that focuses on understanding the physical, chemical, and biological processes regulating the dynamics of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We discuss classic and current topics in ecology that have built our understanding of ecosystem organization and function. The course integrates across disciplines of physiological, microbial, population, and community ecology to understand how and why ecosystems differ in composition, structure, and function, and how ecosystems change over time. Students are expected to have a solid background in biology and ecology. We also expect that students will be able to use general principles of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology as tools to understand ecological processes occurring at the ecosystem level.. The scope of the course includes examples from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. Selected topics for discussion include: ...
Prompt and large scale action is needed to overcome losses of large marine ecosystem (LME) goods and services; to mitigate degradation due to climate change; and to achieve integrated adaptive ecosystem management of LMEs.
As environmental regulatory and management agencies (most notably the Environmental Protection Agency) move toward a broad set of management goals to protect ecosystem health, developing an adequate definition for ecosystem health has become increasingly important. This work is a multidisciplinary collection of perspectives on the concept of health as it relates to ecosystems. The contributors - leading ecologists, philosophers, and economists - analyze the normative, conceptual, and biological issues surrounding the idea of ecosystem health. They examine both theoretical and practical aspects of the issues, and look at philosophical and ethical underpinnings as well as implications for public policy and ecosystems management. Ecosystem Health is a groundbreaking attempt to formulate an understanding of the quality and health of natural environments so that regulatory mandates can be brought in line with legislative goals. Ultimately, it seeks a new ethic of sustainability that will serve to protect
Experts Warn Ecosystem Changes Will Continue to Worsen, Putting Global Development Goals At Risk - March 30, 2005 - Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainability for Human Well-Being - Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Media Coverage - Index - Library - GENI - Global Energy Network Institute
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Ecosystem services valuation has achieved considerable prominence in research and policy circles in recent years. This paper reviews the studies that have tried to estimate the value of forest ecosystem services. Broadly, this study addresses the following questions: (1) What insights do these studies provide on the value of forest ecosystems? (2) What lessons do they offer from an economic and policy perspective? (3) What are the shortcomings of the existing studies, and what are the challenges and issues for future research? Evidence from a cross section of forest sites, countries and regions suggests that not only the total valuation of ecosystem services varies widely across studies but also the valuation of individual services. This variation suggests that policies to conserve ecosystems and their services should emphasise local contexts and values. This paper concludes by discussing the shortcomings of existing studies, and suggests that, among other things,
Dealing with grand challenges of the Anthropocene needs rigorous understanding of complex interactions between human and natural systems. Of particular concern is nonlinear dynamics of ecosystem change, which are hard to predict and are often costly for management, most probably impossible to reverse, if crosses the threshold. The mounting concerns about potential regime shifts from local to global scale, and better understanding of potential risks and consequences of such shifts has been identified as an urgent priority among scientists, stakeholders and policymakers.. Freshwater ecosystems, covering about 2.5% of the total water resources of the planet, have become one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. Cumulative effects of multiple drivers acting together at a time on freshwater ecosystems have caused substantial change on food webs, habitat change and ecosystem functions that have direct impacts on peoples livelihoods and well-being. How the functioning of freshwater ecosystems and ...
Thematic Group Leader Willem Ferwerda Thematic Group Co-Leader Simon Moolenaar SC Focal Point Ángela Ándrade In line with IUCNs work plan...
Species-rich semi-natural grassland are valuable habitats in the agricultural landscape as they may contain a high diversity of both plant and animal species, as well as provide essential ecosystem services like pollination. To keep these habitats open and to maintain the biodiversity in them, management like grazing or mowing is necessary. Due to changed agricultural practices many semi-natural grasslands have been lost, e.g. due to secondary succession after abandonment or use of more intense management practices. As limited resources are available for the management and restoration of semi-natural grasslands, research is needed to find the best available management method that maintains biodiversity at a low cost. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis was to use existing data to compare effects of different management methods and explore their effect on the biodiversity of semi-natural grasslands. More specifically, effects of grazing vs. mowing, different mowing frequencies and different ...
It is well established that individual organisms can acclimate and adapt to temperature to optimize their functioning. However, thermal optimization of ecosystems, as an assemblage of organisms, has not been examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we compiled data from 169 globally distributed sites of eddy covariance and quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), an ecosystem‐level property, to determine whether NEE shows thermal optimality and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the temperature response of NEE followed a peak curve, with the optimum temperature (corresponding to the maximum magnitude of NEE) being positively correlated with annual mean temperature over years and across sites. Shifts of the optimum temperature of NEE were mostly a result of temperature acclimation of gross primary productivity (upward shift of optimum temperature) rather than changes in the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration. ...
How will biodiversity loss affect ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services, and human well-being? In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
A sustainable multifunctional agricultural landscape has, beyond its role of providing us with food and fiber, other functions. This can be for example preventing eutrophication and regulating water flows, conservation of biodiversity, suitable habitats for pollinators and natural enemies as well as socio-economic viability for rural areas. These functions and processes, that direct or in direct are beneficial for humans, are what we call ecosystem services.. In this project (partly funded by Region Skåne), we will investigate how different groups of stakeholders perceive and value different ecosystem services produced in agricultural landscapes. Further we will together with stakeholders identify management options and by empirical studies evaluate their impact on multiple ecosystem services. In collaboration with stakeholders we will develop scenarios for future land use and illustrate the link between land use and services with spatially explicit models. The results of this project will be ...
Attempts to address declines in ecosystem services through legislation and policy reform began relatively early on, notably with the 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act. More recently EU policies, have driven changes in national policy and legislation, which along with technological developments and changing public and private sector attitudes and behaviours, have led to improvements in some ecosystem services.. Despite improvements, currently over 30% of services are still declining and many others are in a reduced or degraded state and still far below their full potential, with adverse effects on human well-being. A growing population, which will increase the demand for food and other basic services, coupled with human-induced climate change, will continue to place significant pressures on many ecosystems and their services. Responding to declines in ecosystem services will require the adoption of more resilient ways of managing ecosystems, and a better balance between ...
Ecosystem, community, population, species The levels of organization from lowest complexity to highest are: species, population, community, ecosystem, biome and biosphere. Since you are asking specifically about the levels of organization in an ecosystem, we leave out the levels of biome and biosphere since they are both more complex than ecosystem. The most inclusive level in an ecosystem is the ecosystem itself. An ecosystem includes all the living organisms and nonliving (abiotic) factors such as air, water, light etc. Community is the next level to discuss - a community in an ecosystem includes all of the living organisms which live in the defined area of the ecosystem. Population is the next least inclusive level - a population includes all the members of one species in a defined area. Finally the least inclusive level is that of a species. This would be one individual member of a species.
