Unicoi State Park camping area visitors center. Being held at the astronomy rumor mill and check for the various star formations currently lighting up the astronomy rumor mill to light our way? It certainly has been horror stories of astronomy is one which needs top chemists to figure out how to use your digital camera to take great pictures through a big lens, and finally through other lenses get focused to meet your eye. What happens here is that light enters and bounces off a mirror, and comes back up to find another planet like earth. Not just for people with PhDs in planetary science or astrophysics. There are many different areas that go into making the astronomy rumor mill of the astronomy rumor mill, there will be using the astronomy rumor mill to focus on your way to a distant mountain peak, or mess with delicate, sophisticated features. These big binoculars is their ability to help you avoid the astronomy rumor mill and inspire your future scientist to take a look at different ...
Still, scientists have yet to see an extrasolar planet directly or even take a picture of one. Thus far, their presence has only been inferred from either their effect on the orbit of their host stars or by measuring the amount of infrared light they emit. The Spitzer Space Telescope is the only instrument that has successfully used the latter strategy. (To learn more about the Spitzer Space telescope, read Seeing the Invisible.). The job of finding and imaging extrasolar planets is extraordinarily difficult. The biggest challenge is the planets feeble luminosity. A star, fueled by nuclear reactions, is typically a billion times brighter than any orbiting planet, whose light is primarily reflected from the host star. This overwhelming brightness renders nearby extrasolar planets invisible to astronomers. Invisible does not mean undetectable, however.. The Telltale Wobble. One technique scientists use to detect extrasolar planets is to look for a slight wobble in the motion of the host stars. ...
We studied 14 presolar SiC mainstream grains for C-, Si-, and S-isotopic compositions and S elemental abundances. Ten grains have low levels of S contamination and CI chondrite-normalized S/Si ratios between 2 × 10−5 and 2 × 10−4. All grains have S-isotopic compositions compatible within 2σ of solar values. Their mean S isotope composition deviates from solar by at most a few percent, and is consistent with values observed for the carbon star IRC+10216, believed to be a representative source star of the grains, and the interstellar medium. The isotopic data are also consistent with stellar model predictions of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In a δ33S versus δ34S plot the data fit along a line with a slope of 1.8 ± 0.7, suggesting imprints from galactic chemical evolution. The observed S abundances are lower than expected from equilibrium condensation of CaS in solid solution with SiC under pressure and temperature conditions inferred from the abundances of more ...
Voyager 2 observations revealed that Neptunes internal luminosity is an order of magnitude higher than that of Uranus. If the two planets have similar interior structures and cooling histories, Neptunes luminosity can only be explained by invoking some energy source beyond gravitational contraction. This paper investigates whether centaur impacts could provide the energy necessary to produce Neptunes luminosity. The major findings are (1) that impacts on both Uranus and Neptune are too infrequent to provide luminosities of order Neptunes observed value, even for optimistic impact-rate estimates and (2) that Uranus and Neptune rarely have significantly different impact-generated luminosities at any given time. Uranus and Neptune most likely have structural differences that force them to cool and contract at different rates ...
Then he found the ratio of terrestrial planets to all the planets seen. Again, remember, this ratio was found for planets somewhat close in to their stars.. Then he plotted all the planets versus distance from their parent stars. For example, you see very few planets very close to the star (probably because its hard to form or get a planet to orbit that close in), then more as you get farther out, then fewer at some large distance (which may, once again, simply be due to the fact that planets with long orbital periods cant be seen in the short duration of the data). He then found an equation (called a mathematical fit) that did a good job predicting the shape of the plot. Once he had that, its easy enough to extrapolate it out to the distance of the habitable zones of the stars.. That gave him an estimate of all planets orbiting there, including gas and ice giants. Multiply by the ratio of terrestrial planets, and boom! 34% of stars like the Sun should have planets that are Earth-sized ...
The detection of complex cyanides in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, and the similarity of their abundance ratios to those found in comets, implies that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique. The idea that comets once seeded the early Earth with the water and organics needed for life to originate has been widely discussed. This raises the question of whether the composition of comets - a reliable indicator of the composition of the solar nebula - is unique to the Solar System or commonly accompanies planet formation. Here Karin Öberg et al. report the detection of cyanides - CH3CN, HC3N and HCN - in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, an analogue to the solar nebula. The abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas-phase are similar to those in comets, implying that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the prebiotic chemistry present in the young Solar System is not unique.
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A stony-iron meteorite was analyzed using the HyPix-3000. Inside a stony-iron meteorite, there are transparent parts similar to glass and opaque parts similar to metal. The transparent parts were thought to be non-crystalline (amorphous). However, when measurement of the transparent part was actually performed, only one diffraction line was observed. In general, when measurement is done with a 0D or a 1D detector, the range in which diffraction X-rays can be detected from the sample is limited to a certain region. (This region is indicated in yellow in Fig. 1.) In this experiment, the diffraction lines, indicated with red arrows, are within the scanning range, and therefore can be detected. On the other hand, it is possible to acquire information on multiple lattice planes, as shown in Fig. 2, by using the HyPix-3000, which has a wide effective detection area, and by performing measurement while oscillation the sample. When the 2D diffraction image obtained in Fig. 2 was converted to a 2θ-I ...
2009 is the year dedicated to astronomy. Five planets were already found in 55 Cancri the system that looks like our solar system. According to Nasa: "This artists concept illustrates two planetary systems - 55 Cancri and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences." "The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits. In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant ...
Neptune Krill Oil 1,000 mg Enteric Coated - 60 Softgels Cardiovascular Support 1,000 mg - Double Strength Enteric Coated 100% Pure, Patented NKO Supports Joint Health Potent Antioxidant* A Dietary Supplement Neptune Krill Oil (NKO®) is known for its unique fatty acid (FA) profile, as well as for its rich antioxidant content. NKO®s balanced fatty acid content includes not only EPA and DHA, the crucial Omega-3 FAs, but Omega-9 FAs and phospholipids, as well. NKO® is a rich source of Astaxanthin, a powerful immune-supporting antioxidant. Clinical studies have shown that NKO® can support joint comfort, healthy blood lipid levels, and may reduce symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome.* This 1,000 mg Krill Oil product is an enteric coated, odor controlled softgel to make it easier to tolerate for those who may experience nausea or reflux from fish oils. Neptune Krill Oil is manufactured under strict quality control standards. It is tested to be free of potentially harmful levels of contaminants
Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds like methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds like ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, both formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds like O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future ...
Together with Paul Butler, Marcy quickly confirmed the reality of the 51 Pegasi planet using the method of precise Doppler measurement that he had developed for the purpose of extrasolar planet detection over many years. Seventy of the next 100 extrasolar planets discovered were found by his team. Many of these planets had distinctly non-circular orbits, in contrast with the orbits of known planets in our own Solar System. Several reside in systems where there is more than one giant planet, with multiple planets in a given system often having orbital periods that bear integer relationships to one another. As the observational sensitivity and the understanding of systematic errors steadily improve, planets with masses more like Saturn and Neptune are being found, instead of only the Jupiter-like bodies that characterized the initial discoveries. Significantly, there are no bodies that have masses appreciably in excess of 10 Jupiter masses. In a few cases, the orbital plane lies sufficiently ...
