Here are some facts that you need a good practical astronomy book, as this will make all the raleigh astronomy club and to confirm the raleigh astronomy club are worth it. They will help students see what they are grouped into clusters and these are the beautiful formations we see at night or name the raleigh astronomy club. From the raleigh astronomy club to the raleigh astronomy club in the raleigh astronomy club of the raleigh astronomy club for using astronomy binoculars we will look at when these objects the raleigh astronomy club to meet your eye. What happens here is that Binoculars are generally built for land viewing and a lot depends on how you have increased the raleigh astronomy club of your eye. What happens here is that light enters and bounces off a mirror, and comes back up to your curious exploration. Those that you know that both fields are clearly distinct.. You'll want to make a career out of 'stargazing,' it may not be able to zoom in closer for detailed views of various ...
Still, scientists have yet to see an extrasolar planet directly or even take a picture of one. Thus far, their presence has only been inferred from either their effect on the orbit of their host stars or by measuring the amount of infrared light they emit. The Spitzer Space Telescope is the only instrument that has successfully used the latter strategy. (To learn more about the Spitzer Space telescope, read 'Seeing the Invisible.'). The job of finding and imaging extrasolar planets is extraordinarily difficult. The biggest challenge is the planets' feeble luminosity. A star, fueled by nuclear reactions, is typically a billion times brighter than any orbiting planet, whose light is primarily reflected from the host star. This overwhelming brightness renders nearby extrasolar planets invisible to astronomers. Invisible does not mean undetectable, however.. The Telltale Wobble. One technique scientists use to detect extrasolar planets is to look for a slight wobble in the motion of the host stars. ...
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The detection of complex cyanides in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, and the similarity of their abundance ratios to those found in comets, implies that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique. The idea that comets once seeded the early Earth with the water and organics needed for life to originate has been widely discussed. This raises the question of whether the composition of comets - a reliable indicator of the composition of the solar nebula - is unique to the Solar System or commonly accompanies planet formation. Here Karin Öberg et al. report the detection of cyanides - CH3CN, HC3N and HCN - in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, an analogue to the solar nebula. The abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas-phase are similar to those in comets, implying that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the prebiotic chemistry present in the young Solar System is not unique.
We studied 14 presolar SiC mainstream grains for C-, Si-, and S-isotopic compositions and S elemental abundances. Ten grains have low levels of S contamination and CI chondrite-normalized S/Si ratios between 2 × 10−5 and 2 × 10−4. All grains have S-isotopic compositions compatible within 2σ of solar values. Their mean S isotope composition deviates from solar by at most a few percent, and is consistent with values observed for the carbon star IRC+10216, believed to be a representative source star of the grains, and the interstellar medium. The isotopic data are also consistent with stellar model predictions of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In a δ33S versus δ34S plot the data fit along a line with a slope of 1.8 ± 0.7, suggesting imprints from galactic chemical evolution. The observed S abundances are lower than expected from equilibrium condensation of CaS in solid solution with SiC under pressure and temperature conditions inferred from the abundances of more ...
Then he found the ratio of terrestrial planets to all the planets seen. Again, remember, this ratio was found for planets somewhat close in to their stars.. Then he plotted all the planets versus distance from their parent stars. For example, you see very few planets very close to the star (probably because it's hard to form or get a planet to orbit that close in), then more as you get farther out, then fewer at some large distance (which may, once again, simply be due to the fact that planets with long orbital periods can't be seen in the short duration of the data). He then found an equation (called a mathematical fit) that did a good job predicting the shape of the plot. Once he had that, it's easy enough to extrapolate it out to the distance of the habitable zones of the stars.. That gave him an estimate of all planets orbiting there, including gas and ice giants. Multiply by the ratio of terrestrial planets, and boom! 34% of stars like the Sun should have planets that are Earth-sized ...
The Exoplanets plugin plots the position of stars with exoplanets. Exoplanets data is derived from The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. List of potential habitable exoplanets and data about them were taken from The Habitable Exoplanets Catalog by Planetary Habitability Laboratory.. Exoplanets Catalog. The exoplanets catalog is stored on the disk in JSON format, in a file named "exoplanets.json". A default copy is embedded in the plug-in at compile time. A working copy is kept in the user data directory.. Configuration. The plug-ins' configuration data is stored in Stellarium's main configuration file (section [Exoplanets]). ...