As our research focusses on ecosystem services, a concept linking biodiversity and human well-being, we naturally work at the science-society interface. This means collaborating across disciplines and political sectors to facilitate meaningful and participatory knowledge exchange processes. We use experiments and studies at the landscape level, analyses of large databases with multivariate statistics, modelling and geospatial analysis employing geographical information systems (GIS), as well as transdisciplinary workshops, focus groups, interviews and citizen science approaches. Our team is actively involved in the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the development of the German Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP-DE). Working with partners from other research institutions, learned societies and NGOs, we are developing a citizen science strategy and citizen science capacities for Germany (GEWISS project) to encourage innovative approaches to science ...
Fig. 1. Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. They include provisioning, regulating, and cultural services that directly affect people, and supporting services needed to maintain the other services. Biodiversity underlies all ecosystem services (source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report, http://www.maweb.org//en/Products.Synthesis.aspx).. ...
Whats the problem, who pays - and what about the rest of the natural world?

Whats the problem?

Ecosystem services and Payment for Ecosystem Services have gained in prominence in recent years. The UN The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) and the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UK NEA) reports have highlighted the importance of the natural environment to the economy.

Ecosystem services are the goods and services which arise from the natural environment. Whilst the value of some ecosystem services can be seen through market transactions, such as for timber or wood for fuel, many are non-market common pool resources or public goods - such as regulation of the climate, maintaining water quality, mitigating flooding and biodiversity. | The Glory of the Garden
Criterion A seeks to identify ecosystem types that are currently declining in extent or may decline in the near future. The minimum data required for application of criterion A are two measures of the distribution of an ecosystem type, taken at different points in time and calibrated to the time scales of Red List of Ecosystems assessments [4,5]. To maximize repeatability of assessments of decline in distribution, assessors should be explicit and clear about what constitutes absence (i.e. local collapse) of the ecosystem type. In other words, how it was decided which areas were no longer occupied by the ecosystem type (e.g. replaced by agriculture, urban expansion or another ecosystem type) should be explicit.. Change in geographical distribution may be inferred from a time series of maps, written accounts or any other reliable data source that provides information on the distribution of an ecosystem type through time (figure 3). Assessors should include relevant maps in their account or provide ...
In a bid to work out a consistent and standard methodology that enhances understanding and capacity of partners for application of ecosystem assessment concepts, tools, and approaches, a regional orientation training on ecosystem services assessment was held from 3-7 April 2014.
We are a group of scientists and students from diverse backgrounds with a shared passion for ecology, and for plant communities and forest ecosystems in particular. We study how global environmental changes in climate, land-use (including forest management), biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem trophic structure, and invasions of non-native species affect biodiversity and the structure and function of terrestrial plant communities and forested ecosystems. Our goal is to advance ecological theory and to apply it in improving practices in ecosystem management, restoration, and nature conservation. We are interested in conceptual questions rather than particular plant taxa or ecosystems; consequently, our studies examine diverse plant groups (e.g., trees, herbs, and bryophytes) in varied ecological settings (e.g., temperate conifer and deciduous forests, tropical dry forests, old-fields, and tree-grass ecosystems) and locations (e.g., eastern U.S., Midwest, and the Pacific Northwest; northwestern ...
My research interests include disturbance and recovery dynamics in coastal and estuarine ecosystems, biodiversity prioritization to inform ecosystem management, statistical modeling including the identification of multiple stressor interaction effects, marine spatial planning, ecosystem services frameworks and climate change impacts on marine systems. My primary research focuses on the recovery of marine benthic communities from disturbance and potential interaction effects of multiple stressors. I have approached these specific research areas using a combination of models and field studies to predict community resilience to disturbance and multiple stressors. This knowledge provides the required biophysical science to quantify stressor footprints, determine ecological responses of ecosystems to multiple stressors and identify tipping points that transform ecosystems into non-desirable states. Increasingly research of stressor footprints and multiple stressor effects will be required to ...
Plant functional traits reflect different evolutionary responses to environmental variation, and among extant species determine the outcomes of interactions between plants and their environment, including other plant species. Thus, combining phylogenetic and trait-based information can be a powerful approach for understanding community assembly processes across a range of spatial scales. We used this approach to investigate tree community composition at Phou Khao Khouay National Park (18 degrees 14-18 degrees 32N; 102 degrees 38-102 degrees 59 E), Laos, where several distinct forest types occur in close proximity. The aim of our study was to examine patterns of plant community assembly across the strong environmental gradients evident at our site. We hypothesized that differences in tree community composition were being driven by an underlying gradient in soil conditions. Thus, we predicted that environmental filtering would predominate at the site and that the filtering would be strongest ...
In collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme, FSC launched the five-year Forest Certification for Ecosystem Services (ForCES) project in 2011 as an incentive for the preservation of valuable ecosystem services in responsibly managed forests. The aim of the project is to adopt FSC standards to emerging ecosystem services markets and target ecosystem services with present or future market potential.. The ForCES project was implemented and tested in several pilot sites, specifically in Chile, Indonesia, Nepal and Vietnam. The project finished in 2017. The report is available to download below. ...
Concerns related to global environmental changes due to land use changes have been driving international communities towards more sustainable land use systems. Brazil is a country of global strategic importance in this matter considering that it is the nation with the largest extension of preserved tropical native vegetation, recognised for its ecosystem services and high and unique biodiversity values. Expansion of forestry and agriculture is taking place rapidly in Brazil, partly over degraded pastureland, but to a large extent over native vegetation. Regulating policies to govern and limit this expansion is crucial to ensure the preservation of the ecosystems services provided by native vegetation. This thesis aims at improving the understanding of the potential impacts of prevailing public and private policies in the conservation of nature in Brazil. For this purpose, the Land Use Policy Assessment (LUPA) model was developed to evaluate potential scenarios of implementation of the current ...