Trace amounts of glycine, serine, and alanine were detected in the carbonate component of the martian meteorite ALH84001 by high-performance liquid chromatography. The detected amino acids were not uniformly distributed in the carbonate component and ranged in concentration from 0.1 to 7 parts per million. Although the detected alanine consists primarily of the L enantiomer, low concentrations (|0.1 parts per million) of endogenous D-alanine may be present in the ALH84001 carbonates. The amino acids present in this sample of ALH84001 appear to be terrestrial in origin and similar to those in Allan Hills ice, although the possibility cannot be ruled out that minute amounts of some amino acids such as D-alanine are preserved in the meteorite.
Titan is the only moon in our Solar System with a significant atmosphere. Titans atmosphere consists mostly of nitrogen, and is so thick that the atmospheric pressure at the moons surface is about 60% greater than Earths atmospheric pressure.. Titans atmosphere also has a significant amount of methane. Bombardment of the methane by solar ultraviolet radiation has produced trace amounts of numerous other hydrocarbons. These organic molecules create several layers of smog-like haze in the moons atmosphere, obscuring views of Titans surface.. The Cassini spacecraft has observed clouds in Titans atmosphere near the moons poles. Temperatures are so cold (-178 C, -288 F) on Titan that methane is a liquid at the surface. Scientists believe that methane and ethane may fall as rain and snow from the clouds in Titans atmosphere onto its frigid surface. This image shows the predicted structure of Titans atmosphere. New results from the Huygens probe will likely revise our knowledge of the ...
Galaxy vs Solar System. The solar system and a galaxy are two different terms but sometimes are confused with one another. To understand the solar system, one should know the definition of a star system. A star system is a system in which planets orbit around a massive star. This is due to the gravitational attraction that is present in between them. A solar system is a specific kind of star system in which the Sun is at the centre. The solar system consists of anything that orbits the sun or orbits the planets which orbit the sun. The moon of earth, for example, is a part of our solar system. A galaxy, on the other hand, is a huge collection of stars that are held together by gravitational attraction. There can be a 100 million to over a trillion stars within a galaxy. It consists of interstellar gas, star clusters and numerous star systems. Many star systems can be part of a single galaxy but not the other way around.. Perhaps the biggest difference between a solar system and a galaxy is their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets. AU - Reynolds, Ray T.. AU - McKay, Christopher P.. AU - Kasting, James. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. In our own solar system, Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such a case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water that organisms similar to those found under Antarctic ice could grow. In other solar systems, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could represent environments that are stable over an order of Aeons and in which life could perhaps evolve. We define a zone around a giant planet in which such satellites could exist as a tidally-heated habitable zone. This zone can ...
The Exoplanets plugin plots the position of stars with exoplanets. Exoplanets data is derived from The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. List of potential habitable exoplanets and data about them were taken from The Habitable Exoplanets Catalog by Planetary Habitability Laboratory.. Exoplanets Catalog. The exoplanets catalog is stored on the disk in JSON format, in a file named "exoplanets.json". A default copy is embedded in the plug-in at compile time. A working copy is kept in the user data directory.. Configuration. The plug-ins configuration data is stored in Stellariums main configuration file (section [Exoplanets]). ...
The NAI has been called upon to use its expertise in managing a complex, distributed research organization to lead the development of a new web presence for NASAs Astrobiology Program.. The program includes several elements, including the NAI, the Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology grant program, and two science and technology grant programs: Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP), and Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development (ASTID).. The new web presence will unify the research, education efforts, accomplishments, and opportunities of each of these elements, and become the one place on the web where interested parties can obtain information about astrobiology at NASA.. Visit the existing NAI site at: http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/. Please follow Astrobiology on Twitter.. ...
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter suffers glitch, swaps computers, radio transponder, enters safe mode, say Jet Propulsion Laboratory officials
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Makemake is a dwarf planet in our Solar System. Makemake was discovered in March 2005 by a team of astronomers led by Mike Brown. Makemake officially became a dwarf planet in July 2008.. There were three other dwarf planets before Makemake. They are Pluto, Ceres, and Eris. Makemake is a large Kuiper Belt Object (KBO). It is an icy world that orbits far from the Sun on the frozen fringes of our Solar System. Pluto and Eris are KBOs too. Because it is so far away, Makemake takes nearly 310 years to orbit the Sun once! Makemake is usually a bit further from the Sun than Pluto. Makemake is named after a god of the Rapa Nui people of Easter Island (the place with the cool statues). Makemake is the god of fertility and the creator of humans in Rapa Nui mythology. Makemake was discovered soon after Easter in 2005. The astronomers nicknamed it "Easterbunny". When they chose an official name, they decided they should use a character from the mythology of Easter Island.. Makemake is smaller than both ...
The year was 1989. A small, unmanned space probe rapidly approached the mysterious and unexplored planet Neptune. Launched in 1977, the Voyager 2 spacecraft had already visited Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, imaging each of these beautiful worlds in unprecedented detail. A rare alignment of the outer four planets made this Planetary Grand Tour possible as NASA scientists were able to use the gravity of each planet to "slingshot" the craft outward to the next world.1 Voyager 2 had traveled over four billion miles during its 12-year mission and was about to become the only spacecraft to visit distant Neptune. This encounter would mark the end of an era of planetary space exploration since Neptune was the one remaining planet unvisited by space probes.2 Astronomers all over the world waited eagerly for the first high-resolution images. What wonderful secrets would be revealed?. A Triumph of Newtonian Physics. Neptune is the only planet in our solar system that was known to exist before it was ...
Increased UV-B through stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increased chemical activity in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere). The effect of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone is small (though significant) compared to the ozone generated anthropogenically in areas already experiencing air pollution. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that the impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion on tropospheric ozone are different at different altitudes and for different chemical regimes. As a result the increase in ozone due to stratospheric ozone depletion may be greater in polluted regions. Attributable effects on concentrations are expected only in regions where local emissions make minor contributions. The vertical distribution of NOx (NO + NO2), the emission of volatile organic compounds and the abundance of water vapor, are important influencing factors. The long-term nature of stratospheric ozone depletion means that even a small increase in tropospheric ozone ...
Im often asked about what clients/students can expect when the biggies, ie Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, cross the Imum Coeli or I.C. Well, here is an account of one persons experiences, ie mine! Do not worry, those of you in the throes of one of those heavy duty, life changing transits. Ive had all of…
Solar system planetary orbits. Artwork of the planets of the solar system and their orbits. This oblique angle looks inwards from the orbit of the sixth planet Saturn (lower left). The next planet towards the Sun is Jupiter (lower right). The asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is shown as a light blue band. Inside the asteroid belt are the planets of the inner solar system: Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury. In the background are the two outer planets, Uranus (top centre) and Neptune (upper right). - Stock Image C002/9063
After the formation of the Solar System, the orbits of all the giant planets continued to change slowly, influenced by their interaction with the large number of remaining planetesimals. After 500-600 million years (about 4 billion years ago) Jupiter and Saturn fell into a 2:1 orbital resonance; Saturn orbited the Sun once for every two Jupiter orbits.[3] This resonance created a gravitational push against the outer planets, causing Neptune to surge past Uranus and plough into the dense planetesimal belt. The planets scattered the majority of the small icy bodies inwards, while themselves moving outwards. These planetesimals then scattered off the next planet they encountered in a similar manner, moving the planets orbits outwards while they moved inwards.[5] This process continued until the planetesimals interacted with Jupiter, whose immense gravity sent them into highly elliptical orbits or even ejected them outright from the Solar System. This caused Jupiter to move slightly inward. This ...