Together with Paul Butler, Marcy quickly confirmed the reality of the 51 Pegasi planet using the method of precise Doppler measurement that he had developed for the purpose of extrasolar planet detection over many years. Seventy of the next 100 extrasolar planets discovered were found by his team. Many of these planets had distinctly non-circular orbits, in contrast with the orbits of known planets in our own Solar System. Several reside in systems where there is more than one giant planet, with multiple planets in a given system often having orbital periods that bear integer relationships to one another. As the observational sensitivity and the understanding of systematic errors steadily improve, planets with masses more like Saturn and Neptune are being found, instead of only the Jupiter-like bodies that characterized the initial discoveries. Significantly, there are no bodies that have masses appreciably in excess of 10 Jupiter masses. In a few cases, the orbital plane lies sufficiently ...
Although Uranus is not the farthest planet from the Sun, it is the coldest planet in the Solar System. Like its neighbor, Neptune, Uranus is an ice giant, meaning it does not have a solid surface and what is called its 'surface' is actually a layer of clouds that lies above what may be a layer of liquid water and a core of rock at the center of the planet. Uranus is 14.5 times bigger than Earth, making it the third largest planet in the Solar System after Jupiter and Saturn; Uranus's core alone is as large as our planet. The atmosphere of Uranus is composed of 83% helium, 15% methane and 2% methane plus trace amounts of other gases such as ethane.. The average temperature of the surface of Uranus is 49° Kelvin or -224° Celsius. What makes the planet so cold is that it has a low internal temperature. At its core, Uranus is only 5000° K, compared to Jupiter, which as a core temperature of 30000° K. The reason for Uranus's lack of internal warmth is unclear, although scientists speculate that ...
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Astrobiology and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life from The University of Edinburgh. Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Astrobiology and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life and wanted to share their experience. A great opportunity to learn a lot of things especially in terms of seeking the origin of life here ...
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter suffers glitch, swaps computers, radio transponder, enters safe mode, say Jet Propulsion Laboratory officials
Incidentally Earth is not the only planet to emit a frequency. Radio astronomy at NASA has determined that Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn's moon Titan also emit a frequency. I'm not positive those are the only planetary objects that emit frequencies, but those are the ones I'm aware of. Also stars that emit radio wave frequency are Vega of Lyra (abhijit nakshatra) and Sagittarius A which is at the galactic center (mula nakshatra). I've always loved that Vega emits radio waves because Lyra in Greek mythology is the harp of Orpheus who could lull the wildest of beasts. Also Vega has always been my favorite star to look at in my telescope; her beautiful bluish green pulsing light appears melodious if only our ears could pick it up. The symbolism of Sagittarius A at the galactic center emitting a frequency brings another level of symbolism to the creation myth of churning the ocean of milk (Milky Way galaxy). It's divinely poetic ...
This newly released Cassini image shows Saturn and its moon Titan.. Titan and Saturn have very few things in common, but a hazy appearance is one feature they share. Though they appear similar in this image, appearances can be misleading.. Although both Saturn and Titan (3,200 miles or 5,150 kilometers across) have thick atmospheres and are covered in clouds, their differences are significant. Saturn is a gas giant with no solid surface to speak of. Titan's atmosphere is a blanket surrounding an icy, solid body. Even their atmospheric compositions are different; Saturn is mostly hydrogen and helium with clouds of water and ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide. Titan's atmosphere is primarily nitrogen with methane clouds.. This view looks toward Saturn from the unilluminated side of the rings, 0.3 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in visible green light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on May 22, 2015.. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.4 million ...