The problems posed by adaptive management for improved ecosystem health are reviewed. Other kinds of science-informed ecosystem management are needed for those regions of conflict between rapid human
GATE-2015 Syllabus for Ecology and Evolution. Ecology. Population ecology; metapopulation dynamics; growth rates; density independent growth; density dependent growth; niche concept; Species interactions: Plant-animal interactions; mutualism, commensalism, competition and predation; trophic interactions; functional ecology; ecophysiology; behavioural ecology;. Community ecology: Community assembly, organization and evolution; biodiversity: species richness, evenness and diversity indices;endemism; species-area relationships; Ecosystem structure, function and services; nutrient cycles; biomes; habitat ecology; primary and secondary productivity; invasive species;global and climate change; applied ecology.. Evolution Origin, evolution and diversification of life; natural selection; levels of selection. Types of selection (stabilizing, directional etc.); sexual selection; genetic drift; gene flow; adaptation; convergence; species concepts; Life history strategies; adaptive radiation; biogeography ...
Our landscapes need to be managed appropriately to ensure the sustainable delivery of these servcies into the future. But we do not truly understand the linkages between the stocks of biodiversity within those landscape and the flows of services from those stocks. Until we have a better grasp of those linkages, those responsible for managing our landscapes will be doing so under great uncertainty.. Biodiversity & Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) is a six-year (2011-2017) NERC research programme, designed to reduce that uncertainty. It will answer fundamental questions about the functional role of biodiversity in key ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem processes at the landscape scale and how these are likely to change in an uncertain future.. By providing a much improved evidence base, those responsible for how landscapes are used and developed should be in much better position to make decisions about the inevitable trade-offs that are required to ensure sustainable ...
Some people have assumed that biodiversity effects are relatively minor compared to other environmental stressors," said biologist David Hooper of Western Washington University, the lead author of the Nature paper. "Our new results show that future loss of species has the potential to reduce plant production just as much as global warming and pollution.". In their study, Hooper and his colleagues used combined data from a large number of published studies to compare how various global environmental stressors affect two processes important in all ecosystems: plant growth and the decomposition of dead plants by bacteria and fungi. The new study involved the construction of a data base drawn from 192 peer-reviewed publications about experiments that manipulated species richness and examined the impact on ecosystem processes.. The global synthesis by Hooper and his colleagues found that in areas where local species loss this century falls within the lower range of projections (loss of 1 to 20 ...
The interest to build ecosystem models is well acknowledged in order to improve the understanding of the sophisticated linkages between humans and natural species embedded within variable local and global environmental contexts. It is especially true when a complex temporal evolution intervenes as in population regulations. Ecological modellers usually resort to numerical models supported by accurate data and extensive knowledge on biological processes. Unfortunately, the task becomes more difficult to model ecosystems with limited data and knowledge. Qualitative models may be more suitable for designing data-poor systems in a decision-aid context. We propose a new qualitative approach for ecosystem modelling based on timed automata (TA) formalism combined with a high-level query language for exploring scenarios. TA rely on a discrete-event system formalism to reproduce the temporal dynamics of a system. Combined with model-checking techniques, TA enable the exploration of system properties in response
Soil microorganisms and plants are key players in the production and breakdown of organic matter, and together control global biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. TER, the Division of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research, aims to advance our fundamental understanding of how plants and soil microorganisms respond to, and in turn shape, their abiotic and biotic environment, and to determine the consequences for the functioning of Earths ecosystems.. Primarily dedicated to basic research, TER addresses pressing environmental issues, such as the impact of climate and land-use change on ecosystem functioning and the role of soils in the global carbon cycle and in food security. In doing so, we work on scales from µm (i.e. the scale at which microbes operate) to the biosphere (i.e. where plant and microbial processes become evident), and in ecosystems spanning the Arctic tundra to tropical rainforests. We integrate this scale of thinking with state-of-the-art methods, including stable ...
Modern human-dominated landscapes are typically characterized by intensive land-use and high levels of habitat destruction, often resulting in sharply contrasted habitat mosaics. Fragmentation of remaining habitat is a major threat to biodiversity. In the present paper, we focus on the different features of habitat fragmentation. First we discuss the importance of pure habitat loss, fragment size, fragment isolation and quality, edge effects, and the importance of landscape structure. Second, we characterize life-history features of fragmentation-sensitive species, showing that rare, specialized, little dispersing species are most affected, as well as species characterized by high population variability and a high trophic position, while the effect of body size is unclear. Third, we discuss the conservation value of habitat fragments. The question arises how to relate studies on population survival to those of community structure and studies on biodiversity to those on ecologicalal functions. ...
The range and use of ecosystem services provided by urban sacred sites has hardly been considered in studies of urban ecology, sustainability and human wellbeing. This paper examines the perceived ecosystem services supplied by green spaces or gardens associated with places of religious worship and appreciated by worshippers in a mid-sized town in South Africa. A questionnaire with open, closed and Likert scale questions was administered at 30 places of worship (25 with gardens and five without). Respondents identified a wide diversity of ecosystem services provided by gardens, with social ones being more recognized than ecological, and economic services the least. Approximately two-thirds of respondents visited a sacred site garden weekly or more often. The majority of respondents (96%) felt that a garden was necessary because it added to their feelings of connection with God, or helped them relax and so be better able to concentrate, and 54% stated that a garden enhanced their overall spiritual
Environmental Review: Ecoregions: A Geographic Framework to Guide Risk Characterization and Ecosystem Management - Volume 1 Issue 3 - Sandra A. Bryce, James M. Omernik, David P. Larsen
This module will cover aspects of biodiversity, soil science, and matter cycles (water, nutrient and carbon) within an ecosystem context. The processes which define ecosystems will be used to illustrate the services they deliver, particularly biomass and carbon sequestration. The module will give and overview of biodiversity, ecosystem development, soil formation and properties, carbon and nutrient fluxes in ecosystems and plant tolerance to abiotic stress, as well as case studies of a range of ecosystem types.. ...
Article From wisdom to information: 350 years of ecosystem management. This paper will examine how the Paterson Valley ecosystem has been managed by humanity with snapshots at 1750, 1830, 1900 and the present. It arises from research into a study of ...
The process of model design begins with a specification of the problem to be solved, and the objectives for the model.[21]. Ecological systems are composed of an enormous number of biotic and abiotic factors that interact with each other in ways that are often unpredictable, or so complex as to be impossible to incorporate into a computable model. Because of this complexity, ecosystem models typically simplify the systems they are studying to a limited number of components that are well understood, and deemed relevant to the problem that the model is intended to solve.[22][23]. The process of simplification typically reduces an ecosystem to a small number of state variables and mathematical functions that describe the nature of the relationships between them.[24] The number of ecosystem components that are incorporated into the model is limited by aggregating similar processes and entities into functional groups that are treated as a unit.[25][26]. After establishing the components to be modeled ...