Last time, I talked about "Snowball Earth" - about how, 700 million years ago, the world was wrapped entirely in ice. This ice was thinnest at the Equator, and thickest at the poles, but it had an average depth of a kilometre or so. On Snowball Earth, theres ice floating atop the oceans, and enormous glaciers grinding their way across the continents. Practically all the visible water is solid ice, and theres virtually no free water as liquid - so theres no evaporation, no clouds and no rain. The average temperature is around -40oC.. We know that there was hardly any life back then, because there was very little photosynthesis. Practically all the life on our planet depends on sunlight to feed the plants right at the bottom of the food chain. No photosynthesis means no plants, which means no animals - which also means no snowboarding.. In the early 1990s, Paul Hoffman, a geologist from Harvard began sifting through deposits left by glaciers some 700 million years ago. He was looking at ...
Data collected during two close flybys of Saturns moon Enceladus by NASAs Cassini spacecraft add more fuel to the fire about the Saturnian ice world containing sub-surface liquid water. The data collected by Cassinis Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer during Enceladus flybys in July and Oct. 2008, were released in the July 23 issue of the journal Nature. "When Cassini flew through the plume erupting from Enceladus on October 8 of last year, our spectrometer was able to sniff out many complex chemicals, including organic ones, in the vapor and icy particles," said Hunter Waite, the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer Lead Scientist from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. "One of the chemicals definitively identified was ammonia ...
NASAs Cassini spacecraft captured an image of lightning striking within a huge storm that encircled Saturns northern hemisphere, providing scientists with a great opportunity to see how weather plays out at different places in our solar system.. Pasadena, California - Saturn was playing the lightning storm blues. NASAs Cassini spacecraft has captured images of last years storm on Saturn, the largest storm seen up-close at the planet, with bluish spots in the middle of swirling clouds. Those bluish spots indicate flashes of lightning and mark the first time scientists have detected lightning in visible wavelengths on the side of Saturn illuminated by the sun.. "We didnt think wed see lightning on Saturns day side - only its night side," said Ulyana Dyudina, a Cassini imaging team associate based at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "The fact that Cassini was able to detect the lightning means that it was very intense.". Images can be found at http://www.nasa.gov/cassini, ...
Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean has been empirically modeled and its products inferred from sample observations, but it has never been fully tested experimentally. Presented in this study is the first experimental simulation of lunar differentiation. Two end-member bulk Moon compositions are considered: one enriched in refractory lithophile elements relative to Earth and one with no such enrichment. A two-stage model of magma ocean crystallization based on geophysical models is simulated and features early crystal suspension and equilibrium crystallization followed by fractional crystallization of the residual liquid. An initially entirely molten Moon is assumed. The study presented below focuses on the early cumulates formed by equilibrium crystallization, differences in mantle mineralogy resulting from different bulk Moon compositions and the implications for the source regions for secondary lunar magmatism. There are significant differences in the crystallization sequence between the two
The Cassini spacecraft that has been busily exploring Saturn and its moons swooped to within 30 miles of the tiny moon Enceladus yesterday, and has already begun sending back images of the fissures near the moons south pole. The icy moon, which is about 310 miles wide, has tantalized scientists with geyser-like eruptions of icy water vapor that were first spotted in 2005…. The eruptions produce a halo of frozen water vapor and gas that replenishes Saturns E-ring as Enceladus circles the planet [SPACE.com].. The Cassini took images of the fissures, which scientists call the moons "tiger stripes," in the infrared spectrum as well, to gain further information about the temperatures in the vents; previous studies had shown temperatures there can reach a relatively balmy -135 degrees Fahrenheit, which is 200 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the rest of the moon. While the material sprayed out of the fissures consists of frozen water vapor, scientists disagree on whether an internal ocean of ...
At the middle of a black hole, there is a gravitational center called a singularity. It is impossible to see into it because the gravity prevents any light escaping. Around the tiny singularity, there is a large area where light which would normally pass by gets sucked in as well. The edge of this area is called the event horizon. The area beyond the event horizon is the black hole. The gravity of the black hole gets weaker at a distance. The event horizon is the place farthest away from the middle where the gravity is still strong enough to trap light. Outside the event horizon, light and matter will still be pulled toward the black hole. If a black hole is surrounded by matter, the matter will form an "accretion disk" (accretion means "gathering") around the black hole. An accretion disk looks something like the rings of Saturn. As it gets sucked in, the matter gets very hot and shoots x-ray radiation into space. Think of this as the water spinning around the hole before it falls in. Most ...
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Before the mission ended, Cassinis was an already powerful influence on future exploration. In revealing that Enceladus has essentially all the ingredients needed for life, the mission energized a pivot to the exploration of ocean worlds that has been sweeping planetary science over the past couple of decades.. Lessons learned during Cassinis mission are being applied in planning NASAs Europa Clipper mission, planned for launch in the 2020s. Europa Clipper will make dozens of flybys of Jupiters ocean moon to investigate its possible habitability, using an orbital tour design derived from the way Cassini explored Saturn. Farther out in the solar system, scientists have long had their eyes set on exploring Uranus and Neptune. So far, each of these worlds has been visited by only one brief spacecraft flyby (Voyager 2, in 1986 and 1989, respectively). Collectively, Uranus and Neptune are referred to as ice giant planets. A variety of potential mission concepts are discussed in a recently ...
Scientific research on the International Space Station is a collection of experiments that require one or more of the unusual conditions present in low Earth orbit. The primary fields of research include human research, space medicine, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and meteorology. The 2005 NASA Authorization Act designated the American segment of the International Space Station as a national laboratory with the goal of increasing the use of the ISS by other federal agencies and the private sector. Research on the ISS improves knowledge about the effects of long-term space exposure on the human body. Subjects currently under study include muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shift. The data will be used to determine whether space colonisation and lengthy human spaceflight are feasible. As of 2006, data on bone loss and muscular atrophy suggest that there would be a significant risk of fractures and movement problems if astronauts landed on a planet after a lengthy interplanetary ...
Seifertite is a dense orthorhombic polymorph of silica with the scrutinyite (α-PbO2) type structure that was found as lamellae occurring together with dense silica glass lamellae in composite silica grains in the heavily shocked Martian meteorite Shergotty. The mineral is also intergrown in some grains with minor stishovite and a new unnamed monoclinic dense silica polymorph with a ZrO2-type structure. Seifertite has also been found in the Martian shergottite Zagami and is a minor constituent in other Martian shergottites. Chemical analyses of seifertite in Shergotty indicate major SiO2 with minor concentrations of Al2O3 and Na2O. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction can be interpreted in terms of an orthorhombic pattern from a scrutinyite (α-PbO2) structure. The cell parameters are a = 4.097(1) Å, b = 5.0462(9) Å, c = 4.4946(8) Å, V = 92.92 Å3, Z = 4, and the space group is Pbcn or Pb2n. Density is (calc.) = 4.294 g/cm3 (with pure SiO2), 4.309 g/cm3 (with ...