April to June 2011 NODC Ocean Heat Content Anomalies (0-700Meters) Update and Comments. Guest post by Bob Tisdale. A NEW APPEARANCE. Due to the noise in the Ocean Heat Content anomaly data for some of the ocean basins, I've added 13-month running average filters to the long-term graphs.. SAME INTRODUCTION AS ALWAYS. The National Oceanographic Data Center's (NODC) Ocean Heat Content (OHC) anomaly data for the depths of 0-700 meters are available through the KNMI Climate Explorer Monthly observations webpage. The NODC OHC dataset is based on the Levitus et al (2009) paper "Global ocean heat content (1955-2008) in light of recent instrumentation problems". Refer to Manuscript. It was revised in 2010 as noted in the October 18, 2010 post Update And Changes To NODC Ocean Heat Content Data. As described in the NODC's explanation of ocean heat content (OHC) data changes, the changes result from "data additions and data quality control," from a switch in base climatology, and from revised Expendable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluid Inclusion Characteristics of Auriferous Quartz Veins in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Greenstone Belts of Eastern and Southern Finland. AU - Matti, Poutiainen. AU - Sami, Partamies. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Fluid inclusions in auriferous quartz veins in five deposits in the Archean (2.9-2.7 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.75 Ga) greenstone belts of eastern and southwestern Finland have been characterized on the basis of their composition, reconstructed isochores, and decrepitation behavior.The dominant fluids associated with gold mineralization are H2O-CO2 ± CH4 ± halite (Archean) and H2O-CO2-CH4 or H2O-CH4 (Paleoproterozoic) in composition; phase ratios were generally uniform H2O/CO2 in the Archean but were variable in the Paleoproterozoic. In the Archean Au ± sulfide quartz veins, the mineralizing fluids contain less CH4 (,30 mol %) and have higher salinities (up to 39 wt % NaCl equiv) than the corresponding fluids in the Paleoproterozoic Au-sulfide-quartz veins (up ...
2009 is the year dedicated to astronomy. Five planets were already found in 55 Cancri the system that looks like our solar system. According to Nasa: "This artist's concept illustrates two planetary systems - 55 Cancri and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences." "The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits. In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant ...
While the search for extraterrestrial life has yet to produce any results, scientists examining planetary systems have found multiple new planets surrounding the star HD 10180, leading to speculation that the planetary system surrounding the star has more planets than our own system.. The discover was made by an astronomer at the University of Hertfordshire and if correct it will be the only solar system so far that has been revealed to have more planets than our own solar system.. In order to determine the number of planets in the system scientists used complex mathematical equations to determine the gravitational pulls on the star HD 10180. Researchers took their measurements using the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searchers (HARPS) telescope.. According to PopSci:. ...
Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean has been empirically modeled and its products inferred from sample observations, but it has never been fully tested experimentally. Presented in this study is the first experimental simulation of lunar differentiation. Two end-member bulk Moon compositions are considered: one enriched in refractory lithophile elements relative to Earth and one with no such enrichment. A 'two-stage' model of magma ocean crystallization based on geophysical models is simulated and features early crystal suspension and equilibrium crystallization followed by fractional crystallization of the residual liquid. An initially entirely molten Moon is assumed. The study presented below focuses on the early cumulates formed by equilibrium crystallization, differences in mantle mineralogy resulting from different bulk Moon compositions and the implications for the source regions for secondary lunar magmatism. There are significant differences in the crystallization sequence between the two
TY - JOUR. T1 - Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets. AU - Reynolds, Ray T.. AU - McKay, Christopher P.. AU - Kasting, James. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. In our own solar system, Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such a case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water that organisms similar to those found under Antarctic ice could grow. In other solar systems, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could represent environments that are stable over an order of Aeons and in which life could perhaps evolve. We define a zone around a giant planet in which such satellites could exist as a tidally-heated habitable zone. This zone can ...
Caltech's Konstantin Batygin, an assistant professor of planetary science, and Mike Brown, the Richard and Barbara Rosenberg Professor of Planetary Astronomy, discuss new research that provides evidence of a giant planet tracing a bizarre, highly elongated orbit in the outer solar system.. The first possibility they investigated was that perhaps there are enough distant Kuiper Belt objects-some of which have not yet been discovered-to exert the gravity needed to keep that subpopulation clustered together. The researchers quickly ruled this out when it turned out that such a scenario would require the Kuiper Belt to have about 100 times the mass it has today.. That left them with the idea of a planet. Their first instinct was to run simulations involving a planet in a distant orbit that encircled the orbits of the six Kuiper Belt objects, acting like a giant lasso to wrangle them into their alignment. Batygin says that almost works but does not provide the observed eccentricities precisely. ...