Land-use and -cover changes (LUCC) are among the most pervasive of human impacts on ecosystems, with complex direct and indirect consequences across spatial and temporal scales [1,2]. In tropical regions, the most important land-cover change is the agricultural conversion and consequent degradation of natural ecosystems [3,4], with drastic impacts for biodiversity and ecosystem function, in turn affecting the provision of ecosystem services that support human well-being [2,5]. On the other hand, clearing of natural vegetation can be, to a degree, mitigated by natural regeneration, a process frequently neglected in LUCC studies [6], and conservation research and policies [3,7]. However, specific programmes and funds to both protect biodiversity and promote ecosystem recovery are usually focused or even restricted to tropical forests with higher carbon stocks [8,9].. The intensity of tropical land conversion and rates of regeneration varies both spatially and temporally as influenced by a range of ...
Inspired by the this, we were led by our lecturer Mika Rekola from the Department of Forest Sciences to valuate the price of good weather. The question was "How much are you at maximum willing to pay for having nice weather like today during next week?" The answers ranged between 0 and 1000 euros based on personal preferences, wealth and other assets (e.g. umbrella), mode of transport, country of origin etc. Some doubted whether paying for weather was at all possible. Anyhow, even this simple mental exercise revealed the complexity of valuating an ecosystem service (or an environmental service in this particular scenario). Contingent valuation, or willingness-to-pay, is the most common method to give a value to many intangible ecosystem services, such as biodiversity or scenic beauty.. The lecture on Tuesday 11th August was focused on the valuation of ecosystem services. One of the most important points of the lecture was Total Economic Value (TEV), which means a sum of all market costs and ...
... act as natures recycling systems by exchanging inorganic and organic materials within ecosystems. Nutrients cycle through ecosystems in different forms, following the movement of energy. The carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles are three important nutrient cycles in ecology since these three chemical elements are essential nutrients required by organisms and the environment.. Carbon is a fundamental element required by all living matter. Carbon is essential for both photosynthesis and respiration and thus, the carbon cycle is critical for distributing carbon. Globally, the major flows of carbon are between: 1) land and the atmosphere, 2) the lake and atmosphere and 3) the ocean and the atmosphere. Throughout this cycle, carbon is not created nor destroyed. However, anthropogenic forces such as the burning of fossil fuels, are causing an increase in the amount of carbon in the atmosphere.. Nitrogen is a majorly important element for ecosystem functioning and is fundamental for ...
Natural News) Vegetation is an essential part of any aquatic ecosystem. Sick or dying underwater vegetation, typically due to pollution, indicates that the ecosystem is in trouble, which leads to degradation of water quality. On the other hand, thriving vegetation is a sign of a healthier ecosystem.. This is especially critical for the Chesapeake Bay estuary; underwater grasses provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals, stabilize sediments, and help clarify the water. Since the 1970s, pollution and human development have decimated the population of underwater grass in the Chesapeake Bay, further degrading the water quality. States surrounding the Bay have been working together since 2010 to restore its ecosystems.. One study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences analyzed the positive impact of long-term nutrient reduction on valuable ecosystems in the estuary.. The study, led by Jonathan Lefcheck, Ph.D., formerly of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science ...
Benthic microbial ecosystems of Laguna La Brava, Salar de Atacama, a high altitude hypersaline lake, were characterized in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity, biogeochemistry, (including O2 and sulfide depth profiles and mineralogy), and physicochemical characteristics. La Brava is one of several lakes in the Salar de Atacama where microbial communities are growing in extreme conditions, including high salinity, high solar insolation, and high levels of metals such as lithium, arsenic, magnesium, and calcium. Evaporation creates hypersaline conditions in these lakes and mineral precipitation is a characteristic geomicrobiological feature of these benthic ecosystems. In this study, the La Brava non-lithifying microbial mats, microbialites, and rhizome-associated concretions were compared to each other and their diversity was related to their environmental conditions. All the ecosystems revealed an unusual community where Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, Acetothermia, Firmicutes and Planctomycetes
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The newly established IUCN drylands programme stepped out in style for the first time at the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development in New ...
BACKGROUND: An ecosystem illustrates the relationship of plants and animals with each other and with the environment. Ecosystems can be as large as the ocean or as small as an aquarium. The only factor in determining an ecosystem is the exchange of nutrients, gases, or processes that aid or overcome another organism. Simply, an organism will help another one to survive by doing something essential to the others survival or to survival of the environment, or will simply kill or eat the other. Irrespective of the size of the ecosystem, plants and animals will continuously live in a never-ending cycle of life.. The first step in the ecosystem begins with the Sun. The majority of primary producers are plants whether they are in, the water or on land. Plants use the energy from the sun to produce food in the form of simple sugars. Photosynthesis, is very vital to the survival of animal life. Animals depend just as much on photosynthesis as plants do. The plants that produce sugars by photosynthesis ...
Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem during 2013 represented a moderation of thermal conditions compared to the record highs observed in 2012. The moderation in temperature was not uniform over the ecosystem, with more cooling occurring in the southern part of the ecosystem ...
Highly dependent on the different aspects of global change, variations in ecosystem services supply can also have direct impacts on human well being. A new article published in the open access journal One Ecosystem assesses the relationships between climate and land use change and ecosystem services supply in Europe, to pave the way on research connecting them to adaptation and human well being in a changing world.
Ecosystem respiration (Reco) is one of the largest terrestrial carbon (C) fluxes. The effect of climate change on Reco depends on the responses of its autotrophic and heterotrophic components. How autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration sources respond to climate change is especially important in ecosystems underlain by permafrost. Permafrost ecosystems contain vast stores of soil C (1672 Pg) and are located in northern latitudes where climate change is accelerated. Warming will cause a positive feedback to climate change if heterotrophic respiration increases without corresponding increases in primary production. We quantified the response of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to permafrost thaw across the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We partitioned Reco using Δ14C and δ13C into four sources-two autotrophic (above - and belowground plant structures) and two heterotrophic (young and old soil). We sampled the Δ14C and δ13C of sources using incubations and the Δ14C and δ13C of ...