New research reveals the first experimental evidence that our solar systems protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount of gas into the sun within just a few million years.. Infant planetary systems are usually nothing more than swirling disks of gas and dust. Over the course of a few million years, this gas gets sucked into the center of the disk to build a star, while the remaining dust accumulates into larger and larger chunks - the building blocks for terrestrial planets.. Astronomers have observed this protoplanetary disk evolution throughout our galaxy - a process that our own solar system underwent early in its history. However, the mechanism by which planetary disks evolve at such a rapid rate has eluded scientists for decades.. Now researchers at MIT, Cambridge University, and elsewhere have provided the first experimental evidence that our solar systems protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount ...
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Reconnaissance supports the MAGTF commanders intent and his CCIRs. While contributing to the commanders broad situational awareness and development, reconnaissance assets tailor their efforts to support the specific CCIRs indicated by the commanders intent and subsequent unit intelligence and operations planning. Simultaneously, reconnaissance forces must remain alert to any developments that may cause the commander to reassess that intent. MAGTF reconnaissance assets are best employed early to support the CCIRs and friendly course of action development and selection. When reconnaissance is initiated early in the planning cycle, planning and execution are driven by the flow of solid, timely information and intelligence. If reconnaissance is delayed, situation development will generally be more uncertain. In this case, planning and execution can either take place in an information vacuum or be driven by the search for such information. Reconnaissance assets are best employed in general ...
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In the interstellar medium - the space between the stars in galaxies - new stars are born from material that is replenished by the debris ejected by stars when they die. This book is a comprehensive manual for studying the collisional and radiative processes observed in the interstellar medium. This second edition has been thoroughly updated and extended to cover related topics in radiation theory. It considers the chemistry of the interstellar medium both at the present epoch and in the early Universe, and discusses the physics and chemistry of shock waves. The methods of calculation of the rates of collisional excitation of interstellar molecules and atoms are explained, emphasising the quantum mechanical method. This book will be ideal for researchers involved in the interstellar medium and star formation, and physical chemists specialising in collision theory or in the measurement of the rates of collision processes.. • Comprehensive manual for studying collisional and radiative processes ...
The Antarctic ozone hole was discovered in 1985 by Joe Farman, a scientist working with the British Antarctic Survey.. The stratosphere is the upper layer of the atmosphere, between approximately 15-50 kilometres above the earths surface. It is underlain by the troposphere. The tropopause is the zone of transition.. Ozone is a gas with molecules composed of three oxygen atom, consequently its chemical designation is O3. Ozone is removed from the atmosphere naturally. Microorganisms in the soil produce a gas called nitrous oxide (N2O). In the stratosphere, N2O is broken down into the nitrogen oxides NO and NO2. These react with ozone but are not themselves consumed. Human enhanced production of nitrogen oxides has resulted in an accelerated reduction of ozone content. In addition synthetic chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), also cause depletion of the sensitive ozone layer.. Current and future changes in the atmospheric ozone profile will have significant effects on the vertical ...
ML Wong, B Charnay, P Gao, YL Yung, MJ Russell (accepted), "Nitrogen oxides in early Earths atmosphere as electron acceptors for lifes emergence," Astrobiology.. ML Wong, S Fan, P Gao, ... (2016), "The photochemistry of Plutos atmosphere as illuminated by New Horizons," Icarus. LINK. P Gao, S Fan, ML Wong, ... (2016), "Constraints on the Microphysics of Plutos Photochemical Haze from New Horizons Observations," Icarus. LINK. GR Gladstone, ..., ML Wong, ... (2016), "The Atmosphere of Pluto as Observed by New Horizons," Science. LINK. ML Wong, YL Yung, GR Gladstone (2015), "Plutos Implications for a Snowball Titan," Icarus. LINK, PRESS RELEASE. YL Yung, EJ Gaidos, ML Wong (2013), "Evolution of Earths Atmosphere," Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences (2nd Edition).. HF Wilson, ML Wong, B Militzer (2013), "Superionic to Superionic Phase Change in Water: Consequences for the Interiors of Uranus and Neptune," Physical Review Letters. LINK. AF Goncharov, ML Wong, ... (2012), "Thermal conductivity ...
Protoplanetary disks originate during star formation and evolve rapidly, to form planetary systems before they disperse in a few million years. Dr. Gorti will describe disk evolution and discuss disk dispersal mechanisms in the context of recent theoretical models. Theory will be compared with observations to summarize our current understanding of how disks evolve and the constraints they set on the time available for planet formation.. ...
Artificial Life Resource at defaultlogic.com | Learn the facts on Artificial Life. Watch videos, join the discussion and find answers on Artificial Life.
X-ray flares detected from brown dwarfs since 1999 suggest changing magnetic fields within them, similar to those in very-low-mass stars. With no strong central nuclear energy source, the interior of a brown dwarf is in a rapid boiling, or convective state. When combined with the rapid rotation that most brown dwarfs exhibit, convection sets up conditions for the development of a strong, tangled magnetic field near the surface. The flare observed by Chandra from LP 944-20 could have its origin in the turbulent magnetized hot material beneath the brown dwarfs surface. A sub-surface flare could conduct heat to the atmosphere, allowing electric currents to flow and produce an X-ray flare, like a stroke of lightning. The absence of X-rays from LP 944-20 during the non-flaring period is also a significant result. It sets the lowest observational limit on steady X-ray power produced by a brown dwarf, and shows that coronas cease to exist as the surface temperature of a brown dwarf cools below about ...
With the aid of computer simulations of the chemistry of Earths own atmosphere that isolate what are called "dimer molecules," astronomers developed a new method of gauging the atmospheric pressure of exoplanets.. Astronomers at the University of Washington have developed a new method of gauging the atmospheric pressure of exoplanets, or worlds beyond the solar system, by looking for a certain type of molecule.. And if there is life out in space, scientists may one day use this same technique to detect its biosignature - the telltale chemical signs of its presence - in the atmosphere of an alien world.. Understanding atmospheric pressure is key to knowing if conditions at the surface of a terrestrial, or rocky, exoplanet might allow liquid water, thus giving life a chance.. The method, devised by Amit Misra, a UW astronomy doctoral student, and co-authors, involves computer simulations of the chemistry of Earths own atmosphere that isolate what are called "dimer molecules" - pairs of molecules ...
The Solar System formed 4. 6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the systems mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called volatiles, such as water, ammonia and methane. All eight planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.. ...
Observational studies of gas in protoplanetary disks [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Andrés Carmona Gonzalez : Dissertationsubmitted to theCombined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematicsof the Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, Germanyfor the degree ofDoctor of Natural Sciencespresented byDiplom-Ingenieur, MSc, MA, Andres´ Carmona Gonzalezborn in Bogota,´ ColombiaOral examination: 25 July 2007Observational Studies of Gasin Protoplanetary DisksReferees: Prof. Dr. Thomas HenningDr.
