Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
Substance P is a member of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides that plays an important role in pain transmission, neurogenic inflammatory diseases and the adaptive response to stress. Substance P exerts its biological activities via binding to a G-protein coupled receptor of the neurokinin (NK) receptor family. Here, we show by Western blot experiments that substance P induced a transient synthesis of the zinc finger transcriptional regulator Egr-1 in human glioma cells. Substance P-induced stimulation of Egr-1 biosynthesis was completely inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 and by AG1487, an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. These results indicate that transactivation of the EGF receptor as well as stimulation of the mitogen activated/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) are essential for substance P/NK-1 receptor-induced activation of Egr-1 biosynthesis. Moreover, we show that the signaling cascade
This study characterised the effects of persistent peripheral inflammation of the foot on pain and spinal cord expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) and early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1), known markers of neuronal plasticity, in a clinical model of naturally-occurring inflammatory disease and hyperalgesia in sheep (footrot), before and after routine treatment (parenteral treatment with antibiotics and antiseptic footbathing). The temporal pattern of expression of COX-1, COX-2 and Egr-1 mRNA and protein were analysed using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Animals affected with persistent peripheral inflammation displayed significant hyperalgesia and lameness (a proxy indicator of spontaneous pain) restricted to the inflamed limb. Hyperalgesia and lameness were significantly attenuated 1 day after treatment, and resolved further by day 7 and day 3, respectively. COX-2 but not COX-1, protein expression was up-regulated in spinal cord from lame animals on day 0, before treatment.
Transcriptional regulator (PubMed:20121949). Recognizes and binds to the DNA sequence 5-GCG(T/G)GGGCG-3(EGR-site) in the promoter region of target genes (By similarity). Binds double-stranded target DNA, irrespective of the cytosine methylation status (PubMed:25258363, PubMed:25999311). Regulates the transcription of numerous target genes, and thereby plays an important role in regulating the response to growth factors, DNA damage, and ischemia. Plays a role in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation and cell death. Activates expression of p53/TP53 and TGFB1, and thereby helps prevent tumor formation. Required for normal progress through mitosis and normal proliferation of hepatocytes after partial hepatectomy. Mediates responses to ischemia and hypoxia; regulates the expression of proteins such as IL1B and CXCL2 that are involved in inflammatory processes and development of tissue damage after ischemia. Regulates biosynthesis of luteinizing hormone (LHB) in the pituitary (By similarity ...
Other researchers who were studying kidney development previously identified transcription factor KLF12 as a transcriptional repressor of the AP-2α gene. It was then discovered that AP-2α expression is also reduced in advanced CRC tumor tissue compared to matched normal tissue and that loss of AP-2α promoted CRC invasion. This connection illuminated a potential link between KLF12 and CRC. In vitro studies show that KLF12 promotes gastric cancer (GC) cell proliferation and invasion, and that KLF12 levels are elevated in about 40% of poorly differentiated GCs and correlate with tumor size. Furthermore, recent genome-wide analyses find high KLF12 levels in approximately 40% of esophageal adenocarcinomas and in 45% of salivary tumors. Until now, however, the role of KLF12 in CRC remained unclear.. The MUSC research team designed a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments to clarify the role of KLF12 in CRC. The first set of studies examined KLF12 expression in 7 human CRC cell lines. They found ...
Summary: Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) investigators report preclinical research showing that Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) promotes colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth by activating early growth response protein 1 (EGR1), in the July 2016 issue of PLOS One. Data also reveal that levels of KLF12 and EGR1 correlate synergistically with a poor CRC prognosis. Results indicate that KLF12 plays an important role in CRC progression and provides a potential novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target.. Results of preclinical studies by MUSC investigators reported in the July 2016 issue of PLOS One (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159899) demonstrate for the first time that the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) promotes poor colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth, in part, by activating EGR1. Furthermore, data demonstrate that KLF12 and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) levels synergistically correlate with CRC prognoses.. CRC is the third most common and third ...
Transcriptional regulator. Recognizes and binds to the DNA sequence 5-GCG(T/G)GGGCG-3(EGR-site) in the promoter region of target genes. Binds double-stranded target DNA, irrespective of the cytosine methylation status. Regulates the transcription of numerous target genes, and thereby plays an important role in regulating the response to growth factors, DNA damage, and ischemia. Plays a role in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation and cell death.
Transcriptional regulator. Recognizes and binds to the DNA sequence 5-GCGGGGGCG-3 (GSG). Activates the transcription of target genes whose products are required for mitogenesis and differentiation (By similarity).