The pH values will bring effects in flora and fauna nearby, change the taste of water and lead to heavy corrosion in pipe lines. High conductivity naturally indicates the presence of ionic substances dissolved in the river water. However, the result showed that 90% of the study site exceeded the data reported for non-contaminated rivers due to excessive metal ions within the water. At the site nearer to kaolin industry the conductivity is 852 times higher than the non-polluted study site. The industrial discharge also changed the hardness in river water. ...
The European CARBOEUROPE/FLUXNET monitoring sites, spatial remote sensing observations via the EOS-MODIS sensor and ecosystem modelling provide independent and complementary views on the effect of the 2003 heatwave on the European biospheres productivity and carbon balance. In our analysis, these data streams consistently demonstrate a strong negative anomaly of the primary productivity during the summer of 2003. FLUXNET eddy-covariance data indicate that the drop in productivity was not primarily caused by high temperatures (heat stress) but rather by limitation of water (drought stress) and that, contrary to the classical expectation about a heat wave, not only gross primary productivity but also ecosystem respiration declined by up to more than to 80 gC m−2 month−1. Anomalies of carbon and water fluxes were strongly correlated. While there are large between-site differences in water-use efficiency (WUE, 1-6 kg C kg−1 H2O) here defined as gross carbon uptake divided by evapotranspiration (WUE
1]. This is concerning the usefulness of ecosystems in monetary terms:- Recent study estimated that total value of goods and services provided by the earths ecosystems is US$33 trillion. There is an enormous variety of products obtained from ecosystems:- Rattan (wild vine in SE Asian forests) - cane furniture and other products. Generates $2.7 billion in exports/year. US Coastal fishing industry valued at US$3.3 billion in 1991. Rubber & tropical fruits (Amazon rainforest) - net economic value of US$7000/hectare w/o harming the forest. If the same area is cleared however, 94m³ of timber produced. In 1992, an estimate of medicines derived from natural sources, came to US$40 billion/yr worldwide. Tribes in Peru were found to use plants to treat skin disorders, tuberculosis, fevers, animal bites, infertility, kidney disorders, wounds, burns, tooth decay. Ecosystems with a high utility value include: Mangroves Forests Swamps Floodplains Natural marshes. [2]. All the living and non-living ...
Habitat variables were correlated with scaled quail (Callipep/,a squamata) whistle counts on 133 (24-km) random transects in Texas. Whether or not a particular habitat variable was correlated with whistle counts appeared to depend upon abundance and distribution of other habitat types and structural features. If |= 1 requisite for quail survival and reproduction (food, water, cover, nest sites) was limited, habitat types and structural features were usually positively correlated with whistle counts (P | 0.10). Conversely, abundant habitat types which did not provide all of these requisites were usually negatively correlated with whistle counts (P| 0.10). Correlations indicated breeding scaled quail selected the more dense, shorter shrub habitats. Mesquite (Prosopsis spp.) habitats were especially important to scaled quail in the Trans-Pecos region.
The concept of the ecosystem has evolved since its origin. The term, coined in the 1930s, belongs to British botanists Roy Clapham (1904-1990) and Sir Arthur Tansley (1871-1955). It was originally applied to units of diverse spatial scale; from a weathered piece of tree trunk to a pond, a region or even the entire biosphere of the planet, the only requirement being that organisms, physical environment and interactions could exist within them. More recently, the ecosystem has had a geographical focus and has become analogous to formations or vegetation types, e.g., scrub, pine forest, grassland, etc. This simplification ignores the fact that the limits of some vegetation types are indistinct, while the boundaries of ecosystems are not. The transition zones between ecosystems are known as ecotones ...
Article European ecosystem assessment - concept, data, and implementation. This report summarises EEA contributions to Target 2 Action 5 Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) for the implementation of the EU Biodiversity St...
New diseases in forest ecosystems have been reported at an increasing rate over the last century. Some reasons for this include the increased disturbance by humans to forest ecosystems, changed climatic conditions and intensified international trade. Although many of the contributing factors to the changed disease scenarios are anthropogenic, there has been a reluctance to control them by legislation, other forms of government authority or through public involvement. Some of the primary obstacles relate to problems in communicating biological understanding of concepts to the political sphere of society. Relevant response to new disease scenarios is very often associated with a proper understanding of intraspecific variation in the challenging pathogen. Other factors could be technical, based on a lack of understanding of possible countermeasures. There are also philosophical reasons, such as the view that forests are part of the natural ecosystems and should not be managed for natural disturbances such
Active red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies in the Piedmont of Georgia are mature pine stands (mean age = 87 ± 1 yr old) with relatively sparse midstories (mean basal area = 31 ± 3 ft2/ac). Active and abandoned colony sites have similar overstory characteristics, but midstories are significantly denser in abandoned colony sites (mean basal area = 56 ± 3 ft2/ac ). Previous studies have focused on the effect of hardwoods in the midstory, but we found that increases in both pine and hardwood midstory density are associated with colony abandonment. A logistic regression model based on field data suggests that the probability of a colony becoming abandoned increases considerably when midstory basal area is > 30 ft2/ac. To maintain red-cockaded woodpecker populations, managers should keep midstory basal area in colonies below 25 ft2/ac. Treatments should be applied to entire stands and not just around individual cavity trees.. ...
Local coastal ecosystems support a healthy range of recreational, commercial and subsistence activities. MIT Sea Grant helps local residents, natural resource managers and businesses protect and restore these habitats for continued ecosystem and public well-being.. MIT Sea Grants outreach efforts create opportunities for exchange of information among researchers, Marine Advisory staff, and our stakeholders to support ecosystem-based management. We also conduct innovative research to increase the efficiency and capabilities of industry to ensure long-term viability of coastal ecosystems.. ...
Structures and dynamics of ocean ecosystems. The dynamics of global to local scale biophysical interaction processes are explored in terms of basic dynamic principles. Existing ecosystem models are used to solve some realistic coastal ecosystem problems. There is a strong emphasis on solving process oriented problems requiring integration of lecture materials. A term paper is required.
As the ecosystem service concept has become more widely recognised, so the number of biophysical, socio-cultural and monetary methods available to assess ecosystem services has increased. There is relatively little guidance on how to select and combine these methods into hybrid approaches that address policy purposes. Based on experiences from 27 case studies with 33 different assessment and valuation methods in the OpenNESS project, this report aims to fill some of that gap in science and practice. This report provides a number of tools that practitioners can use to plan, commission and evaluate integrated assessment and valuation studies of ecosystem services. The report starts by providing a rapid guide to commonly used biophysical, socio-cultural and monetary methods. A number of different bottom-up and top-down approaches to selecting methods fit-for-purpose are provided. OpenNESS method experts have developed detailed fact sheets on each method in the report appendix and available ...