NASAs Cassini spacecraft has discovered a huge cloud of ice or frozen compounds on Saturns moon, Titan, around the southern pole of the object. This growing cloud is detected at the mid-stratosphere, the stable atmospheric region above the troposphere or active weather layer of the body.. Get the Free Tracker App to find WowWee Fingerlings. At an altitude of nearly 186 miles or 300 kilometers, Cassinis camera captured the huge cloud hovering over the southern region of Titan, but it was eventually found in 2012 to be not much, but now a larger ice cloud is observed lower in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 124 miles or 200 kilometers.. Deploying its Composite Infrared Spectrometer or CIRS, Cassinis infrared instrument monitors the bodys atmosphere at thermal wavelengths which is invisible to see. Considering its low density, the cloud of the object is just like fog on Earth, NASA reported.. Cassini has been able to witness the transition of fall to winter at the south pole of Titan ...
We consider the socially optimal use of solar geoengineering to manage climate change. Solar geoengineering can reduce damages from atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, potentially more cheaply than reducing emissions. If so, optimal policy includes less abatement than recommended by models that ignore solar geoengineering, and the price of carbon is lower. Solar geoengineering reduces temperature but does not reduce atmospheric or ocean carbon concentrations, and that carbon may cause damages apart from temperature increases. Finally, uncertainty over climate change and solar geoengineering alters the optimal deployment of solar geoengineering. We explore these issues with an analytical model and a numerical simulation. The price of carbon is 30%-45% lower than the price recommended in a model without geoengineering, depending on the parameterizations of geoengineering costs and benefits. Carbon concentrations are higher but temperature is lower when allowing for solar geoengineering. The ...
Proxima b, an Earth-size planet right outside our solar system in the habitable zone of its star, may not be able to keep a grip on its atmosphere, leaving the surface exposed to harmful stellar radiation and reducing its potential for habitability.. At only four light-years away, Proxima b is our closest known extra-solar neighbor. However, due to the fact that it hasnt been seen crossing in front of its host star, the exoplanet eludes the usual method for learning about its atmosphere. Instead, scientists must rely on models to understand whether the exoplanet is habitable.. One such computer model considered what would happen if Earth orbited Proxima Centauri, our nearest stellar neighbor and Proxima bs host star, at the same orbit as Proxima b. The NASA study, published on July 24, 2017, in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, suggests Earths atmosphere wouldnt survive in close proximity to the violent red dwarf.. "We decided to take the only habitable planet we know of so far -- Earth -- ...
Water is the medium in which the chemistry of all life on Earth takes place. The NAI UH Team will focus on scenarios involving the sources and distribution of water in planetary systems and the delivery and incorporation of water into rocky habitable planets. The team will investigate:. The Origin of Earths Water - Constraining the origin of Earths water by better characterizing the D/H ratio of the primitive mantle. D/H in the Interstellar Medium, Disks and the Solar System - Determining the relationship of the highly deuterium-enriched circumstellar envelope material with the planet-forming disks in these systems, and investigating the evolution of D/H in a mature planetary system through observations of comets and models of ice fractionation processes. Ice Chemistry in the Solar System - Investigating the processing of primitive Solar system material and ices by energetic particles that leads to lifes precursor molecules. The Main Belt Comets - Surveying the sky for Main Belt Comets, a new ...
The Herschel space observatory has discovered water vapor in a pre-stellar core in the constellation of Taurus known as Lynds 1544. This is the first detection of water vapor in a molecular cloud on the verge of star formation.. ESAs Herschel space observatory has discovered enough water vapor to fill Earths oceans more than 2000 times over, in a gas and dust cloud that is on the verge of collapsing into a new Sun-like star.. Stars form within cold, dark clouds of gas and dust - pre-stellar cores - that contain all the ingredients to make solar systems like our own.. Water, essential to life on Earth, has previously been detected outside of our Solar System as gas and ice coated onto tiny dust grains near sites of active star formation, and in proto-planetary discs capable of forming alien planetary systems.. The new Herschel observations of a cold pre-stellar core in the constellation of Taurus known as Lynds 1544 are the first detection of water vapor in a molecular cloud on the verge of ...
Muladhara Chakra 1st Chakra located at the base of the spine at the perenium area color is RED, spinning downward toward earth issues of the body and physical surroundings stability, support, security, grounding. Tribal connection. Needing to fit in with the group legs, feet, coccyx Adrenal glands Related to the zodiac signs of Aquarius and Capricorn Associated with the planet Saturn emotions of fear, thoughts of lack and survival earth element bija mantra or seed letter vibration is lam deity is Brahma the creator Svadhisthana Chakra 2nd Chakra located in the lower abdomen, below naval color is ORANGE, spinning outwardly from the lower naval and sacrum sacrum and pelvis intuition, creativity, sexuality, sensuality, spirituality. Balance in relationships Ovaries and Testes Related to the zodiac signs of Sagittarius and Pisces Associated with the planet Jupiter sexuality, intimacy and associated emotions; false knowledge water element bija mantra or seed letter vibration is vam deity is Vishnu ...
In todays A Lab Aloft, guest blogger Fred Kohl, Ph.D., International Space Station Physical Sciences Research project manager at NASAs Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, talks about some of the physical science investigations that take place in microgravity aboard the space station.. Extremes are part of exploration, whether youre talking about space travel or probing new areas of discovery to expand knowledge in a given science. So it is appropriate that the extreme environment of the International Space Station provides an ideal location to study physical sciences, from flames to fluids. Removing gravity from the equation aboard this Earth-orbiting laboratory reveals the fundamental aspects of physics hidden by force-dependent phenomena where a fluid phase (i.e., a liquid or gas) is present. Such experiments, which investigate the disciplines of fluid physics, complex fluids, materials science, combustion science, biophysics and fundamental physics, use the stations specialized experiment ...
Associate Professor of History and Philosophy of Astronomy and Physical Science (retired). He was born in Athens, Greece on the 12th of March, 1949. He got his B.Sc. in Mathematics from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (1972) and his Ph.D. in Astrophysics from the Physics Department of the University of Athens, Greece (1983). He has worked as Laboratory Assistant, Lecturer and Assistant Professor at the Physics Department of the University of Athens. His scientific interests include History and Philosophy of Astronomy and Physical Sciences, Observational Astronomy and Astrophysics, Satellite spectrophotometry of Be and variable stars. He has published 43 scientific papers in refereed journals (14 in Astrophysics and 29 in History and Philosophy of Astronomy), 18 papers in the British Sundial Society Bulletin (BSB) and North American Sundial Society Bulletin (NASS) and 147 papers in conference proceedings in Greece and abroad (65 in Astrophysics and 82 in History and Philosophy of ...
Together with Paul Butler, Marcy quickly confirmed the reality of the 51 Pegasi planet using the method of precise Doppler measurement that he had developed for the purpose of extrasolar planet detection over many years. Seventy of the next 100 extrasolar planets discovered were found by his team. Many of these planets had distinctly non-circular orbits, in contrast with the orbits of known planets in our own Solar System. Several reside in systems where there is more than one giant planet, with multiple planets in a given system often having orbital periods that bear integer relationships to one another. As the observational sensitivity and the understanding of systematic errors steadily improve, planets with masses more like Saturn and Neptune are being found, instead of only the Jupiter-like bodies that characterized the initial discoveries. Significantly, there are no bodies that have masses appreciably in excess of 10 Jupiter masses. In a few cases, the orbital plane lies sufficiently ...
