METHODS We performed echo-planar perfusion studies in 19 patients with a 1.5-T unit, using a free-induction-decay echo-planar sequence for 14 examinations and a turbo-gradient-spin-echo echo-planar sequence for five examinations. After a bolus injection of contrast material, 30 consecutive scans were done in 10 sections every 2 seconds. The data were analyzed to yield time-intensity curves for a region of interest set in the territory of the bilateral middle and/or anterior cerebral arteries in all examinations and to produce semiquantitative flow maps of each section, representing the signal decrease due to passage of contrast material in 17 examinations. The semiquantitative flow maps were compared with single-photon emission CT (SPECT) findings in 11 cases. ...
The background underpinning the clinical use of ultrashort echo time, SPRITE and other pulse sequences for imaging bone and other connective tissues with short T2 is reviewed. Features of the basic physics relevant to UTE imaging are described, including the consequences when the radiofrequency pulse duration is of the order of T2 so that rotation of tissue magnetization into the transverse plane is incomplete. Consequences of the broad linewidth of short T2 components are also discussed, including partial saturation by off-resonance fat suppression pulses as well as those used in multislice and multiecho imaging. The need for rapid data acquisition of the order of T2 is explained. The basic two-dimensional UTE pulse sequence with its half excitation pulse and radial imaging from the centre of k-space is described, together with options that suppress fat and/or reduce the signal from long T2 components. The basic features of SPRITE and other sequences with very short TE are described. Image
Background This study exploits the speed benefits of echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) to acquire lipid spectra of skeletal muscle. The main purpose was to develop a high-resolution EPSI technique for clinical MR scanner, to visualise the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shifts of extra-myocellular lipid (EMCL) spectral lines, and to investigate the feasibility of this method for the assessment of intra-myocellular (IMCL) lipids. Methods The study group consisted of six healthy volunteers. A two dimensional EPSI sequence with point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) spatial localization was implemented on a 3T clinical MR scanner. Measurements were performed by means of 64×64 spatial matrix and nominal voxel size 3×3×15 mm3. The total net measurement time was 3 min 12 sec for non-water-suppressed (1 acquisition) and 12 min 48 sec for water-suppressed scans (4 acquisitions). Results Spectra of the human calf had a very good signal-to-noise ratio and linewidths sufficient to differentiate IMCL
accuracy accurate acquisition acquisitions anatomical anatomy applications appropriate approximately around arrows artifacts asked assist axis biomedical blade blades body brain bundle bundles characterized clinical common commonly comp complete consequently consistent contrast corrected create critical currently datasets depend dependent determined development diffusion distorted distortion distortions divided dual echoes eddy effective eigenvalues engineering even examination fact fiber fibers field functional general geometric goal gradient great head homologous human immune importance included inhomogeneities institute inter intra keep laboratory lead least loss maintain mapped mapping maps matrix moreover noise oftentimes overlaid pair pairs pathway pathways pile pipe planar position positioning premature prematurely probably produced producing reconstructed registering registration related relatively representation reproducibilities reproducibility reproducible residual resolution ...
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Purpose: Uncertainties about geometric distortion have somewhat hindered MRI simulation in radiation therapy. Most of the geometric distortion studies were performed with phantom measurements but another major aspect of MR distortion is patient related. We studied the geometric distortion in patient images by comparing their MRI scans with the corresponding CT, using CT as the non-distorted gold standard. Methods: Ten H&N cancer patients were imaged with MRI as part of a prospective IRB approved study. All patients had their treatment planning CT done on the same day or within one week of the MRI. MR Images were acquired with a T2 SE sequence (1×1×2.5mm voxel size) in the same immobilization position as in the CT scans. MRI to CT rigid registration was then done and geometric distortion comparison was done by measuring the corresponding anatomical landmarks on both the MRI and the CT images by two observers. Several skin to skin (9 landmarks), bone to bone (8 landmarks), and soft tissue (3 ...
spatial frequency ¼ 408/cycle, visual angle ¼ 178) flashing With the sound eye stimulation, no significant difference at 8 Hz was presented on a goggle display system was found in the fMRI volume measurement before and (Resonance Technology Inc., CA, USA) as the visual after levodopa medication (9594 2106 vs. 8560 1609 stimuli. The visions of both eyes of each subject were mm3, P ¼ 0:17). With the amblyopic eye stimulation, corrected to the best-corrected visual acuities using lenses during the experiments. During the resting state, a crosshair (5227 1661 mm3) than before (3517 1470 mm3) the was presented for the fixation. The subjects head was administration of levodopa. However, the P-value, 0.06, did restrained in a molded plastic facial mask to reduce subject not reach the statistical criteria. To minimize the systematic motion during the performance of the scan. A single-shot variance caused by the relatively long duration between the T2*-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging ...