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April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. Rice University researchers have found that communities in nature are likely to be a lot more sensitive to change than previously thought.. The study findings, published in Nature Communications, points to a need for scientists concerned with human impact on the biosphere to take a different look at the consequences of altering the dynamics of a population. One example of such alteration would be removing large members of a species through overfishing, according to Rice ecologist Volker Rudolph.. "Natural communities are increasingly altered through human impact, and ecologists have long strived to determine how these changes influence communities," Rudolf said. Rudolph also noted the disappearance of a species is the most extreme cause of biodiversity loss, but not the only one.. "Thats the last thing that happens after you mess up the entire ecosystem for a long period of time," he said. By the time a species disappears entirely, changes ...
Therefore, research is being conducted on how climate change, land-use change, invasive species, and pollutants will have an impact on species assemblages and indispensible ecological functions and the consequences thereof. We aim to quantify and elucidate drivers, in order to understand their relative significance on the composition and dynamics of ecosystems. Building on data from experiments and observations, the focus lies on the analysis of functional reactions, while considering different temporal and spatial scales. We are developing scenarios, indicators, methods and instruments, so that our emerging ecosystems can be optimally developed while ensuring that their ecosystem functions and services remain intact in the long-run. ...
Dune height and dune recovery following storms are critical in determining coastal vulnerability to climate-change-induced shifts in forcing (e.g., sea-level rise and changing storms). Coastal dunes arise from interactions between ecological and physical processes yet the mechanisms involved in dune formation and the impact of climate change on these mechanisms has been poorly understood. Here we argue that plant zonation, rather than sediment supply, controls coastal vulnerability to storms by determining maximum dune size. In addition, plant zonation may also control the resiliency of coastal environments to climate fluctuations by altering the dune mobility threshold, potentially leading to dune destabilization.. Foredunes, the first shore-parallel dune ridge encountered landward of the shoreline, are a crucial part of coastal landscapes. As natural barriers, they increase biodiversity by sheltering more sensitive inland ecosystems from impacts of the sea while also providing protection from ...
In spite of the increasing international popularity of the notion of ecosystem services, it is not very widely applied in Dutch environmental policies. There is therefore a great need to highlight experiences and expertise in the field in order to generate interest and support among policy makers in the Netherlands.. With its Exploring Ecosystem Services project, the IVM is seeking to develop an analytical framework with which ecosystem service applications can be demonstrated in the context of Dutch policies. The end products of this flagship project include a national workshop, a case study in Surinam, scientific publications and course material for Bachelors and Masters programmes at VU Amsterdam ...
There is now compelling evidence that microbially mediated reactions impart a significant effect upon the dynamics, composition, and abundance of nutrients in glacial melt water. Consequently, we must now consider ice masses as ecosystem habitats in their own right and address their diversity, functional potential, and activity as part of alpine and polar environments. Although such research is already underway, its fragmentary nature provides little basis for developing modern concepts of glacier ecology. This paper therefore provides a much-needed framework for development by reviewing the physical, biogeochemical, and microbiological characteristics of microbial habitats that have been identified within glaciers and ice sheets. Two key glacial ecosystems emerge, one inhabiting the glacier surface (the supraglacial ecosystem) and one at the ice-bed interface (the subglacial ecosystem). The supraglacial ecosystem is characterized by a diverse consortium of microbes (usually bacteria, algae, ...
FC: Ecosystems: Forests By: Daria and Cody. 1: The forest is a place of wonder, full of natural surprises. Aside from its beauty, the forest is essential to Earths ecosystem. Trees and plants filter out the carbon dioxide in the air, making it breathable for humans.. 2: The forest is a place of great wonder. Many animals call it their home. Forests cover about 30% of all land area, and vary in life.. 4: Forests are unique and special. Like every other ecosystem, they also have abiotic and biotic interactions. For instance, trees provides a home for animals like birds and chipmunks, while streams give hydration to many animals.. 5: The forest is an abundance of wildlife, as well as dangerous. It contains many predator/prey reactions.. 7: Animal life is a large part of forest life. These pictures are examples of animals that would die in the ocean, but live a comfortable life in the forest.. 8: The forest is made of mainly trees. The trees provide homes for woodland creatures, bark for claws, and ...
How fast can a disaster zone bounce back? Apparently, faster than previously thought. Yale University ecologists conducted a meta-analysis of 240 studies of devastated ecosystems. They found that ecosystems damaged by pollution can be restored in as few as 10 years. Why then was it believed they would take so much longer to recover?. The study, published in PLoS ONE, "rebuts speculation that it will take centuries or millennia for degraded ecosystems to recover and justifies an increased effort to restore degraded areas for the benefit of future generations," according to a Yale University press release.1 The researchers found that forest ecosystems recover in 42 years, and marine environments in 10 years, with some ecosystems able to recover from maladies like oil spills in as few as five years.. Such short recovery times contrast gloomy sentiments portrayed in popular literature, such as: "Our rare forest type can never recover from this kind of treatment [clearcutting]."2 References to ...
In urban landscapes, nearby birds contribute to allochthonous nutrient flow from residential areas to fragmented forests by consuming food in residential areas and depositing feces in forests. To esti
Good science should always guide policy. In the ocean, policy reflects decades of scientific work on single species and on single endpoints, like water quality. However, it is now clear that ocean ecosystems are more than the sum of their parts, and policy needs to catch up to this new scientific understanding.. Of course, we must continue to protect the aspects of ocean ecosystems that we value the most. Fisheries need catch limits to keep stocks at sustainable levels. Pollutants need caps to keep waters fishable and swimmable. Forestry and farming need best practices and standards to keep estuaries healthy. But it turns out that ocean ecosystems have tipping points - ecological thresholds beyond which they undergo dramatic changes.. Healthy and resilient ocean ecosystems function similar to the United States governments system of checks and balances-different species do similar things but in slightly different ways, which help keep these systems both interconnected and even-keeled. However, ...