In the figure above, we take the abundance of silicon as a "standard candle" or reference point, and compare the abundances (relative to silicon) of the elements in the solar system and in galactic cosmic rays. Silicon is used as the reference because it is a common intermediate-weight element that is easy to measure. We see that there is less hydrogen and helium in the cosmic rays than in the solar system, we think because hydrogen and helium are harder to accelerate to high energies than heavier elements. We also see that some light elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) that are rare in the solar system (and in the rest of the universe) are quite common in cosmic rays. We also see more cosmic ray elements between silicon and iron than in the solar system.. The accepted reason for all the observed cosmic ray lithium, beryllium, and boron is that these are pieces of heavier cosmic ray elements, especially carbon and oxygen, that have had high speed collisions with the very tenuous gas in ...
Downloadable! We study optimal climate policy when climate tipping points and solar geoengineering are present. Solar geoengineering reduces temperatures without reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Climate tipping points are irreversible and uncertain events that cause large damages. We analyze three different rules related to the availability of solar geoengineering: a ban, using solar geoengineering as insurance against the risk of tipping points, or using solar geoengineering only as remediation in the aftermath of a tipping point. We model three distinct types of tipping points: two that alter the climate system and one that yields a direct economic cost. Using an analytic model, we find that an optimal policy, which minimizes expected losses from the tipping point, includes both emissions reductions and solar geoengineering from the onset. Using a numerical simulation model, we quantify optimal policy and various outcomes under the alternative scenarios. The presence of tipping points leads to more
At the center of the Solar System is the Sun. It is a star, like the billions of other stars in the sky. The other stars are very, very far away, so they look tiny. The Sun is important to us because it gives us heat and energy that allows life. None of the life on Earth could exist without the Sun.[3]. The rest of the things in the Solar System orbit (travel around) the Sun. The planets are the largest of these. Each planet is a little like the Earth. But the planets are also very different from each other.. Many of the planets have moons. A moon orbits a planet. Mercury has no moons[4] and nor does Venus. Earth has one. Jupiter has 63![5]. The planets closest to the Sun are called the inner planets. These are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Then comes a big ring of asteroids, chunks of rock much smaller than planets. This ring is called the asteroid belt. Within the asteroid belt, there is a dwarf planet (smaller than a normal planet) named Ceres. Then come the outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, ...
Like commuters on a freeway, planets and moons face the constant threat of collision -- not with each other, but with the countless comets and asteroids that litter the solar system. A collision between Earth and an asteroid may have wiped out the dinosaurs, for example.. A moon orbiting the planet Neptune may have suffered an even more traumatic collision -- one that blasted the moon to bits. All thats left of it is a lumpy ring around Neptune.. Neptune actually has several rings. Unlike the brilliant rings of Saturn, though, theyre darker than chimney soot. They consist of small particles of rock and ice.. The most interesting is called the Adams ring. Its the farthest from the planet itself, and it consists of several clumps of material connected by a thin band of dust.. Its possible that the ring formed when a comet slammed into a small, rocky moon. The collision pulverized the moon, and the debris spread out to form a ring.. Although the gravity of Neptune and one of its moons are ...
Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of , 2.5 µm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in ∼ 3600 [95 % CI: 1310-5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as −13.3 mW m−2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC = 15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the ...
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Astrobiologists have shown that a key element for life on Earth was likely delivered to our planet on meteorites. Their work indicates that the early Earth was bombarded by meteorites that provided reactive phosphorus. When released in water, this phosphorus could have been incorporated into prebiotic molecules.. The team showed that phosphorus was abundant on Earth 3.5 billion years ago by documenting its presence in limestone from the early Archean. They think the phosphorus was delivered in minerals from meteorites that are not seen on the surface of the Earth. The research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences.. Matthew Pasek, lead author of the study, was formerly a NASA Astrobiology Institute Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Arizona and is an alumni of the 2012 FameLab Astrobiology event held in Houston, TX. Pasek is now an Assistant Professor of Geology at the University of South Florida.. Please follow Astrobiology on Twitter.. ...
ORLANDO, Fla. -- Cliff Friedmans name may go far in Dallas real estate circles, but that doesnt come close to the 3 billion-mile trip it will begin in a few weeks. Friedmans name is one of about 435,000 names placed on a compact disc that will be in the New Horizons spacecraft when it launches from Cape Canaveral this week on a mission to Pluto and the outer edges of the solar system. "My wife thinks it should be put out a little bit further," said Friedman, 48, a Dallas real estate attorney. The inclusion of names in the spacecraft is part of a public relations campaign to generate interest in the launch to the last unexplored planet in the solar system. When it reaches Pluto as early as 2015, the spacecraft will study the ninth planet, its large moon, Charon, as well as two other moons only discovered last year. The $700 million mission also should provide scientists with a better understanding of the Kuiper Belt, a mysterious disc-shaped region that lies beyond Neptune at the outer limits ...
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There are various free online "ephemeris" websites you can use to chart astrological positions.). The planets Mercury, Saturn, Pluto, Neptune and Uranus will all be "retrograde" according to astrology, rather than going in their more usual "direct" motion. The "retrograde" actions of these five planets further out in space, places them in the shadows, and amplifies the power of the Moon, Sun, Mars and North Node, all in Leo together, blasting their energy at us.. The only two non - Leo planets which are not "retrograde" are Venus in Cancer 24 degrees and Jupiter in Libra 20 degrees, and that is about 4 degrees less than a 90 degree square, so that creates a little friction. Cancer, astrologically, protects home turf, while Libra, astrologically, wants equality for everyone. Thats why they are "square" to each other: the ideas of "home turf" and equality for everyone, conflict. How many people have "private beaches" in front of their expensive homes on Lake Champlain in Vermont and do not want ...
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MOSCOW: A Russian Soyuz spacecraft carrying Italys first female astronaut has safely docked with the International Space Station, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) said on Monday. Samantha Cristoforetti, along with Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov and American astronaut Terry Virts, arrived at the orbiting space lab on the Soyuz TMA-15M spacecraft at 2:49 a.m. on Monday, NASA said. "A new vehicle has arrived. The Soyuz is confirmed as attached properly," high above the Pacific Ocean, NASA television added. Cristoforetti, Virts and Shkaplerov docked just under six hours after taking off from Russias Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. They are to stay at the space station until May 2015.. AFP. ...
There is a risk that increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels could trigger abrupt changes in the climate system - that is, changes so abrupt that they could seriously challenge the ability of humans, plants and animals to adapt. Ice core records can help us better understand this risk: they notably show that, during the last glacial period (around 100 000 to 20 000 years ago), temperature over the Greenland ice sheet could change by up to 16°C within a few decades.. With his INTERCLIMA (Inter-hemispheric Coupling of Abrupt Climate Change) project, Dr Joel Pedro of the University of Copenhagen has been trying to advance understanding of the governing mechanisms and inter-hemispheric coupling involved in abrupt climate change. By doing so, he hopes to help scientists trying to understand the extent and nature of the anthropogenic climate change we are witnessing to improve their climate predictions.. How can past climate change events inform us on future risks?. The Ice Age temperature ...