Hemodialysis-related arthropathy. A prospective MR study with SE and GRE sequences. - O Karakida, J Aoki, Y Kanno, T Watanabe, K Tamura, G S Seo, S Sone
Background: Diffusion-weighted MRI has been proposed as a new technique for imaging synovitis without intravenous contrast application. We investigated diagnostic utility of multi-shot readout-segmented diffusion-weighted MRI (multi-shot DWI) for synovial imaging of the knee joint in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with confirmed or suspected JIA (21 girls, median age 13 years) underwent routine 1.5 T MRI with contrast-enhanced T1w imaging (contrast-enhanced MRI) and with multi-shot DWI (RESOLVE, b-values 0-50 and 800 s/mm\(^2\)). Contrast-enhanced MRI, representing the diagnostic standard, and diffusion-weighted images at b = 800 s/mm\(^2\) were separately rated by three independent blinded readers at different levels of expertise for the presence and the degree of synovitis on a modified 5-item Likert scale along with the level of subjective diagnostic confidence. Results: Fourteen (44%) patients had active synovitis and joint ...
Subjects. Subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 women, 15 men), ranging in age from 18 to 29 years, with no history of neurological, psychiatric, or auditory symptoms. Edinburgh Handedness Inventory laterality quotients (Oldfield, 1971) ranged from 58 to 100, indicating strong right-hand preferences for all subjects. Subjects were recruited on a voluntary basis, gave written informed consent, and were paid a small hourly stipend. All studies received prior approval by the Medical College of Wisconsin Human Research Review Committee.. Apparatus and scanning procedures. Scanning was conducted at 1.5 Tesla on a General Electric (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) Signa scanner using a three-axis local gradient coil with an insertable transmit-receive radiofrequency coil optimized for whole-brain echo-planar imaging (EPI). Functional imaging used a gradient-echo EPI sequence with the following parameters: 40 msec echo time, 4 sec repetition time, 24 cm field of view, 64 × 64 pixel matrix, and 3.75 × ...
A current popular method used for partial Fourier estimation is known as homodyne reconstruction. This technique involves sequential application of a two filters to the acquired k-space data. The first (a high-pass filter) doubles the amplitude of this data and then discards the imaginary part of the image after the Fourier transform. The second (low-pass) Homodyne filter creates a "correction image" from a small set of data acquired symmetrically around the center of k-space. The phase of this "correction image" is subtracted from the phase of the first (high-pass) filtered image image before discarding the imaginary part of the image. In echo-planar imaging (EPI) echoes acquired late after the RF-excitation pulse will have different phase than those occurring early. This is a source of additional phase errors and makes phase estimation more difficult. For EPI often 6/8 to 7/8 of k-space must be sampled in partial Fourier techniques to accurately estimate the remaining portion.. ...
A current popular method used for partial Fourier estimation is known as homodyne reconstruction. This technique involves sequential application of a two filters to the acquired k-space data. The first (a high-pass filter) doubles the amplitude of this data and then discards the imaginary part of the image after the Fourier transform. The second (low-pass) Homodyne filter creates a "correction image" from a small set of data acquired symmetrically around the center of k-space. The phase of this "correction image" is subtracted from the phase of the first (high-pass) filtered image image before discarding the imaginary part of the image. In echo-planar imaging (EPI) echoes acquired late after the RF-excitation pulse will have different phase than those occurring early. This is a source of additional phase errors and makes phase estimation more difficult. For EPI often 6/8 to 7/8 of k-space must be sampled in partial Fourier techniques to accurately estimate the remaining portion.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A single-shot T2 mapping protocol based on echo-split gradient-spin-echo acquisition and parametric multiplexed sensitivity encoding based on projection onto convex sets reconstruction. AU - Chu, Mei Lan. AU - Chang, Hing Chiu. AU - Oshio, Koichi. AU - Chen, Nan kuei. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Purpose: To develop a high-speed T2 mapping protocol that is capable of accurately measuring T2 relaxation time constants from a single-shot acquisition. Theory: A new echo-split single-shot gradient-spin-echo (GRASE) pulse sequence is developed to acquire multicontrast data while suppressing signals from most nonprimary echo pathways in Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) echoes. Residual nonprimary pathway signals are taken into consideration when performing T2 mapping using a parametric multiplexed sensitivity encoding based on projection onto convex sets (parametric-POCSMUSE) reconstruction method that incorporates extended phase graph modeling of GRASE signals. Methods: The single-shot ...
