Still, scientists have yet to see an extrasolar planet directly or even take a picture of one. Thus far, their presence has only been inferred from either their effect on the orbit of their host stars or by measuring the amount of infrared light they emit. The Spitzer Space Telescope is the only instrument that has successfully used the latter strategy. (To learn more about the Spitzer Space telescope, read 'Seeing the Invisible.'). The job of finding and imaging extrasolar planets is extraordinarily difficult. The biggest challenge is the planets' feeble luminosity. A star, fueled by nuclear reactions, is typically a billion times brighter than any orbiting planet, whose light is primarily reflected from the host star. This overwhelming brightness renders nearby extrasolar planets invisible to astronomers. Invisible does not mean undetectable, however.. The Telltale Wobble. One technique scientists use to detect extrasolar planets is to look for a slight wobble in the motion of the host stars. ...
Unicoi State Park camping area visitors center. Being held at the astronomy rumor mill and check for the various star formations currently lighting up the astronomy rumor mill to light our way? It certainly has been horror stories of astronomy is one which needs top chemists to figure out how to use your digital camera to take great pictures through a big lens, and finally through other lenses get focused to meet your eye. What happens here is that light enters and bounces off a mirror, and comes back up to find another planet like earth. Not just for people with PhD's in planetary science or astrophysics. There are many different areas that go into making the astronomy rumor mill of the astronomy rumor mill, there will be using the astronomy rumor mill to focus on your way to a distant mountain peak, or mess with delicate, sophisticated features. These big binoculars is their ability to help you avoid the astronomy rumor mill and inspire your future scientist to take a look at different ...
The detection of complex cyanides in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, and the similarity of their abundance ratios to those found in comets, implies that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique. The idea that comets once seeded the early Earth with the water and organics needed for life to originate has been widely discussed. This raises the question of whether the composition of comets - a reliable indicator of the composition of the solar nebula - is unique to the Solar System or commonly accompanies planet formation. Here Karin Öberg et al. report the detection of cyanides - CH3CN, HC3N and HCN - in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, an analogue to the solar nebula. The abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas-phase are similar to those in comets, implying that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the prebiotic chemistry present in the young Solar System is not unique.
We studied 14 presolar SiC mainstream grains for C-, Si-, and S-isotopic compositions and S elemental abundances. Ten grains have low levels of S contamination and CI chondrite-normalized S/Si ratios between 2 × 10−5 and 2 × 10−4. All grains have S-isotopic compositions compatible within 2σ of solar values. Their mean S isotope composition deviates from solar by at most a few percent, and is consistent with values observed for the carbon star IRC+10216, believed to be a representative source star of the grains, and the interstellar medium. The isotopic data are also consistent with stellar model predictions of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In a δ33S versus δ34S plot the data fit along a line with a slope of 1.8 ± 0.7, suggesting imprints from galactic chemical evolution. The observed S abundances are lower than expected from equilibrium condensation of CaS in solid solution with SiC under pressure and temperature conditions inferred from the abundances of more ...
Then he found the ratio of terrestrial planets to all the planets seen. Again, remember, this ratio was found for planets somewhat close in to their stars.. Then he plotted all the planets versus distance from their parent stars. For example, you see very few planets very close to the star (probably because it's hard to form or get a planet to orbit that close in), then more as you get farther out, then fewer at some large distance (which may, once again, simply be due to the fact that planets with long orbital periods can't be seen in the short duration of the data). He then found an equation (called a mathematical fit) that did a good job predicting the shape of the plot. Once he had that, it's easy enough to extrapolate it out to the distance of the habitable zones of the stars.. That gave him an estimate of all planets orbiting there, including gas and ice giants. Multiply by the ratio of terrestrial planets, and boom! 34% of stars like the Sun should have planets that are Earth-sized ...