To explore the molecular mechanisms of PPARgamma1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), we hypothesized that early growth-response factor-1 (Egr-1) might be a transcriptional mediator of the growth factor- and cytokine-induced PPARgamma1 gene expression since a putative Egr-1 binding element was found in the human PPARgamma1 promoter. In this study, we document that overexpression of Egr-1 activates the human PPARgamma1 promoter in both VSMC and HepG2 cells. Using Northern blot analysis, we observed that growth factors and cytokines such as PDGF, bFGF, Ang 11, TNFalpha, and IL-1beta induce Egr-1 expression prior to PPARgamma1 up-regulation in human VSMC. In addition, overexpression of a constitutively active form of Egr-1 by adenoviral gene transfer in VSMC dramatically induced PPARgamma1 gene expression by 6-8-fold, and overexpression of NAB2, a potent negative feedback regulator of Egr-1, abrogated the growth factor- and cytokine-induced PPARgamma1 expression in VSMC. ...
Microglial hyperactivity contributes to neuronal damage resulting from CNS injury and disease. However although P2X7 receptor activation is well recognized to regulate processing and release of cytokines little is known concerning its role in regulating the Cladribine transcription of inflammatory genes nor the molecular mechanisms underlying these transcriptional effects. In the present studies we identify that the transcription factors early growth response (Egr)-1 -2 and -3 are downstream signaling targets of P2X7 receptors in microglia and that their activation is sensitive to MEK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. Moreover using RNAi we demonstrate that Egr factors and P2X7 receptors are necessary for BzATP-mediated attenuation of iNOS and stimulation of TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. BzATP also attenuates neuronal death induced by LPS conditioned medium and P2X7 receptors are required for this effect. These studies are the first to identify Egr factors as ...
Dr. Zhao is interested in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders research. In her graduate school in Arizona State University, she worked in Dr. Steve Macknics lab and found that hypoxia, caused by capillary constrictions in the hippocampus, contributes to neurodegeneration in epileptic mouse model 1. She completed her Ph.D. dissertation project in Dr. Amelia Gallitanos lab. She found that the transcription factor early growth response 3 (EGR3) regulates the serotonin 2A receptor gene (Htr2a) probably through both direct and indirect ways 2,3. Identification of the mechanism could provide information for the proposed regulatory network which integrates genetic and environmental factors influences on schizophrenia and could provide future therapeutic targets to diagnose and treat schizophrenia. Currently, she is working on how the aging process contributes to changes in neural stem cell activity in the subventricular zone.. Publications:. ...
Title: Regulation of Radiation-Induced Apoptosis by Early Growth Response-1 Gene in Solid Tumors. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Mansoor M. Ahmed. Affiliation:C15, UKMC, Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington,KY 40536-0084, USA.. Keywords:egr-1, apoptosis, tnf-, bax, ionizing radiation. Abstract: Ionizing radiation exposure is associated with activation of certain immediate-early genes that function as transcription factors. These include members of jun or fos and early growth response (EGR) gene families. In particular, the functional role of EGR-1 in radiation-induced signaling is pivotal since the promoter of EGR-1 contains radiation inducible CArG DNA sequences. The Egr-1 gene belongs to a family of Egr genes that includes EGR-1, EGR-2, EGR-3, EGR-4, EGR-α and the tumor suppressor, Wilms tumor gene product, WT1. The Egr-1 gene product, EGR-1, is a nuclear protein that contains three zinc fingers of the C2H2 subtype. The EGR-1 GC-rich consensus ...
Background: The zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 (Early growth response 1) is central to several growth factors and represents an important activator of target genes not only involved in physiological processes like embryogenesis and neonatal development, but also in a variety of pathophysiological processes, for example atherosclerosis or cancer. Current options to investigate its transcription and activation in vivo are end-point measurements that do not provide insights into dynamic changes in the living organism. Results: We developed a transgenic mouse (Egr-1-luc) in which the luciferase reporter gene is under the control of the murine Egr-1 promoter providing a versatile tool to study the time course of Egr-1 activation in vivo. In neonatal mice, bioluminescence imaging revealed a high Egr-1 promoter activity reaching basal levels three weeks after birth with activity at snout, ears and paws. Using a model of partial hepatectomy we could show that Egr-1 promoter activity and Egr-1 ...
Fibroproliferative disorders such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis have no effective therapies and result in significant morbidity and mortality due to progressive organ fibrosis. We examined the effect of peptides derived from endostatin on existing fibrosis and fibrosis triggered by two potent mediators, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bleomycin, in human and mouse tissues in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We identified one peptide, E4, with potent antifibrotic activity. E4 prevented TGF-β-induced dermal fibrosis in vivo in a mouse model, ex vivo in human skin, and in bleomycin-induced dermal and pulmonary fibrosis in vivo, demonstrating that E4 exerts potent antifibrotic effects. In addition, E4 significantly reduced existing fibrosis in these preclinical models. E4 amelioration of fibrosis was accompanied by reduced cell apoptosis and lower levels of lysyl oxidase, an enzyme that cross-links collagen, and Egr-1 (early growth response gene-1), a transcription ...