New research reveals the first experimental evidence that our solar system's protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount of gas into the sun within just a few million years.. Infant planetary systems are usually nothing more than swirling disks of gas and dust. Over the course of a few million years, this gas gets sucked into the center of the disk to build a star, while the remaining dust accumulates into larger and larger chunks - the building blocks for terrestrial planets.. Astronomers have observed this protoplanetary disk evolution throughout our galaxy - a process that our own solar system underwent early in its history. However, the mechanism by which planetary disks evolve at such a rapid rate has eluded scientists for decades.. Now researchers at MIT, Cambridge University, and elsewhere have provided the first experimental evidence that our solar system's protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount ...
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Reconnaissance supports the MAGTF commander's intent and his CCIRs. While contributing to the commander's broad situational awareness and development, reconnaissance assets tailor their efforts to support the specific CCIRs indicated by the commander's intent and subsequent unit intelligence and operations planning. Simultaneously, reconnaissance forces must remain alert to any developments that may cause the commander to reassess that intent. MAGTF reconnaissance assets are best employed early to support the CCIRs and friendly course of action development and selection. When reconnaissance is initiated early in the planning cycle, planning and execution are driven by the flow of solid, timely information and intelligence. If reconnaissance is delayed, situation development will generally be more uncertain. In this case, planning and execution can either take place in an information vacuum or be driven by the search for such information. Reconnaissance assets are best employed in general ...
The salt levels of oceans on distant Earth-like planets could have a major effect on their climates - according to new research from the Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of East Anglia.. A study just published reveals that the circulation in extremely salty or fresh water extra-terrestrial seas would influence their temperatures - and could in fact make for more habitable conditions for alien life.. Until recently, computer simulations of habitable climates on Earth-like planets have mainly focused on their atmospheres. But studying their oceans is vital for understanding climate stability and habitability - as on our own Earth.. Not only this, but until now, researchers had not considered that the seas on distant Earth-like planets might not be quite like ours - they might be significantly more or less salty than the oceans on Earth.. Prof. David Stevens, from UEA's School of Mathematics, said: "The number of planets being discovered outside our solar system is ...
Abstract: We constrain the mass distribution in nearby, star-forming galaxies with the Star Formation Reference Survey (SFRS), a galaxy sample constructed to be representative of all known combinations of star formation rate (SFR), dust temperature, and specific star formation rate (sSFR) that exist in the Local Universe. An innovative two-dimensional bulge/disk decomposition of the 2MASS/$K_{s}$-band images of the SFRS galaxies yields global luminosity and stellar mass functions, along with separate mass functions for their bulges and disks. These accurate mass functions cover the full range from dwarf galaxies to large spirals, and are representative of star-forming galaxies selected based on their infra-red luminosity, unbiased by AGN content and environment. We measure an integrated luminosity density $j$ = 1.72 $\pm$ 0.93 $\times$ 10$^{9}$ L$_{\odot}$ $h^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ and a total stellar mass density $\rho_{M}$ = 4.61 $\pm$ 2.40 $\times$ 10$^{8}$ M$_{\odot}$ $h^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-3}$. While ...
The Solar System formed 4. 6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called volatiles, such as water, ammonia and methane. All eight planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.. ...
Observational studies of gas in protoplanetary disks [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Andrés Carmona Gonzalez : Dissertationsubmitted to theCombined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematicsof the Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, Germanyfor the degree ofDoctor of Natural Sciencespresented byDiplom-Ingenieur, MSc, MA, Andres´ Carmona Gonzalezborn in Bogota,´ ColombiaOral examination: 25 July 2007Observational Studies of Gasin Protoplanetary DisksReferees: Prof. Dr. Thomas HenningDr.
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We consider the socially optimal use of solar geoengineering to manage climate change. Solar geoengineering can reduce damages from atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, potentially more cheaply than reducing emissions. If so, optimal policy includes less abatement than recommended by models that ignore solar geoengineering, and the price of carbon is lower. Solar geoengineering reduces temperature but does not reduce atmospheric or ocean carbon concentrations, and that carbon may cause damages apart from temperature increases. Finally, uncertainty over climate change and solar geoengineering alters the optimal deployment of solar geoengineering. We explore these issues with an analytical model and a numerical simulation. The price of carbon is 30%-45% lower than the price recommended in a model without geoengineering, depending on the parameterizations of geoengineering costs and benefits. Carbon concentrations are higher but temperature is lower when allowing for solar geoengineering. The ...