The Exoplanets plugin plots the position of stars with exoplanets. Exoplanets data is derived from The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. List of potential habitable exoplanets and data about them were taken from The Habitable Exoplanets Catalog by Planetary Habitability Laboratory.. Exoplanets Catalog. The exoplanets catalog is stored on the disk in JSON format, in a file named "exoplanets.json". A default copy is embedded in the plug-in at compile time. A working copy is kept in the user data directory.. Configuration. The plug-ins' configuration data is stored in Stellarium's main configuration file (section [Exoplanets]). ...
Together with Paul Butler, Marcy quickly confirmed the reality of the 51 Pegasi planet using the method of precise Doppler measurement that he had developed for the purpose of extrasolar planet detection over many years. Seventy of the next 100 extrasolar planets discovered were found by his team. Many of these planets had distinctly non-circular orbits, in contrast with the orbits of known planets in our own Solar System. Several reside in systems where there is more than one giant planet, with multiple planets in a given system often having orbital periods that bear integer relationships to one another. As the observational sensitivity and the understanding of systematic errors steadily improve, planets with masses more like Saturn and Neptune are being found, instead of only the Jupiter-like bodies that characterized the initial discoveries. Significantly, there are no bodies that have masses appreciably in excess of 10 Jupiter masses. In a few cases, the orbital plane lies sufficiently ...
Although Uranus is not the farthest planet from the Sun, it is the coldest planet in the Solar System. Like its neighbor, Neptune, Uranus is an ice giant, meaning it does not have a solid surface and what is called its 'surface' is actually a layer of clouds that lies above what may be a layer of liquid water and a core of rock at the center of the planet. Uranus is 14.5 times bigger than Earth, making it the third largest planet in the Solar System after Jupiter and Saturn; Uranus's core alone is as large as our planet. The atmosphere of Uranus is composed of 83% helium, 15% methane and 2% methane plus trace amounts of other gases such as ethane.. The average temperature of the surface of Uranus is 49° Kelvin or -224° Celsius. What makes the planet so cold is that it has a low internal temperature. At its core, Uranus is only 5000° K, compared to Jupiter, which as a core temperature of 30000° K. The reason for Uranus's lack of internal warmth is unclear, although scientists speculate that ...
The NAI has been called upon to use its expertise in managing a complex, distributed research organization to lead the development of a new web presence for NASA's Astrobiology Program.. The program includes several elements, including the NAI, the Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology grant program, and two science and technology grant programs: Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP), and Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development (ASTID).. The new web presence will unify the research, education efforts, accomplishments, and opportunities of each of these elements, and become the one place on the web where interested parties can obtain information about astrobiology at NASA.. Visit the existing NAI site at: http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/. Please follow Astrobiology on Twitter.. ...
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter suffers glitch, swaps computers, radio transponder, enters safe mode, say Jet Propulsion Laboratory officials
This newly released Cassini image shows Saturn and its moon Titan.. Titan and Saturn have very few things in common, but a hazy appearance is one feature they share. Though they appear similar in this image, appearances can be misleading.. Although both Saturn and Titan (3,200 miles or 5,150 kilometers across) have thick atmospheres and are covered in clouds, their differences are significant. Saturn is a gas giant with no solid surface to speak of. Titan's atmosphere is a blanket surrounding an icy, solid body. Even their atmospheric compositions are different; Saturn is mostly hydrogen and helium with clouds of water and ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide. Titan's atmosphere is primarily nitrogen with methane clouds.. This view looks toward Saturn from the unilluminated side of the rings, 0.3 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in visible green light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on May 22, 2015.. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.4 million ...