Wilms tumor protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WT1 gene on chromosome 11p. This gene encodes a transcription factor that contains four zinc finger motifs at the C-terminus and a proline / glutamine-rich DNA-binding domain at the N-terminus. It has an essential role in the normal development of the urogenital system, and it is mutated in a subset of patients with Wilms tumor, the genes namesake. Multiple transcript variants, resulting from alternative splicing at two coding exons, have been well characterized. There is also evidence for the use of non-AUG (CUG) translation initiation site upstream of, and in-frame with the first AUG, leading to additional isoforms. The WT1 gene product shows similarity to the zinc fingers of the mammalian growth regulated early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) and (EGR2) proteins. Wilms tumour tumor suppressor gene1 (WT1) causes an embryonic malignancy of the kidney, affecting around 1 in 10,000 infants. It occurs in both sporadic and ...
The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (Avp) modulates social behaviors via its two centrally expressed receptors, the Avp 1a receptor and the Avp 1b receptor (Avpr1b). Recent work suggests that, at least in mice, Avp signaling through Avpr1b within the CA2 region of the hippocampus is critical for normal aggressive behaviors and social recognition memory. However, this brain area is just one part of a larger neural circuit that is likely to be impacted in Avpr1b knockout (−/−) mice. To identify other brain areas that are affected by altered Avpr1b signaling, genotypic differences in immediate early gene activation, i.e. c-FOS and early growth response factor 1 (EGR-1), were quantified using immunocytochemistry following a single exposure to an intruder. In females, no genotypic differences in intruder-evoked c-FOS or EGR-1 immunoreactivity were observed in any of the brain areas measured. In males, while there were no intruder-evoked genotypic differences in c-FOS immunoreactivity, genotypic
... , Authors: Reeti Bandyopadhyay, Véronique Baron. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
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It is well known that the antitumor effects of chemotherapeutic drugs are at least partially mediated by apoptosis. DENSPM represents the first polyamine analogue to undergo clinical evaluation against solid tumors. To design second generation analogues and to more effectively deploy DENSPM, the mechanisms underlying drug sensitivity need to be understood. We previously reported that DENSPM could cause G1 arrest followed by a delayed apoptotic response in certain melanoma cells (7) and rapid apoptosis mediated by cytochrome c release and caspase activation in others (8) . In another study, 4 we showed that SSAT-dependent down-regulation of the apoptotic inhibitory protein, survivin, is causally involved in the apoptosis of melanoma cells. Here, we additionally investigate the role of MAPK activation in determining cellular responses to this novel class of anticancer agents.. The present studies were guided by a gene-profiling lead indicating that the transcription factor EGR-1 was potently ...
Complete information for EGR1 gene (Protein Coding), Early Growth Response 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Dendritic spines compartmentalize synaptically-evoked biochemical signals. The authors show that electrical compartmentalization provided by a spine endows the associated synapse with additional modes of calcium signaling by shaping the kinetics of synaptic calcium currents.
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Early Growth Response Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that are induced by GROWTH FACTORS and contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain composed of three ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
293(6). Aquaporin (AQP) 1 null mice have a defect in the renal concentrating gradient because of their inability to generate a hyperosmotic medullary interstitium. To determine the effect of vasopressin on renal medullary gene expression, in the absence of high local osmolarity, we infused 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), a V(2) receptor (V(2)R)-specific agonist, in AQP1 null mice for 7 days. cDNA microarray analysis was performed on the renal medullary tissue, and 5,140 genes of the possible 12,000 genes on the array were included in the analysis. In the renal medulla of AQP1 null mice, 245 transcripts were identified as increased by dDAVP infusion and 200 transcripts as decreased (1.5-fold or more). Quantitative real-time PCR measurements confirmed the increases seen for cyclin D1, early growth response gene 1, and activating transcription factor 3, genes associated with changes in cell cycle/growth. Changes in mRNA expression were correlated with changes in protein expression by ...
Plant species differ in their ability to transform available resources to biomass and to respond in a plastic way to environmental circumstances; we hypothesized that such differences among four weed taxa of Papaver would explain differences in their competitive response. We first compared two populations each of Papaver rhoeasL., P.dubiumL. ssp. dubium, P.dubiumL. ssp. lecoqii (Lamotte) Syme and P.argemoneL., grown in a greenhouse for 6 weeks in a nutrient gradient combined with two light treatments to elucidate possible differences in responses. As there were clear differences, a second experiment evaluated whether these differences also meant differences in competitive response, during early growth, when tested against two crops (wheat, rape). The assumption that competitive response was linked to the ability to transform nutrient and light to biomass was not supported: even though differences in extent of plasticity existed, the effect of competition was similar for the taxa. Thus, higher ...
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Incorporation of new particle formation and early growth treatments into WRF/Chem: Model improvement, evaluation, and impacts of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia ...