This technique specially designed for Echo-Planar Images (EPI) robustly correct images and provides a deformation field. This field is applicable to an entire DWI series from only one reversed EPI allowing distortion correction with a minimal acquisition time cost. This registration algorithm has been validated both on phantom and on in-vivo data and is available in our source medical image processing toolbox Anima.. From these diffusion images, we are able to construct multi-compartments models (MCM) which can represent complex brain microstructure. Doing registration, averaging and atlas creation on these MCM images is required to perform studies and statistic analyses. We propose a general method to interpolate MCM as a simplification problem based on spectral clustering. This technique, which is adaptable for any MCM, has been validated on both synthetic and real data. Then, from a registered dataset, we performed a patient to population analysis at a voxel-level computing statistics on MCM ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - T2-weighted fast MR imaging with true FISP versus HASTE. T2 - Comparative efficacy in the evaluation of normal fetal brain maturation. AU - Chung, H. W.. AU - Chen, C. Y.. AU - Zimmerman, R. A.. AU - Lee, K. W.. AU - Lee, C. C.. AU - Chin, S. C.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - OBJECTIVE. This study compares the relative efficacy of two fast T2-weighted MR imaging techniques fast imaging with steady-state free precession (true FISP) and half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) in the evaluation of the normal fetal brain maturation during the second and third trimesters of gestation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. The brain maturation of 10 normal nonsedated fetuses (5 during the second trimester and 6 during the third trimester of gestation [1 fetus underwent 2 examinations]) was examined by both techniques using a Vision+ 1.5-T MR system. We specifically looked for developing events, including white matter myelination, neuronal migration, and cortical sulcation. Image ...
Turbo spin-echo diffusion-weighted imaging (TSE-DWI) has not been used for evaluating pituitary lesions. We compared the usefulness of TSE-DWI and echo-planar (EP)-DWI for assessing normal ...
Determination of neurological pathology in white matter disease can be made in a semiquantitative way from T(1)- or T(2)-weighted images. A higher level of quantification based on measured T(1) or T(2) values has been either limited to specific regions of interest or to low-resolution maps. Higher-resolution T(1) maps have proved difficult to obtain due to the excessively long scan times required using conventional techniques. In this study, clinically acceptable images are obtained by using single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) with an acquisition scheme that maximizes signal-to-noise while minimizing the scan time. Magn Reson Med 45:630-634, 2001.
A second important feature of GRE imaging is that the gradient reversal refocuses only those spins that have been dephased by action of the gradient itself. Specifically, phase shifts resulting from magnetic field inhomogeneities, static tissue susceptibility gradients, or chemical shifts are not cancelled at the center of the GRE as they are in SE sequences. Image contrast is therefore dictated not by true T2-relaxation, but by these other factors which constitute T2*. GRE sequences are therefore more frequently troubled by susceptibility and chemical shift artifacts and do not function well on scanners whose magnetic fields lack homogeneity ...
But firearms would be my pick, for the field they screw up on most-even in cop shows. Theres an episode of Law and Order SVU where someone is shot with a multi-shot handgun that is not a revolver...and the police know its not a suicide because the gun jammed when someone tried to chamber the second round, and, quote, Its tough to do that when youve already shot yourself in the head. Its a semi-automatic gun! By definition, firing the first round chambers the second round, that is what semi-automatic means ...
Nyquist Diagram of: (a) Electrode-buffer •, (b) Aptamer of thrombin (AptThr) , and (c) AptThr-Thr ○ 10 pM [Thr]. The arrow in each spectrum denotes the freq
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한국 최고의 가격 ModuCare (EPI) ModuChol 60 캡 부터 eVitamins.com. 알다 ModuChol 리뷰, 부작용, 쿠폰 및 eVitamins에서 더. 한국에 빠르고 신뢰할 수있는 운송. ModuChol 다른 제품으로 ModuCare (EPI) 당신의 건강 요구에.