April to June 2011 NODC Ocean Heat Content Anomalies (0-700Meters) Update and Comments. Guest post by Bob Tisdale. A NEW APPEARANCE. Due to the noise in the Ocean Heat Content anomaly data for some of the ocean basins, I've added 13-month running average filters to the long-term graphs.. SAME INTRODUCTION AS ALWAYS. The National Oceanographic Data Center's (NODC) Ocean Heat Content (OHC) anomaly data for the depths of 0-700 meters are available through the KNMI Climate Explorer Monthly observations webpage. The NODC OHC dataset is based on the Levitus et al (2009) paper "Global ocean heat content (1955-2008) in light of recent instrumentation problems". Refer to Manuscript. It was revised in 2010 as noted in the October 18, 2010 post Update And Changes To NODC Ocean Heat Content Data. As described in the NODC's explanation of ocean heat content (OHC) data changes, the changes result from "data additions and data quality control," from a switch in base climatology, and from revised Expendable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluid Inclusion Characteristics of Auriferous Quartz Veins in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Greenstone Belts of Eastern and Southern Finland. AU - Matti, Poutiainen. AU - Sami, Partamies. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Fluid inclusions in auriferous quartz veins in five deposits in the Archean (2.9-2.7 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.75 Ga) greenstone belts of eastern and southwestern Finland have been characterized on the basis of their composition, reconstructed isochores, and decrepitation behavior.The dominant fluids associated with gold mineralization are H2O-CO2 ± CH4 ± halite (Archean) and H2O-CO2-CH4 or H2O-CH4 (Paleoproterozoic) in composition; phase ratios were generally uniform H2O/CO2 in the Archean but were variable in the Paleoproterozoic. In the Archean Au ± sulfide quartz veins, the mineralizing fluids contain less CH4 (,30 mol %) and have higher salinities (up to 39 wt % NaCl equiv) than the corresponding fluids in the Paleoproterozoic Au-sulfide-quartz veins (up ...
2009 is the year dedicated to astronomy. Five planets were already found in 55 Cancri the system that looks like our solar system. According to Nasa: "This artist's concept illustrates two planetary systems - 55 Cancri and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences." "The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits. In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant ...
Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean has been empirically modeled and its products inferred from sample observations, but it has never been fully tested experimentally. Presented in this study is the first experimental simulation of lunar differentiation. Two end-member bulk Moon compositions are considered: one enriched in refractory lithophile elements relative to Earth and one with no such enrichment. A 'two-stage' model of magma ocean crystallization based on geophysical models is simulated and features early crystal suspension and equilibrium crystallization followed by fractional crystallization of the residual liquid. An initially entirely molten Moon is assumed. The study presented below focuses on the early cumulates formed by equilibrium crystallization, differences in mantle mineralogy resulting from different bulk Moon compositions and the implications for the source regions for secondary lunar magmatism. There are significant differences in the crystallization sequence between the two
The Cassini spacecraft that has been busily exploring Saturn and its moons swooped to within 30 miles of the tiny moon Enceladus yesterday, and has already begun sending back images of the fissures near the moon's south pole. The icy moon, which is about 310 miles wide, has tantalized scientists with geyser-like eruptions of icy water vapor that were first spotted in 2005…. The eruptions produce a halo of frozen water vapor and gas that replenishes Saturn's E-ring as Enceladus circles the planet [SPACE.com].. The Cassini took images of the fissures, which scientists call the moon's "tiger stripes," in the infrared spectrum as well, to gain further information about the temperatures in the vents; previous studies had shown temperatures there can reach a relatively balmy -135 degrees Fahrenheit, which is 200 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the rest of the moon. While the material sprayed out of the fissures consists of frozen water vapor, scientists disagree on whether an internal ocean of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Europa, tidally heated oceans, and habitable zones around giant planets. AU - Reynolds, Ray T.. AU - McKay, Christopher P.. AU - Kasting, James. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Tidal dissipation in the satellites of a giant planet may provide sufficient heating to maintain an environment favorable to life on the satellite surface or just below a thin ice layer. In our own solar system, Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, could have a liquid ocean which may occasionally receive sunlight through cracks in the overlying ice shell. In such a case, sufficient solar energy could reach liquid water that organisms similar to those found under Antarctic ice could grow. In other solar systems, larger satellites with more significant heat flow could represent environments that are stable over an order of Aeons and in which life could perhaps evolve. We define a zone around a giant planet in which such satellites could exist as a tidally-heated habitable zone. This zone can ...