Ecology and Ecosystems Ecosystems in the Open Sea Coastal Ecosystems - Estuaries, Salt Marshes, Mangrove Swamps, Seagrasses Coastal Ecosystems - Intertidal Zones ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 6fabce-YzkyO
The concept of ecosystem services roared into the policy world in the mid-1990s and has been going strong since. It asks us to recognize a rather obvious proposition-that functioning ecosystems provide valuable services to human populations, such as storm surge protection from dunes and groundwater recharge from wetlands-and to incorporate those values into land use and resource management decisions. Yet, like many marriages, this one between economic and ecologic perspectives has attracted critics from both of the families.. On Wednesday, March 26, Pace Law School will host the annual Lloyd K. Garrison Lecture on Environmental Law at 5:00 p.m. in the Gerber Glass Moot Court Room at the Law School, featuring J.B. Ruhl, David Daniels Allen Distinguished Chair in Law, Co-director, Energy, Environment, and Land Use Program at Vanderbilt Law School, who will trace the arc of ecosystem services to the present, explain where it sits in law today, and describe and respond to the critiques from both ...
The concept of ecosystem services roared into the policy world in the mid-1990s and has been going strong since. It asks us to recognize a rather obvious proposition-that functioning ecosystems provide valuable services to human populations, such as storm surge protection from dunes and groundwater recharge from wetlands-and to incorporate those values into land use and resource management decisions. Yet, like many marriages, this one between economic and ecologic perspectives has attracted critics from both of the families.. On Wednesday, March 26, Pace Law School will host the annual Lloyd K. Garrison Lecture on Environmental Law at 5:00 p.m. in the Gerber Glass Moot Court Room at the Law School, featuring J.B. Ruhl, David Daniels Allen Distinguished Chair in Law, Co-director, Energy, Environment, and Land Use Program at Vanderbilt Law School, who will trace the arc of ecosystem services to the present, explain where it sits in law today, and describe and respond to the critiques from both ...
An ecological cascade effect is a series of secondary extinctions that is triggered by the primary extinction of a key species in an ecosystem. Secondary extinctions are likely to occur when the threatened species are: dependent on a few specific food sources, mutualistic (dependent on the key species in some way), or forced to coexist with an invasive species that is introduced to the ecosystem. Species introductions to a foreign ecosystem can often devastate entire communities, and even entire ecosystems. These exotic species monopolize the ecosystems resources, and since they have no natural predators to decrease their growth, they are able to increase indefinitely. Olsen et al.[1] showed that exotic species have caused lake and estuary ecosystems to go through cascade effects due to loss of algae, crayfish, mollusks, fish, amphibians, and birds. However, the principal cause of cascade effects is the loss of top predators as the key species. As a result of this loss, a dramatic increase ...
Ecosystem is a term used to describe the sum total of all living organisms in a geographic area, their relationships to each other and their non-living environment. There are two types of ecosystem: an aquatic ecosystem, which is a water-based ecosystem, and a terrestrial ecosystem, which is a land-based ...
Accurate representation of ecosystem processes in land models is crucial for reducing predictive uncertainty in energy and greenhouse gas feedbacks with the atmosphere. Here we describe an observational and modeling meta-analysis approach to benchmark land models, and apply the method to the land model CLM4.5 with two versions of belowground biogeochemistry. We focused our analysis on the above and belowground high-latitude ecosystem responses to warming and nitrogen addition, and identified mechanisms absent, or poorly parameterized in CLM4.5. While the two model versions predicted similar trajectories for soil carbon stocks following both types of perturbation, other variables (e.g., belowground respiration) differed from the observations in both magnitude and direction, indicating the underlying mechanisms are inadequate for representing high-latitude ecosystems. The observational synthesis attribute these differences to missing representations of microbial dynamics, characterization of above ...
The world has become increasingly urban with roughly half the population living in an urban area. This has resulted in tremendous shifts in land use resulting in changes to rural and natural ecosystems and the development of urban ecosystems. This webinar will introduce extension agents to concepts of urban ecology, which addresses the intricate relationship between humans and urban trees, air, water, soil, wildlife, and more. For example, research has shown that urban trees reduce crime and improve our health and well-being, as well as helping ameliorate stormwater challenges. Urban ecology is an important concept to understand when working with client groups who have an interest in environmental issues, such as 4-H, Master Gardeners, and others.. ...
Approximately twice as much carbon is stored in soils than is present in the atmosphere as CO2. Indeed, more carbon is stored in soil than in the atmosphere and above-ground biomass combined. Depending on land management and potential responses to future climate change terrestrial ecosystems can act as either a carbon source or a carbon sink. As well as the potential to store vast amounts of carbon, terrestrial ecosystems provide many services that rely on processes where organic matter is transformed.. The availability of biologically accessible nitrogen is a limiting factor in the primary productivity of many ecosystems. Much is known about the cycling of inorganic forms of N in soils, however, the processing of organic forms of N (such as amino acids and proteins) has received much less attention. Understanding how these compounds behave in complex ecosystems such as soil, is vital if we are to develop models to help inform land management and agricultural practices. In the OGU we study ...
The US Department of Defense (DoD) has granted $2 million to Harvard Forest researchers Kristina Stinson (UMass Amherst) and Serita Frey (UNH) for a five-year study of how soil microbial communities respond to major ecosystem change.. Soil fungi are crucial to the growth of many native trees, but their functions can be easily disrupted by the belowground toxins produced by garlic mustard (Allaria petiolata), a widespread invasive plant. The studys two main experiments will investigate how soil fungi repopulate an ecosystem after a garlic mustard invasion is eradicated.. One set of experiments will take place on DoD lands in Massachusetts and New York, the other will take place on existing soil warming and nitrogen addition plots at the Harvard Forest, which incorporate additional environmental stressors to mimic future global change. Stinson and Freys results will advance fundamental knowledge about soil fungi in forest ecosystems, and will improve resource managers ability to restore ...
One part of my research investigates how the environment and human activities influence the species composition of ecological communities. In other words, why do we find some species in some environments and how will species compositions change as a consequence of natural environmental change or due to human activities? These questions are investigated in both aquatic and terrestrial (forest) environments and at the border between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. When species compositions change, independent of reason, there will be effects on important ecosystem processes, the function of ecosystems and their ability to deliver ecosystem services. Hence, in my research, I try to understand the consequences of a changed species composition, or species loss, for ecosystems ability to function for other organisms (biodiversity) and human needs (ecosystem services). Here, it is important to understand how human needs may support or hurt general biodiversity, with the aim to obtain high ...