Proxima b, an Earth-size planet right outside our solar system in the habitable zone of its star, may not be able to keep a grip on its atmosphere, leaving the surface exposed to harmful stellar radiation and reducing its potential for habitability.. At only four light-years away, Proxima b is our closest known extra-solar neighbor. However, due to the fact that it hasn't been seen crossing in front of its host star, the exoplanet eludes the usual method for learning about its atmosphere. Instead, scientists must rely on models to understand whether the exoplanet is habitable.. One such computer model considered what would happen if Earth orbited Proxima Centauri, our nearest stellar neighbor and Proxima b's host star, at the same orbit as Proxima b. The NASA study, published on July 24, 2017, in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, suggests Earth's atmosphere wouldn't survive in close proximity to the violent red dwarf.. "We decided to take the only habitable planet we know of so far -- Earth -- ...
This Gemini man (view his chart) has Venus in Aries opposite a Saturn-Neptune conjunction, all square Uranus. This configuration is called a T-Square, and creates much tension because the planets are working at cross-purposes with each other. (And if you want to count Chiron the Wounded Healer, he has a cardinal Grand Cross!) His relationship planet (Venus) is being challenged by significant transpersonal forces. Uranus brings to Venus an urge toward independence, excitement and unconventionality. Neptune brings idealism, a need for fantasy and escape. And Saturn brings a longing for commitment and groundedness. All of these archetypal desires are fine in their own right - the problem is that the angles these planets make to Venus make it difficult to integrate their expression in his relationship life. As a result, he may be constantly battling between commitment (Saturn) versus freedom (Uranus); reality (Saturn) versus fantasy (Neptune); the urge to merge (Neptune) versus the need for distance ...
The Herschel space observatory has discovered water vapor in a pre-stellar core in the constellation of Taurus known as Lynds 1544. This is the first detection of water vapor in a molecular cloud on the verge of star formation.. ESA's Herschel space observatory has discovered enough water vapor to fill Earth's oceans more than 2000 times over, in a gas and dust cloud that is on the verge of collapsing into a new Sun-like star.. Stars form within cold, dark clouds of gas and dust - 'pre-stellar cores' - that contain all the ingredients to make solar systems like our own.. Water, essential to life on Earth, has previously been detected outside of our Solar System as gas and ice coated onto tiny dust grains near sites of active star formation, and in proto-planetary discs capable of forming alien planetary systems.. The new Herschel observations of a cold pre-stellar core in the constellation of Taurus known as Lynds 1544 are the first detection of water vapor in a molecular cloud on the verge of ...
The year was 1989. A small, unmanned space probe rapidly approached the mysterious and unexplored planet Neptune. Launched in 1977, the Voyager 2 spacecraft had already visited Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, imaging each of these beautiful worlds in unprecedented detail. A rare alignment of the outer four planets made this Planetary Grand Tour possible as NASA scientists were able to use the gravity of each planet to "slingshot" the craft outward to the next world.1 Voyager 2 had traveled over four billion miles during its 12-year mission and was about to become the only spacecraft to visit distant Neptune. This encounter would mark the end of an era of planetary space exploration since Neptune was the one remaining planet unvisited by space probes.2 Astronomers all over the world waited eagerly for the first high-resolution images. What wonderful secrets would be revealed?. A Triumph of Newtonian Physics. Neptune is the only planet in our solar system that was known to exist before it was ...
Together with Paul Butler, Marcy quickly confirmed the reality of the 51 Pegasi planet using the method of precise Doppler measurement that he had developed for the purpose of extrasolar planet detection over many years. Seventy of the next 100 extrasolar planets discovered were found by his team. Many of these planets had distinctly non-circular orbits, in contrast with the orbits of known planets in our own Solar System. Several reside in systems where there is more than one giant planet, with multiple planets in a given system often having orbital periods that bear integer relationships to one another. As the observational sensitivity and the understanding of systematic errors steadily improve, planets with masses more like Saturn and Neptune are being found, instead of only the Jupiter-like bodies that characterized the initial discoveries. Significantly, there are no bodies that have masses appreciably in excess of 10 Jupiter masses. In a few cases, the orbital plane lies sufficiently ...