Caltech's Konstantin Batygin, an assistant professor of planetary science, and Mike Brown, the Richard and Barbara Rosenberg Professor of Planetary Astronomy, discuss new research that provides evidence of a giant planet tracing a bizarre, highly elongated orbit in the outer solar system.. The first possibility they investigated was that perhaps there are enough distant Kuiper Belt objects-some of which have not yet been discovered-to exert the gravity needed to keep that subpopulation clustered together. The researchers quickly ruled this out when it turned out that such a scenario would require the Kuiper Belt to have about 100 times the mass it has today.. That left them with the idea of a planet. Their first instinct was to run simulations involving a planet in a distant orbit that encircled the orbits of the six Kuiper Belt objects, acting like a giant lasso to wrangle them into their alignment. Batygin says that almost works but does not provide the observed eccentricities precisely. ...
New research reveals the first experimental evidence that our solar system's protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount of gas into the sun within just a few million years.. Infant planetary systems are usually nothing more than swirling disks of gas and dust. Over the course of a few million years, this gas gets sucked into the center of the disk to build a star, while the remaining dust accumulates into larger and larger chunks - the building blocks for terrestrial planets.. Astronomers have observed this protoplanetary disk evolution throughout our galaxy - a process that our own solar system underwent early in its history. However, the mechanism by which planetary disks evolve at such a rapid rate has eluded scientists for decades.. Now researchers at MIT, Cambridge University, and elsewhere have provided the first experimental evidence that our solar system's protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount ...
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Reconnaissance supports the MAGTF commander's intent and his CCIRs. While contributing to the commander's broad situational awareness and development, reconnaissance assets tailor their efforts to support the specific CCIRs indicated by the commander's intent and subsequent unit intelligence and operations planning. Simultaneously, reconnaissance forces must remain alert to any developments that may cause the commander to reassess that intent. MAGTF reconnaissance assets are best employed early to support the CCIRs and friendly course of action development and selection. When reconnaissance is initiated early in the planning cycle, planning and execution are driven by the flow of solid, timely information and intelligence. If reconnaissance is delayed, situation development will generally be more uncertain. In this case, planning and execution can either take place in an information vacuum or be driven by the search for such information. Reconnaissance assets are best employed in general ...
The salt levels of oceans on distant Earth-like planets could have a major effect on their climates - according to new research from the Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of East Anglia.. A study just published reveals that the circulation in extremely salty or fresh water extra-terrestrial seas would influence their temperatures - and could in fact make for more habitable conditions for alien life.. Until recently, computer simulations of habitable climates on Earth-like planets have mainly focused on their atmospheres. But studying their oceans is vital for understanding climate stability and habitability - as on our own Earth.. Not only this, but until now, researchers had not considered that the seas on distant Earth-like planets might not be quite like ours - they might be significantly more or less salty than the oceans on Earth.. Prof. David Stevens, from UEA's School of Mathematics, said: "The number of planets being discovered outside our solar system is ...
X-ray flares detected from brown dwarfs since 1999 suggest changing magnetic fields within them, similar to those in very-low-mass stars. With no strong central nuclear energy source, the interior of a brown dwarf is in a rapid boiling, or convective state. When combined with the rapid rotation that most brown dwarfs exhibit, convection sets up conditions for the development of a strong, tangled magnetic field near the surface. The flare observed by Chandra from LP 944-20 could have its origin in the turbulent magnetized hot material beneath the brown dwarf's surface. A sub-surface flare could conduct heat to the atmosphere, allowing electric currents to flow and produce an X-ray flare, like a stroke of lightning. The absence of X-rays from LP 944-20 during the non-flaring period is also a significant result. It sets the lowest observational limit on steady X-ray power produced by a brown dwarf, and shows that coronas cease to exist as the surface temperature of a brown dwarf cools below about ...
The Solar System formed 4. 6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called volatiles, such as water, ammonia and methane. All eight planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.. ...