Third run on epi. this time im stacking with stano (600/600/800/800/1000/1000), peaking on the epi @50mg. first time i ran it 6 weeks up to 45 mg, and
Im new to this forum and looking for advice. Ive been working out consistently for 6 yrs. Im 48, 510, 155, bf 16%. I work out 4x a week. My
Single-shot echo-planar imaging has been used widely in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging due to the difficulties in correcting motion-induced phase corruption in multishot data. Readout-segmented EPI has addressed the multishot problem by introducing a two-dimensional nonlinear navigator correction with online reacquisition of uncorrectable data to enable acquisition of high-resolution diffusion data with reduced susceptibility artifact and T*(2) blurring. The primary shortcoming of readout-segmented EPI in its current form is its long acquisition time (longer than similar resolution single-shot echo-planar imaging protocols by approximately the number of readout segments), which limits the number of diffusion directions. By omitting readout segments at one side of k-space and using partial Fourier reconstruction, readout-segmented EPI imaging times could be reduced. In this study, the effects of homodyne and projection onto convex sets reconstructions on estimates of the fractional anisotropy, mean
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prediction of esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. T2 - Usefulness of three-dimensional MR elastography with echo-planar imaging technique. AU - Shin, Sung Ui. AU - Lee, Jeong Min. AU - Yu, Mi Hye. AU - Yoon, Jeong Hee. AU - Han, Joon Koo. AU - Choi, Byung Ihn. AU - Glaser, Kevin J.. AU - Ehman, Richard Lorne. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Purpose: To determine the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography in comparison to spleen length and dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging in association with esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis by using endoscopy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study received institutional review board approval, and informed consent was waived. One hundred thirty-nine patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent liver DCE MR imaging, including MR elastography, were included. Hepatic stiffness (HS) and spleen stiffness (SS) values assessed with MR elastography, as ...
MR examinations (Achieva 3 T, Philips, Best, The Netherlands) were performed at five different occasions in a healthy volunteer (male 60 years) and in one renal cancer patient (male 78 years) with normal renal function (creatinine 88 μmol/L). Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) coefficients D + D* were measured using respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging. Perfusion data of the patient were acquired using a saturation-recovery gradient-echo sequence and with the bolus of Gd-BOPTA (Multihance). D + D* were computed by monoexponential fitting of MR signal intensity attenuation versus b for b = 0, 50, 100, 150 s/mm2. Perfusion parameters were evaluated with "NordicICE" software. The map of D + D* was compared qualitatively with the perfusion map computed from the Gd scan. D + D* values of the cortex and medulla were in the range 2.3-2.7 and 1.1-1.6 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. In conclusion, in this pilot study a good qualitative relation between IVIM variables D + ...
Until recently, clinically useful diffusion-weighted imaging of the spine has not been possible using standard single shot EPI techniques, due to susceptibility artifacts and the need for higher spatial resolution. The novel 2D-navigator-corrected readout-segmented EPI sequence known as RESOLVE provides images with higher spatial resolution and markedly reduced distortion of the spine related to susceptibility artifacts.. Download/View PDF. ...
In this study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the cervical cord damage in patients with myelitis by using DTI at 3T. Image blurring and susceptibility-related distortions are known limitations of single-shot EPI DTI, mainly related to its long readout time in the phase-encoding direction. Reduced FOV techniques allow the reduction of susceptibility artifacts.20 In this study, we used a rFOV technique that included both inner volume excitation and outer volume suppression. Reducing the FOV in the phase-encoding direction was particularly suitable for imaging of the spinal cord and led to a drastic shortening of the EPI readout train length. In our study, the EPI readout train was shortened to 35 phase-encoding lines with a TE of 38.7 ms, explaining reduced distortions. With the aim of reducing motion-related artifacts, we also performed a prospective gating.21,22. Region-of-interest measurements are commonly achieved for the quantitative assessment of the spinal cord with DTI, in healthy ...
Suyash Mohan, MD, discusses the approaches to advanced MR spectroscopy taking place in the research setting at Penn Medicine. Illustrating his discussion with case images and high-resolution scans, Dr. Mohan examines the use at Penn of the 7 Tesla MRI scanner to detect IDH1 mutations in glioblastomas; whole brain 3-D Echo-Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (EPSI) to distinguish true progression from pseudoprogression; and MR perfusion to assess tumor metabolism and physiology as a determinant of prognosis and physiology in brain tumor patients.. ...
The following terms are commonly used in radiology. b value The b factor or b value is associated with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion-weighted MRI or DWI). It measures "strength (intensity and timing) of the diffusion gradient"; units are seconds per square millimeter.maximum b value of 1221 s/mm2 Four gradient strengths were applied, resulting in b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 applied sequentially in the X, Y, and Z gradient directions. Doppler See , Cardiology, Echocardiography. echo train A sequence of echoes. "Echo train is not a unit of measure" but is expressed as in these examples: echo train Less ...