One common objection to fetal tissue transplantation (FTT) is that, if it were to become a standard form of treatment, it would encourage or entrench the practice of abortion. This claim is at least factually plausible, although it cannot be definitively established. However, even if true, it does not constitute a compelling ethical argument against FTT. The harm allegedly brought about by FTT, when assessed by widely accepted non-consequentialist criteria, has limited moral significance. Even if FTT would cause more abortions to be performed, and abortion is taken to be a serious moral wrong, this is not sufficient in itself to make FTT wrong. ...
At the center of the Solar System is the Sun. It is a star, like the billions of other stars in the sky. The other stars are very, very far away, so they look tiny. The Sun is important to us because it gives us heat and energy that allows life. None of the life on Earth could exist without the Sun.[3]. The rest of the things in the Solar System orbit (travel around) the Sun. The planets are the largest of these. Each planet is a little like the Earth. But the planets are also very different from each other.. Many of the planets have moons. A moon orbits a planet. Mercury has no moons[4] and nor does Venus. Earth has one. Jupiter has 63![5]. The planets closest to the Sun are called the inner planets. These are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Then comes a big ring of asteroids, chunks of rock much smaller than planets. This ring is called the asteroid belt. Within the asteroid belt, there is a dwarf planet (smaller than a normal planet) named Ceres. Then come the outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, ...
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1] We use observations from two aircraft during the ICARTT campaign over the eastern United States and North Atlantic during summer 2004, interpreted with a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem) to test current understanding of regional sources, chemical evolution, and export of NOx. The boundary layer NOx data provide top-down verification of a 50% decrease in power plant and industry NOx emissions over the eastern United States between 1999 and 2004. Observed NOx concentrations at 8-12 km altitude were 0.55 ± 0.36 ppbv, much larger than in previous U.S. aircraft campaigns (ELCHEM, SUCCESS, SONEX) though consistent with data from the NOXAR program aboard commercial aircraft. We show that regional lightning is the dominant source of this upper tropospheric NOx and increases upper tropospheric ozone by 10 ppbv. Simulating ICARTT upper tropospheric NOx observations with GEOS-Chem requires a factor of 4 increase in modeled NOx yield per flash (to 500 mol/flash). Observed OH ...
Saturn is almost twice as far from the Sun as Jupiter at nearly 900 million miles. It is second in size in our solar system, surpassed only by Jupiter, but Saturns mass is much smaller. Saturns specific gravity is less than waters, meaning it would float on a body of water! Like Jupiter, Saturn rotates extremely fast, and completes a rotation in about 10 hours. It takes a little over 29 years to make one revolution around the Sun. Saturn has 60 confirmed satellites, many of which are buried inside Saturns smaller ring systems which are being discovered by NASAs Cassini spacecraft. It is very difficult for astronomers to count the number of moons revolving around Saturn, because it is difficult to distinguish between tiny moons and the numerous ice chunks composing Saturns smaller ringlets. The large moon Titan is the most interesting in terms of atmospheric composition (mentioned below). It is likely more satellites will be found in the future when astronomers diagnose Saturns small, thin ...
The solar system is made up of the Sun, the planets and dwarf planets and their known moons, asteroids, comets, dust and gas. The planets, asteroids, and comets travel around the Sun, the center of our solar system.. Most of the bodies in the solar system travel around the Sun along nearly circular paths or orbits, and all the planets travel about the Sun in the anticlockwise direction (when viewed from above).. Solar system formation began billions of years ago, when gases and dust began to come together to form the Sun, planets, and other bodies of the solar system.. ...
Topic: Earth and space science, Astronomy, Size and scale, Earth and space science, Astronomy, Stars, nebulae and galaxies, Earth and space science, Earth processes, Climate, Earth and space science, Solar system, Asteroids and comets, Earth and space science, Solar system, Origin/formation of solar system, Earth and space science, Solar system, Planetary geology, Earth and space science, Solar system, Planetary science, Earth and space science, Solar system, Planets, Earth and space science, Solar system, The moon, Earth and space science, Solar system, The sun, Space weather, Engineering and technology, Remote sensing, Life sciences, Astrobiology, Mathematics, Physical sciences, States of matter, Physical sciences, Structure and properties of matter, The nature of science, The scientific process, The nature of technology, The design process ...
Giant planets helped to shape the conditions we see in the Solar System today and they account for more than 99% of the mass of the Suns planetary system. They can be subdivided into the Ice Giants (Uranus and Neptune) and the Gas Giants (Jupiter and Saturn), which differ from each other in a number of fundamental ways. Uranus, in particular is the most challenging to our understanding of planetary formation and evolution, with its large obliquity, low self-luminosity, highly asymmetrical internal field, and puzzling internal structure. Uranus also has a rich planetary system consisting of a system of inner natural satellites and complex ring system, five major natural icy satellites, a system of irregular moons with varied dynamical histories, and a highly asymmetrical magnetosphere. Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have explored Uranus, with a flyby in 1986, and no mission is currently planned to this enigmatic system. However, a mission to the uranian system would open a new window on the ...
A newly discovered exoplanet poses a radical challenge to the consensus theory of planet and star formation. The massive exoplanet is eleven times the size of Jupiter yet it circles its parent star at a distance that is 650X the average distance between the Earth and the Sun (versus Neptune which is 30X the average distance between the Earth and the Sun). In the conventional theory, which imagines stars forming gravitationally in a collapsing cloud of gas and dust, such a giant planet cannot form at such a vast distance from its star.[/quote ...
New research from the University of Minnesotas Institute on the Environment and Stanford University shows that freshwater stream ecosystems are highly vulnerable to oil palm plantation expansion.. The three-year study compared streams draining watersheds dominated by four land uses - intact forest, manually logged forest, community agroforest and oil palm plantation - in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, which is ground zero for palm oil production.. Kimberly Carlson, an IonE postdoctoral scholar and lead author on the study, says the research yielded some unexpected findings. "First, oil palm plantation land use seems to have a greater effect on streams than community agroforest or low-impact logging." Researchers were also surprised to discover that a stream in a mature, closed-canopy oil palm plantation was almost as hot as, and yielded even more sediment than, a stream draining a watershed recently cleared for oil palm.. The study, published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: ...
Standish agreed that the tidal effects of the planets upon the Earth will be negligible. "If all the planets were in a straight line, it would raise the tide only 1/600 hundreds of an inch, so the planets have virtually no effect, he said. A baseball held at arms length would have a tidal effect millions of times stronger on a person than the planet Mars at its closest, Yeomans and Edberg said.. The planetary alignment wont provide much of a visual spectacle, either. The Earth and moon will be on the opposite side of the sun from the other aligned planets. The suns glare will hide the other planets, making the event as much of a no-show for skywatchers as it is for doomwatchers.. "It will be like trying to look at a search light with little fireflies around it," Standish said.. Only the moon, Mars and Venus may be far enough from the sun and bright enough to be seen, with Venus appearing in the eastern dawn sky and the moon and Mars in the western sky just after sunset.. ...
A golden age of a global family tree of life on Earth is upon us now with the widespread use of next-generation DNA sequencing generating millions of sequence data. A next generation TimeTree web can now help make it easier for people to make sense of much of that data. Imagine the history of life on Earth at your fingertips combined with the power to quickly cull five decades worth of all the evolutionary sequencing data and embedded geological studies.