Observational studies of gas in protoplanetary disks [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Andrés Carmona Gonzalez : Dissertationsubmitted to theCombined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematicsof the Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, Germanyfor the degree ofDoctor of Natural Sciencespresented byDiplom-Ingenieur, MSc, MA, Andres´ Carmona Gonzalezborn in Bogota,´ ColombiaOral examination: 25 July 2007Observational Studies of Gasin Protoplanetary DisksReferees: Prof. Dr. Thomas HenningDr.
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We consider the socially optimal use of solar geoengineering to manage climate change. Solar geoengineering can reduce damages from atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, potentially more cheaply than reducing emissions. If so, optimal policy includes less abatement than recommended by models that ignore solar geoengineering, and the price of carbon is lower. Solar geoengineering reduces temperature but does not reduce atmospheric or ocean carbon concentrations, and that carbon may cause damages apart from temperature increases. Finally, uncertainty over climate change and solar geoengineering alters the optimal deployment of solar geoengineering. We explore these issues with an analytical model and a numerical simulation. The price of carbon is 30%-45% lower than the price recommended in a model without geoengineering, depending on the parameterizations of geoengineering costs and benefits. Carbon concentrations are higher but temperature is lower when allowing for solar geoengineering. The ...
Proxima b, an Earth-size planet right outside our solar system in the habitable zone of its star, may not be able to keep a grip on its atmosphere, leaving the surface exposed to harmful stellar radiation and reducing its potential for habitability.. At only four light-years away, Proxima b is our closest known extra-solar neighbor. However, due to the fact that it hasn't been seen crossing in front of its host star, the exoplanet eludes the usual method for learning about its atmosphere. Instead, scientists must rely on models to understand whether the exoplanet is habitable.. One such computer model considered what would happen if Earth orbited Proxima Centauri, our nearest stellar neighbor and Proxima b's host star, at the same orbit as Proxima b. The NASA study, published on July 24, 2017, in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, suggests Earth's atmosphere wouldn't survive in close proximity to the violent red dwarf.. "We decided to take the only habitable planet we know of so far -- Earth -- ...
Water is the medium in which the chemistry of all life on Earth takes place. The NAI UH Team will focus on scenarios involving the sources and distribution of water in planetary systems and the delivery and incorporation of water into rocky habitable planets. The team will investigate:. The Origin of Earth's Water - Constraining the origin of Earth's water by better characterizing the D/H ratio of the primitive mantle. D/H in the Interstellar Medium, Disks and the Solar System - Determining the relationship of the highly deuterium-enriched circumstellar envelope material with the planet-forming disks in these systems, and investigating the evolution of D/H in a mature planetary system through observations of comets and models of ice fractionation processes. Ice Chemistry in the Solar System - Investigating the processing of primitive Solar system material and ices by energetic particles that leads to life's precursor molecules. The Main Belt Comets - Surveying the sky for Main Belt Comets, a new ...
The Herschel space observatory has discovered water vapor in a pre-stellar core in the constellation of Taurus known as Lynds 1544. This is the first detection of water vapor in a molecular cloud on the verge of star formation.. ESA's Herschel space observatory has discovered enough water vapor to fill Earth's oceans more than 2000 times over, in a gas and dust cloud that is on the verge of collapsing into a new Sun-like star.. Stars form within cold, dark clouds of gas and dust - 'pre-stellar cores' - that contain all the ingredients to make solar systems like our own.. Water, essential to life on Earth, has previously been detected outside of our Solar System as gas and ice coated onto tiny dust grains near sites of active star formation, and in proto-planetary discs capable of forming alien planetary systems.. The new Herschel observations of a cold pre-stellar core in the constellation of Taurus known as Lynds 1544 are the first detection of water vapor in a molecular cloud on the verge of ...