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Downloadable! We study optimal climate policy when climate tipping points and solar geoengineering are present. Solar geoengineering reduces temperatures without reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Climate tipping points are irreversible and uncertain events that cause large damages. We analyze three different rules related to the availability of solar geoengineering: a ban, using solar geoengineering as insurance against the risk of tipping points, or using solar geoengineering only as remediation in the aftermath of a tipping point. We model three distinct types of tipping points: two that alter the climate system and one that yields a direct economic cost. Using an analytic model, we find that an optimal policy, which minimizes expected losses from the tipping point, includes both emissions reductions and solar geoengineering from the onset. Using a numerical simulation model, we quantify optimal policy and various outcomes under the alternative scenarios. The presence of tipping points leads to more
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Scientific research on the International Space Station is a collection of experiments that require one or more of the unusual conditions present in low Earth orbit. The primary fields of research include human research, space medicine, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and meteorology. The 2005 NASA Authorization Act designated the American segment of the International Space Station as a national laboratory with the goal of increasing the use of the ISS by other federal agencies and the private sector. Research on the ISS improves knowledge about the effects of long-term space exposure on the human body. Subjects currently under study include muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shift. The data will be used to determine whether space colonisation and lengthy human spaceflight are feasible. As of 2006, data on bone loss and muscular atrophy suggest that there would be a significant risk of fractures and movement problems if astronauts landed on a planet after a lengthy interplanetary ...
Astrobiologists have shown that a key element for life on Earth was likely delivered to our planet on meteorites. Their work indicates that the early Earth was bombarded by meteorites that provided reactive phosphorus. When released in water, this phosphorus could have been incorporated into prebiotic molecules.. The team showed that phosphorus was abundant on Earth 3.5 billion years ago by documenting its presence in limestone from the early Archean. They think the phosphorus was delivered in minerals from meteorites that are not seen on the surface of the Earth. The research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences.. Matthew Pasek, lead author of the study, was formerly a NASA Astrobiology Institute Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Arizona and is an alumni of the 2012 FameLab Astrobiology event held in Houston, TX. Pasek is now an Assistant Professor of Geology at the University of South Florida.. Please follow Astrobiology on Twitter.. ...
Before the mission ended, Cassini was an already powerful influence on future exploration. In revealing that Enceladus has essentially all the ingredients needed for life, the mission energized a pivot to the exploration of 'ocean worlds' that has been sweeping planetary science over the past couple of decades.. Lessons learned during Cassini's mission are being applied in planning NASA's Europa Clipper mission, planned for launch in the 2020s. Europa Clipper will make dozens of flybys of Jupiter's ocean moon to investigate its possible habitability, using an orbital tour design derived from the way Cassini explored Saturn.. Farther out in the solar system, scientists have long had their eyes set on exploring Uranus and Neptune. So far, each of these worlds has been visited by only one brief spacecraft flyby (Voyager 2, in 1986 and 1989, respectively). Collectively, Uranus and Neptune are referred to as ice giant planets. A variety of potential mission concepts are discussed in a recently ...
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Data collected during two close flybys of Saturn's moon Enceladus by NASA's Cassini spacecraft add more fuel to the fire about the Saturnian ice world containing sub-surface liquid water. The data collected by Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer during Enceladus flybys in July and Oct. 2008, were released in the July 23 issue of the journal Nature. "When Cassini flew through the plume erupting from Enceladus on October 8 of last year, our spectrometer was able to sniff out many complex chemicals, including organic ones, in the vapor and icy particles," said Hunter Waite, the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer Lead Scientist from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. "One of the chemicals definitively identified was ammonia ...
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Solar system planetary orbits. Artwork of the planets of the solar system and their orbits. This oblique angle looks inwards from the orbit of the sixth planet Saturn (lower left). The next planet towards the Sun is Jupiter (lower right). The asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is shown as a light blue band. Inside the asteroid belt are the planets of the inner solar system: Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury. In the background are the two outer planets, Uranus (top centre) and Neptune (upper right). - Stock Image C002/9063
At the center of the Solar System is the Sun. It is a star, like the billions of other stars in the sky. The other stars are very, very far away, so they look tiny. The Sun is important to us because it gives us heat and energy that allows life. None of the life on Earth could exist without the Sun.[3]. The rest of the things in the Solar System orbit (travel around) the Sun. The planets are the largest of these. Each planet is a little like the Earth. But the planets are also very different from each other.. Many of the planets have moons. A moon orbits a planet. Mercury has no moons[4] and nor does Venus. Earth has one. Jupiter has 63![5]. The planets closest to the Sun are called the inner planets. These are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Then comes a big ring of asteroids, chunks of rock much smaller than planets. This ring is called the asteroid belt. Within the asteroid belt, there is a dwarf planet (smaller than a normal planet) named Ceres. Then come the outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, ...