Our own solar system, from the earth orbit outwards, has a considerable amount of water-bearing objects, our own planet and moon, Mars, asteroid belt objects like the dwarf planet Ceres, moons and rings of the gas giants, and probably all the gas giants themselves, Kuiper belt objects including dwarf planets Pluto and Charon, and the Oort Cloud, and all the cometary objects that entertain earthly observers, from known period and sporadic comets and their dust trails that result in meteor showers, and the mostly unobserved small comets that could be depositing an estimated 300 million tons of water (as well as some carbon-containing compounds) into the earths atmosphere annually, in addition to the few tens of thousand tons of dry meteoric dust that falls to earth on regular annual and multidecadal patterns. None of these infalls play a part in climate models, incidentally ...
When youre trying to figure out what alien life might look like, it makes sense to be looking in the most extreme environments Earth has available.. One such place where life has been found to thrive is three kilometres (1.86 miles) beneath the ground, the home of one of the strangest lifeforms we know: the bacterium Desulforudis audaxviator.. It lives in complete dark, in groundwater up to 60 degrees Celsius (140 Fahrenheit) - an environment devoid of sunlight, oxygen or organic compounds.. And it has perfectly evolved to derive its energy from the radioactive decay of uranium in the rocks around it - which means it lives off nuclear energy instead of relying on the Sun.. This, according to researchers from the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory and the University of São Paulo, makes it an excellent model for studying the possibility of extraterrestrial life.. In particular, the possibility of life on Jupiters moon Europa, an ocean planet covered in ice, far from the life-giving light ...
Jupiter and Saturn - mighty gas giants of the Outer System beyond the asteroid belt. How to explore them, given that their lower atmospheres are a roiling, superheated, overpressurised hell?. Answer: flying robots which would use the energy of the medium in which they travel to stay high up in the survivable layer. The so-called "windbots" would be packages of sensors built into a lightweight frame that could stay aloft for weeks or months at a time using propellers or a morphing body shell to harvest energy from the high-speed winds that blow around the gas giants atmosphere.. "A dandelion seed is great at staying airborne. It rotates as it falls, creating lift, which allows it to stay afloat for long time, carried by the wind," said Adrian Stoica, principal investigator for a new study at NASA JPL. "Well be exploring this effect on windbot designs.". Jupiter is the biggest planet in the Solar System, and poses unique challenges for exploration because of its huge size and composition. ...
This diagram compares Hubble Space Telescope observations of two "hot Jupiter"-class planets orbiting very closely to different sunlike stars. Astronomers measured how light from each parent star is filtered through each planets atmosphere. Hubble near-infrared observations were used to measure the spectral fingerprint caused by the presence of water vapor in the atmosphere. HAT-P-38 b did have a water signature indicated by the absorption-feature peak in the spectrum. This is interpreted as indicating the upper atmosphere is free of clouds or hazes. By contrast, a very similar hot Jupiter, WASP-67 b, has a flat spectrum that lacks any water-absorption feature. This suggests that most of the planets atmosphere is masked by high-altitude clouds. ...
Metaphysics definition, the branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, includes ontology and cosmology, and is intimately connected with epistemology. See more.
Right, so it might look like on my view abortion is permissible because you had the abortion but that abortion wouldnt have been permissible if you didnt have the abortion. Thats not quite the view, for I think two different reasons. So one reason is that, um, even you have moral status-and in my view back when you were in early fetus you had moral status-but its not that aborting you would have been wrong because if your mother had chosen to abort her pregnancy, then it wouldnt have been the case that you would have had moral status because you would have died as an early fetus, so she would have been aborting something that didnt have moral status. So its not-my view isnt that if you do abort, abortion is OK but if you dont abort, abortion would have been wrong. But what it turns out is that its a contingent matter that you have moral status you actually have moral status but you might not have counted morally at all if you had been aborted. You would have existed but you just would ...
The team used the K2 data to further characterize the orbits of the other six planets, help rule out the presence of additional transiting planets, and determine the rotation period and activity level of the star. They also discovered that TRAPPIST-1s seven planets appear linked in a complex dance known as an orbital resonance where their respective orbital periods are mathematically related and slightly influence each other. Resonances can be tricky to understand, especially between three bodies. But there are simpler cases that are easier to explain, Luger said. For instance, closer to home, Jupiters moons Io, Eu-ropa and Ganymede are set in a 1:2:4 resonance, meaning that Europas orbital period is exactly twice that of Io, and Ganymedes is exactly twice that of Europa.. These relationships, Luger said, suggested that by studying the orbital velocities of its neighbor planets they could predict the exact orbital velocity, and hence also orbital period, of TRAP-PIST-1h even before the K2 ...
Glimpses of the nursery of life on Earth more than 3.5 billion years ago are coming from an unlikely venue almost 1 billion miles away, according to the leader of an effort to understand Titan, one of the most unusual moons in the solar system.
The evil eye, known as μάτι (mati), "eye", as an apotropaic visual device, is known to have been a fixture in Greece dating back to at least the 6th century BC, when it commonly appeared on drinking vessels.[38] In Greece, the evil eye is cast away through the process of xematiasma (ξεμάτιασμα), whereby the "healer" silently recites a secret prayer passed over from an older relative of the opposite sex, usually a grandparent. Such prayers are revealed only under specific circumstances, as according to their customs those who reveal them indiscriminately lose their ability to cast off the evil eye. There are several regional versions of the prayer in question, a common one being: "Holy Virgin, Our Lady, if [insert name of the victim] is suffering of the evil eye, release him/her of it." Evil repeated three times. According to custom, if one is indeed afflicted with the evil eye, both victim and "healer" then start yawning profusely. The "healer" then performs the sign of the cross ...
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v the western carolinian asuram ahid 17 mahnp^asi editors and proprietors published every saturday mornin jvumbcr 16 of volume 16 : salisbury north carolina september 19 1835 number from\,cg\iu\mg 708 results of experience an acre of mftlberry trees full grown will coed 040,000 worms and these as 300 cocoons are equal to a pound of silk will make if properly attended to 180 lbs which when reeled at the very lowest calculation would be worth 94 per lb equal to 9720 now let us see what would be the expense attending the feeding of the worms the experience of europe as well as that of our own country show that two persons aro competent to feed one million of worms the first woek 4 the second 8 the third and from 16 to 20 tho remainder of the time which for the sake of data we will set down at two weeks more this wo wish it recollected is the calculation of the number of hands requisite to attend to 1,000,000 worms but as we wish in all charges against the culture to bo rather over than under the ...
Human ζ-crystallin is a Zn(2+)-lacking medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) included in the quinone oxidoreductase (QOR) family because of its activity with quinones. In the present work a novel enzymatic activity was characterized: the double bond α,β-hydrogenation of medium-chain 2-alkenals and 3-alkenones. The enzyme is especially active with lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxyhexenal, and a role in their detoxification is discussed. This specificity is novel in the QOR family, and it is similar to that described in the distantly related alkenal/one reductase family. Moreover, we report the X-ray structure of ζ-crystallin, which represents the first structure solved for a tetrameric Zn(2+)-lacking MDR, and which allowed the identification of the active-site lining residues. Docking simulations suggest a role for Tyr53 and Tyr59 in catalysis. The kinetics of Tyr53Phe and Tyr59Phe mutants support the implication of Tyr53 in binding/catalysis of alkenal/one substrates, while Tyr59 is
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