Muladhara Chakra 1st Chakra located at the base of the spine at the perenium area color is RED, spinning downward toward earth issues of the body and physical surroundings stability, support, security, grounding. Tribal connection. Needing to fit in with the group legs, feet, coccyx Adrenal glands Related to the zodiac signs of Aquarius and Capricorn Associated with the planet Saturn emotions of fear, thoughts of lack and survival earth element bija mantra or seed letter vibration is lam deity is Brahma the creator Svadhisthana Chakra 2nd Chakra located in the lower abdomen, below naval color is ORANGE, spinning outwardly from the lower naval and sacrum sacrum and pelvis intuition, creativity, sexuality, sensuality, spirituality. Balance in relationships Ovaries and Testes Related to the zodiac signs of Sagittarius and Pisces Associated with the planet Jupiter sexuality, intimacy and associated emotions; false knowledge water element bija mantra or seed letter vibration is vam deity is Vishnu ...
May is such a beautiful month. Nature is expressing all of her glory with the abundance of beautiful flowers that are in full bloom. What a joy to behold. The heavens also proclaim their glory with an alignment of planets. This alignment will allow you to see every planet in our solar system in a single evening! After sunset you will be able to see the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn, and Jupiter. A few hours later at 4:00 AM you will be able to see Uranus, Neptune and Pluto by telescope. There are also two comets out there to watch.. On May 5, the bright planets Mars, Saturn and Venus formed a perfect equilateral triangle in the western sky. This dazzling configuration was visible almost everywhere on Earth. This pyramid-shaped configuration was directly above Bethlehem. The full moon on April 27, GMT, at 6 degrees Scorpio, was right over Jerusalem. Is this trying to tell us something? Then, on May 10, the planets Mars and Venus will appear to pass so close to one another that they will ...
The year was 1989. A small, unmanned space probe rapidly approached the mysterious and unexplored planet Neptune. Launched in 1977, the Voyager 2 spacecraft had already visited Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, imaging each of these beautiful worlds in unprecedented detail. A rare alignment of the outer four planets made this Planetary Grand Tour possible as NASA scientists were able to use the gravity of each planet to "slingshot" the craft outward to the next world.1 Voyager 2 had traveled over four billion miles during its 12-year mission and was about to become the only spacecraft to visit distant Neptune. This encounter would mark the end of an era of planetary space exploration since Neptune was the one remaining planet unvisited by space probes.2 Astronomers all over the world waited eagerly for the first high-resolution images. What wonderful secrets would be revealed?. A Triumph of Newtonian Physics. Neptune is the only planet in our solar system that was known to exist before it was ...
Together with Paul Butler, Marcy quickly confirmed the reality of the 51 Pegasi planet using the method of precise Doppler measurement that he had developed for the purpose of extrasolar planet detection over many years. Seventy of the next 100 extrasolar planets discovered were found by his team. Many of these planets had distinctly non-circular orbits, in contrast with the orbits of known planets in our own Solar System. Several reside in systems where there is more than one giant planet, with multiple planets in a given system often having orbital periods that bear integer relationships to one another. As the observational sensitivity and the understanding of systematic errors steadily improve, planets with masses more like Saturn and Neptune are being found, instead of only the Jupiter-like bodies that characterized the initial discoveries. Significantly, there are no bodies that have masses appreciably in excess of 10 Jupiter masses. In a few cases, the orbital plane lies sufficiently ...
Downloadable! We study optimal climate policy when climate tipping points and solar geoengineering are present. Solar geoengineering reduces temperatures without reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Climate tipping points are irreversible and uncertain events that cause large damages. We analyze three different rules related to the availability of solar geoengineering: a ban, using solar geoengineering as insurance against the risk of tipping points, or using solar geoengineering only as remediation in the aftermath of a tipping point. We model three distinct types of tipping points: two that alter the climate system and one that yields a direct economic cost. Using an analytic model, we find that an optimal policy, which minimizes expected losses from the tipping point, includes both emissions reductions and solar geoengineering from the onset. Using a numerical simulation model, we quantify optimal policy and various outcomes under the alternative scenarios. The presence of tipping points leads to more
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Scientific research on the International Space Station is a collection of experiments that require one or more of the unusual conditions present in low Earth orbit. The primary fields of research include human research, space medicine, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and meteorology. The 2005 NASA Authorization Act designated the American segment of the International Space Station as a national laboratory with the goal of increasing the use of the ISS by other federal agencies and the private sector. Research on the ISS improves knowledge about the effects of long-term space exposure on the human body. Subjects currently under study include muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shift. The data will be used to determine whether space colonisation and lengthy human spaceflight are feasible. As of 2006, data on bone loss and muscular atrophy suggest that there would be a significant risk of fractures and movement problems if astronauts landed on a planet after a lengthy interplanetary ...