The following terms are commonly used in radiology. b value The b factor or b value is associated with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion-weighted MRI or DWI). It measures "strength (intensity and timing) of the diffusion gradient"; units are seconds per square millimeter.maximum b value of 1221 s/mm2 Four gradient strengths were applied, resulting in b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 applied sequentially in the X, Y, and Z gradient directions. Doppler See , Cardiology, Echocardiography. echo train A sequence of echoes. "Echo train is not a unit of measure" but is expressed as in these examples: echo train Less ...
The contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in multiple sclerosis during acute attack.: Apparently normal tissue in MS patients may show early abnormaliti
Hemosiderin detected with multiecho susceptibility weighted imaging using a 3 Tesla scanner. Multiecho SWI image (Philips Achieva 3T; 5 echoes; voxel size = 0.3
CT experiment. As long as the drift is smooth, and occurring on a time scale that is long compared to the acquisition time of each projection, this method provides a way to compensate for the drift by applying 2D in-plane translations to the radiographs. Here we show that this compensation may be extended to the regime of high-magnification, high-cone-angle CT experiments where source drift perpendicular to the detector plane can cause significant magnification changes throughout the acquisition.. ©2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is now widely used in the body to improve patient management. In this newly revised course, we will emphasize on the practical aspects of using diffuson-weighted MRI to solve common clinical problems and diagnostic dilemmas in the body. We will review both the basic and advanced theories of body diffuson-weighted MRI, as well as the implementation of imaging protocols at 1.5T and 3.0T, including whole body imaging. The growing use of diffusion-weighted MRI for evaluating disease heterogeneity will be discussed, as well as the complimentary role of the technique on a hybrid MR-PET imaging system. ...
... J. H. Baltisberger, B. J. Walder, E. G. Keeler, D. C. Kaseman, K. J. Sanders, and P. J. Grandinetti 068 - J. Chem. Phys.: 136 , 211104-1-4 (2012)
Please keep this constructive. (forgive the bad grammar and Spelling plz ty) So i was doing some thinking about Haste as a blood dk (yea kinda like what pallies are doing) and was needing some Arguements and Facts, what not. here we go Example: Runic Corruption (Talent) + Haste (Gems or Reforge or Enchanted *Dont Think Replace ALL just a X Amount*) to increase the rate Runes regen. Providing more Runes at a higher rate of gain (Might it be small or Large) More Death Strikes. The
Please keep this constructive. (forgive the bad grammar and Spelling plz ty) So i was doing some thinking about Haste as a blood dk (yea kinda like what pallies are doing) and was needing some Arguements and Facts, what not. here we go Example: Runic Corruption (Talent) + Haste (Gems or Reforge or Enchanted *Dont Think Replace ALL just a X Amount*) to increase the rate Runes regen. Providing more Runes at a higher rate of gain (Might it be small or Large) More Death Strikes. The
I do understand that for a signal to be properly sampled, it has to be done on the Nyquist sampling rate. What I do not understand is, what happens at sampling rates lower rate than the Nyquist rate ...
The usual rationale given for the need for higher sample rates involves anti-imaging and anti-aliasing filters.These are required to insure that no audio information above the Nyquist limit (half the sample rate) passes through the system.You need at least two digital samples per analog cycle to accurately quantize a waveform, and if you have only one (for example, because the waveform is at a higher frequency than the Nyquist limit), then you will sample a value, but it will be meaningless.. A digital sample captured by an A/D converter is like a single frame of action captured by a movie camera. The faster the samples are taken the higher the sample rate the more information is acquired. In film, a higher rate makes the action more smooth and fluid although above a certain speed we can t really notice the difference. In digital audio, the faster the sample rate, the better the frequency response although above a certain point, we probably can t hear the difference.. Imagine, using the film ...
We review the HIS Radeon 6870 ICEQ X Turbo X. The concept entails a customized blue cooler that is impressively silent and keeps that GPU nicely chilled down. HIS now offers the IceQ X - Turbo X version, which entails a factory higher clock frequency on the product, and that should bring in a little more performance of course. Video acceleration - AMD Accelerated Parallel Processing
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There has been a debate about turbos vs. superchargers, which one is better, which one offers more bang for the buck. The debate is also on about which route would lead to the 11s, for example, cheapest. Well the way I see it, our cars come with the M90. So to go with the turbo that puts any owner in a 4,600.00 hole right at the start. Now, granted the turbo setup comes with a fuel pump, bigger injectors, and other things, so well just call it a 4,000.00 hole. Now, if you took a stock SC,
Okay so on my MRI from April of 2016 there were lesions now as of November 30th all of them are gone. But the first MRI was T1, T2 and this one was Multiecho so is it a better technique? ...
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