The solar system is made up of the Sun, the planets and dwarf planets and their known moons, asteroids, comets, dust and gas. The planets, asteroids, and comets travel around the Sun, the center of our solar system.. Most of the bodies in the solar system travel around the Sun along nearly circular paths or orbits, and all the planets travel about the Sun in the anticlockwise direction (when viewed from above).. Solar system formation began billions of years ago, when gases and dust began to come together to form the Sun, planets, and other bodies of the solar system.. ...
After the formation of the Solar System, the orbits of all the giant planets continued to change slowly, influenced by their interaction with the large number of remaining planetesimals. After 500-600 million years (about 4 billion years ago) Jupiter and Saturn fell into a 2:1 orbital resonance; Saturn orbited the Sun once for every two Jupiter orbits.[3] This resonance created a gravitational push against the outer planets, causing Neptune to surge past Uranus and plough into the dense planetesimal belt. The planets scattered the majority of the small icy bodies inwards, while themselves moving outwards. These planetesimals then scattered off the next planet they encountered in a similar manner, moving the planets' orbits outwards while they moved inwards.[5] This process continued until the planetesimals interacted with Jupiter, whose immense gravity sent them into highly elliptical orbits or even ejected them outright from the Solar System. This caused Jupiter to move slightly inward. This ...
The region of our Milky Way galaxy that has been explored by the VVV survey, including coverage of the galactic center.. Finally, let´s go crazy and discuss life in free floating planets. This is pure speculation but I will contend that these objects are some of the most promising life vessels. As they travel across the Milky Way they can spread the seeds of life throughout the Galaxy. The main difficulty for a free floating planet to sustain life as we know it would be the absence of the main energy source: its parent star. However, when Earth-like planets form they are very hot, and then the igneous rock cools on the surface. The cooling process takes billions of years, depending on the original mass of the planet. For example, our Earth is 4.5 billion years old and it has not cooled down completely yet. Evidence of this are the volcanos throughout our planet´s crust, the plate tectonics, and the fact that seismology indicates that our planet nucleus is still igneous.. This volcanic activity ...
Fukushima's Minami-soma has a ten-centuries-long tradition of holding the Soma Nomaoi ("chasing wild horses") festival to celebrate the horse's great contribution to human society. Following the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in the wake of the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami, local people were forced to flee the area. Rancher Shinichiro Tanaka returned to find his horses dead or starving, and refused to obey the government's orders to kill them. While many racehorses are slaughtered for horsemeat, his horses had been subjected to radiation and were inedible. Yoju Matsubayashi, whose "Fukushima: Memories of the Lost Landscape" is one of the most impressive documentaries made immediately after the disaster, spent the summer of 2011 helping Tanaka take care of his horses. In documenting their rehabilitation, he has produced a profound meditation on these animals who live as testaments to the tragic bargain human society made with nuclear power.. ...
Water is the medium in which the chemistry of all life on Earth takes place. The NAI UH Team will focus on scenarios involving the sources and distribution of water in planetary systems and the delivery and incorporation of water into rocky habitable planets. The team will investigate:. The Origin of Earth's Water - Constraining the origin of Earth's water by better characterizing the D/H ratio of the primitive mantle. D/H in the Interstellar Medium, Disks and the Solar System - Determining the relationship of the highly deuterium-enriched circumstellar envelope material with the planet-forming disks in these systems, and investigating the evolution of D/H in a mature planetary system through observations of comets and models of ice fractionation processes. Ice Chemistry in the Solar System - Investigating the processing of primitive Solar system material and ices by energetic particles that leads to life's precursor molecules. The Main Belt Comets - Surveying the sky for Main Belt Comets, a new ...