Astrobiologists have shown that a key element for life on Earth was likely delivered to our planet on meteorites. Their work indicates that the early Earth was bombarded by meteorites that provided reactive phosphorus. When released in water, this phosphorus could have been incorporated into prebiotic molecules.. The team showed that phosphorus was abundant on Earth 3.5 billion years ago by documenting its presence in limestone from the early Archean. They think the phosphorus was delivered in minerals from meteorites that are not seen on the surface of the Earth. The research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences.. Matthew Pasek, lead author of the study, was formerly a NASA Astrobiology Institute Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Arizona and is an alumni of the 2012 FameLab Astrobiology event held in Houston, TX. Pasek is now an Assistant Professor of Geology at the University of South Florida.. Please follow Astrobiology on Twitter.. ...
Before the mission ended, Cassini's was an already powerful influence on future exploration. In revealing that Enceladus has essentially all the ingredients needed for life, the mission energized a pivot to the exploration of 'ocean worlds' that has been sweeping planetary science over the past couple of decades.. Lessons learned during Cassini's mission are being applied in planning NASA's Europa Clipper mission, planned for launch in the 2020s. Europa Clipper will make dozens of flybys of Jupiter's ocean moon to investigate its possible habitability, using an orbital tour design derived from the way Cassini explored Saturn. Farther out in the solar system, scientists have long had their eyes set on exploring Uranus and Neptune. So far, each of these worlds has been visited by only one brief spacecraft flyby (Voyager 2, in 1986 and 1989, respectively). Collectively, Uranus and Neptune are referred to as ice giant planets. A variety of potential mission concepts are discussed in a recently ...
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Data collected during two close flybys of Saturn's moon Enceladus by NASA's Cassini spacecraft add more fuel to the fire about the Saturnian ice world containing sub-surface liquid water. The data collected by Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer during Enceladus flybys in July and Oct. 2008, were released in the July 23 issue of the journal Nature. "When Cassini flew through the plume erupting from Enceladus on October 8 of last year, our spectrometer was able to sniff out many complex chemicals, including organic ones, in the vapor and icy particles," said Hunter Waite, the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer Lead Scientist from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. "One of the chemicals definitively identified was ammonia ...
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Solar system planetary orbits. Artwork of the planets of the solar system and their orbits. This oblique angle looks inwards from the orbit of the sixth planet Saturn (lower left). The next planet towards the Sun is Jupiter (lower right). The asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is shown as a light blue band. Inside the asteroid belt are the planets of the inner solar system: Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury. In the background are the two outer planets, Uranus (top centre) and Neptune (upper right). - Stock Image C002/9063
At the center of the Solar System is the Sun. It is a star, like the billions of other stars in the sky. The other stars are very, very far away, so they look tiny. The Sun is important to us because it gives us heat and energy that allows life. None of the life on Earth could exist without the Sun.[3]. The rest of the things in the Solar System orbit (travel around) the Sun. The planets are the largest of these. Each planet is a little like the Earth. But the planets are also very different from each other.. Many of the planets have moons. A moon orbits a planet. Mercury has no moons[4] and nor does Venus. Earth has one. Jupiter has 63![5]. The planets closest to the Sun are called the inner planets. These are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Then comes a big ring of asteroids, chunks of rock much smaller than planets. This ring is called the asteroid belt. Within the asteroid belt, there is a dwarf planet (smaller than a normal planet) named Ceres. Then come the outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, ...