Get this from a library! Succession of semi-natural grasslands : spatially-explicit, mechanistic simulation considering various forms of land use. [Silvana Siehoff]
Q. Summary. One of the fundamental tenets of the concept of sustainable development is the maintenance of a homeostatic equilibrium within the ecosystem. Over-exploitation of the ecosystem, or degradation of its biotic structure, alters ecosystem processes to the point whereby the ability of the ecosystem to meet desired conditions is seriously diminished. Water is the medium for all ecological processes, from the molecular to the global scales. The physical quantification of ecological processes, in terms of water and energy, is fundamental to the scientific investigations that should underpin a programme of sound ecosystem management.. The most appropriate scale for measuring and quantifying energy and nutrient dynamics in aquatic ecosystems is the mesocycle within a basin, which forms the basic geographic unit within which to determine and quantify the interconnected processes that comprise the ecosystem and provide a framework for the interactions between its biotic, physical and chemical ...
Elements of risk management are found in a variety of risk assessment and management frameworks or guidelines. In some cases, planning processes rely upon risk assessment frameworks to ascertain risk without a clear sense of the ecosystem management context. The results of such risk assessments are, based on perceived management needs, sometimes misaligned with or irrelevant to the context of ecosystem management.. Risk assessment frameworks also typically focus on the characterization of the likelihood and magnitude of ecological impacts. They seldom ascertain socio-economic consequences in relation to both the communities of interest that depend on the ecosystem management outcomes being achieved and the regulatory or policy repercussions reliant on the governance structures needed to achieve such outcomes. Few frameworks provide the evaluation step needed to determine what level of management should be considered in light of a gap analysis of existing legislation and policy. The International ...
U.S.-led scientists have found that an ecosystem below an Antarctic glacier has survived millions of years by using sulfur and iron compounds for growth.. Co-led by Montana State University Professor John Priscu and Jill Mikucki of Dartmouth College, the scientists said the ecosystem lives without light or oxygen in a pool of brine trapped below Taylor Glacier, next to frozen Lake Bonney in eastern Antarctica.. Priscu said the ecosystem contains a diversity of bacteria that thrive in cold, salty water loaded with iron and sulfur. The water averages 14 degrees Fahrenheit, but doesnt freeze because it is three or four times saltier than the ocean. Since it has been isolated for so long in extreme conditions, the researchers said the ecosystem might explain how life could exist on other planets and serve as a model for how life can exist under ice.. Mikucki said the ecosystem has the ...
Many global change drivers (GCDs) lead to chronic alterations in resource availability. As communities change through time in response to these GCDs, the magnitude and direction of ecosystem responses is also predicted to change in a non-linear fashion. This LTER NCO Synthesis Working Group proposes to examine whether plant community dynamics are predictive of shifts in ecosystem function across 101 long-term resource manipulation experiments (including 32 LTER experiments).. The working group will address three main objectives: 1) identify temporal patterns of plant community change in response to global change manipulations; 2) link these patterns of community change to changes in aboveground net primary productivity and carbon storage; and 3) incorporate community change into ecosystem models predicting functional responses to GCDs. These objectives address four of the five LTER core thematic areas (primary production, population studies, organic matter dynamics, and disturbance ...
Environmental issues in aquatic ecosystems of high management priority involve spatially explicit phenomena that occur over vast areas. A "landscape" perspective is thus necessary, including an understanding of how ecological phenomena at a local scale are affected by physical forcing variables at a regional scale. Analysis, explanation, and ultimately prediction of such ecological phenomena are, however, impeded by a lack of knowledge of, and tools to delimit, spatial patterns of material supply to point locations. To more fully understand factors controlling spatially-explicit phenomena in aquatic ecosystems, specifically the physical forcing variable of water movement, we apply the concept of "resource sheds" to coasts and watersheds. Resource sheds are defined as source areas for materials supplied to an individual organism, population, or point location, over a specified time interval. Here we delimit resource shed total spatial extent and relative contributory importance across space, for ...
Agricultural ecosystems have been viewed with the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) through reduced tillage and cover cropping practices. There remains considerable uncertainty, however, regarding the carbon (C) sink/source potential of these systems and few studies have examined C dynamics in conjunction with other important greenhouse gases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an alternative management scenario (reduced tillage and cover cropping) on ecosystem respiration (RE) and nitrous oxide (N2O) andmethane (CH4) fluxes in a maize (Zea mays L.)/soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation ecosystem in east-central Minnesota, United States. The control treatment was managed using fall tillage with a chisel plow in combination with a tandem disk, and the experimental treatment was managed using strip tillage and a winter rye (Secal cereale) cover crop. Over the two-year study period (2004-2005), cumulative RE was 222.7 g C m 2
ACES, brings together government, non- governmental organization, academia, tribal, and private sector leaders to advance the use of ecosystem services and related science in conservation, restoration, resource management, and decisions.
Ecosystem Facilitation Given the hydrodynamic environment of marine ecosystems, mangroves forests, seagrass beds and coral reefs will always be connected via the seawater to neighboring ecosystems. This connection means that there can be an exchange of physical (hydrodynamic energy), chemical (sediment and nutrient) and biological (organisms) factors. As a consequence, changes in one specific ecosystem can have consequences on neighboring ecosystems both in close proximity or (via these connections) further away. In case adjacent ecosystems improve each other growing conditions, one could speak of large-scale facilitative or positive interactions. The research in this project aims at identifying the importance of local-scale facilitating and large-scale facilitation by ecosystem (especially nutrient) connections as critical factors needed for ecosystem-based designs, ecosystem conservation and re-establishment. This objective will be met by the combination of elaborating experimentally ...
Ecosystem Services Some economic values of an ecosystem are measured, with large margins of error, in terms of the goods and services that the ecosystem provides. The values estimate the cost of replacing these products and studying how much a buyer, including governments, would pay for such ecosystem service. Ecosystem services include: Species protection (think of what it costs to keep an endangered animal alive in a zoo, compared to a native habitat. Then think what extra is needed to keep their succeeding generations alive.), storm protection, flood control, drought recovery and other aspects of habitat response to environmental variability mainly controlled by vegetation structure, prevention of loss of soil by wind, runoff or other removal processes, soil formation, nutrient cycling, waste treatment, water filtration, pollution control, detoxification, atmospheric gas regulation, climate regulation, pollination, dynamic regulation of populations, reduction of herbivory by top predators, ...