Saturn is almost twice as far from the Sun as Jupiter at nearly 900 million miles. It is second in size in our solar system, surpassed only by Jupiter, but Saturn's mass is much smaller. Saturn's specific gravity is less than water's, meaning it would float on a body of water! Like Jupiter, Saturn rotates extremely fast, and completes a rotation in about 10 hours. It takes a little over 29 years to make one revolution around the Sun. Saturn has 60 confirmed satellites, many of which are buried inside Saturn's smaller ring systems which are being discovered by NASA's Cassini spacecraft. It is very difficult for astronomers to count the number of moons revolving around Saturn, because it is difficult to distinguish between tiny moons and the numerous ice chunks composing Saturn's smaller ringlets. The large moon Titan is the most interesting in terms of atmospheric composition (mentioned below). It is likely more satellites will be found in the future when astronomers diagnose Saturn's small, thin ...
The solar system is made up of the Sun, the planets and dwarf planets and their known moons, asteroids, comets, dust and gas. The planets, asteroids, and comets travel around the Sun, the center of our solar system.. Most of the bodies in the solar system travel around the Sun along nearly circular paths or orbits, and all the planets travel about the Sun in the anticlockwise direction (when viewed from above).. Solar system formation began billions of years ago, when gases and dust began to come together to form the Sun, planets, and other bodies of the solar system.. ...
After the formation of the Solar System, the orbits of all the giant planets continued to change slowly, influenced by their interaction with the large number of remaining planetesimals. After 500-600 million years (about 4 billion years ago) Jupiter and Saturn fell into a 2:1 orbital resonance; Saturn orbited the Sun once for every two Jupiter orbits.[3] This resonance created a gravitational push against the outer planets, causing Neptune to surge past Uranus and plough into the dense planetesimal belt. The planets scattered the majority of the small icy bodies inwards, while themselves moving outwards. These planetesimals then scattered off the next planet they encountered in a similar manner, moving the planets' orbits outwards while they moved inwards.[5] This process continued until the planetesimals interacted with Jupiter, whose immense gravity sent them into highly elliptical orbits or even ejected them outright from the Solar System. This caused Jupiter to move slightly inward. This ...
Standish agreed that the tidal effects of the planets upon the Earth will be negligible. "If all the planets were in a straight line, it would raise the tide only 1/600 hundreds of an inch, so the planets have virtually no effect, he said. A baseball held at arm's length would have a tidal effect millions of times stronger on a person than the planet Mars at its closest, Yeomans and Edberg said.. The planetary alignment won't provide much of a visual spectacle, either. The Earth and moon will be on the opposite side of the sun from the other aligned planets. The sun's glare will hide the other planets, making the event as much of a no-show for skywatchers as it is for doomwatchers.. "It will be like trying to look at a search light with little fireflies around it," Standish said.. Only the moon, Mars and Venus may be far enough from the sun and bright enough to be seen, with Venus appearing in the eastern dawn sky and the moon and Mars in the western sky just after sunset.. ...
When you're trying to figure out what alien life might look like, it makes sense to be looking in the most extreme environments Earth has available.. One such place where life has been found to thrive is three kilometres (1.86 miles) beneath the ground, the home of one of the strangest lifeforms we know: the bacterium Desulforudis audaxviator.. It lives in complete dark, in groundwater up to 60 degrees Celsius (140 Fahrenheit) - an environment devoid of sunlight, oxygen or organic compounds.. And it has perfectly evolved to derive its energy from the radioactive decay of uranium in the rocks around it - which means it lives off nuclear energy instead of relying on the Sun.. This, according to researchers from the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory and the University of São Paulo, makes it an excellent model for studying the possibility of extraterrestrial life.. In particular, the possibility of life on Jupiter's moon Europa, an ocean planet covered in ice, far from the life-giving light ...