Early growth response 1 is a growth suppressor in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts. In most human tumors, such as breast cancer, fibrosarcoma, and glioblastoma, Egr1 is described to be tumor suppressor gene ( 9- 11) that is required for maximal sensitivity to irradiation ( 17, 38). However, the tumor-suppressing role seems to be tissue specific, because recent studies implicated a tumor growth-promoting role of Egr1 in prostate cancer progression ( 27, 34, 39). Higher levels of Egr1 were found in prostate cancer ( 26, 40, 41) and Egr1 is growth promoting for vascular smooth muscle cells and for rat kidney tumor cells ( 42- 44). In our previous study, we therefore investigated the role of Egr1 by use of a defined genetic difference of primary MEFs from WT and Egr1-null mice generated by Lee et al. ( 19) and showed that deletion of Egr1 leads to a striking phenotype, including complete bypass of senescence and apparent immortal growth consistent with loss of a suppressor gene ( 18). To identify ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A non-Smad mechanism of fibroblast activation by transforming growth factor-β via c-Abl and Egr-1. T2 - Selective modulation by imatinib mesylate. AU - Bhattacharyya, S.. AU - Ishida, W.. AU - Wu, M.. AU - Wilkes, M.. AU - Mori, Y.. AU - Hinchcliff, M.. AU - Leof, E.. AU - Varga, J.. PY - 2009/3/12. Y1 - 2009/3/12. N2 - The nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase c-Abl regulates cell proliferation and survival. Recent studies provide evidence that implicate c-Abl as a mediator for fibrotic responses induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), but the precise mechanisms underlying this novel oncogene function are unknown. Here, we report that when expressed in normal fibroblasts, a constitutively active mutant of Abl that causes chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) stimulated the expression and transcriptional activity of the early growth response factor 1 (Egr-1). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), lacking c-Abl, were resistant to TGF-β stimulation. Responsiveness of these ...
Objectives: Cigarette smoking is implicated in the formation of occlusive vascular diseases. However, the effect of nicotine on the post-injury neointimal development is as yet under studied. We hypothesized that nicotine increases intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury by upregulating the atherogenic transcription factor Egr-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via the ERK 1/2 -ELK-1 signaling pathway.. Methods and Results: MEK-1/2 and its downstream kinases ERK 1/2 were rapidly activated in rat VSMC by exposure to nicotine (Western blot). Simultaneously to the ERK activation, nicotine induced a modest activation of p38 MAPK. Nicotine had no effect on the activation of other Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases such as SAP/JNK and ERK5. The phosphorylation of ELK-1 and the up-regulation of Egr-1 gene expression were detected after nicotine-mediated ERK activation. This increase in Egr-1 transcription factor was further confirmed by Western blot and EMSA. MEK-1/2 pharmacological blocker ...
New research finds genetic differences that help to explain why some babies are born bigger or smaller than others. The research, led by the University of Oxford, also reveals how genetic differences provide an important link between an individuals early growth and their chances of developing conditions such as type 2 diabetes or heart disease in later life.. The large-scale study, published in Nature, could help to target new ways of preventing and treating these diseases.. The new study was jointly led by a team of researchers from six institutions including the universities of Oxford, Exeter, Bristol, Cambridge and Queensland, and the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam. The research involved more than 160 international researchers from 17 countries who are members of the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium. The work was supported by more than 120 research funders: the major sources of funding for UK researchers were the Wellcome Trust, the Royal Society, the Medical Research Council, the ...
More than 500 specimens of embryonic shells of orthocerid nautiloids from the Imo Formation were investigated. Although the material is recrystallized, the external and internal features of the early growth stages are exceptionally well preserved. The material comprises eight species of Pseudorthoceratidae: Pseudorthoceras knoxense (McChesney, 1860); Ristedtoceras teriliratum n. sp.; Mooreoceras imoense n. sp.; Mooreoceras striatulum n. sp.; Reticycloceras peytonenseGordon, 1965; Dolorthoceras tenuifilosumGordon, 1965; Mitorthoceras girtyiGordon, 1965; and Euloxoceras angustinusGordon, 1965. A new genus, Ristedtoceras, is erected and the genus PseudorthocerasGirty, 1911 is emended.. The analysis indicates that the morphologic diversity of the early growth stages of the shells of these species are much more diverse than expected. The different species vary strongly in the embryonic shell size, cicatrix position and shape, numbers of septa in the embryonic shell at the time of hatching, embryonic ...
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1 March 1996 Amino response protein snagsDAIRY cows fed protected amino acids methionine and lysine are failing to give the expected response in milk prote
In vertebrates, the early social environment can persistently influence behaviour and social competence later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in animal social competence are largely unknown. In rats, high-quality maternal care causes an upregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (gr) and reduces offspring stress responsiveness. This identifies gr regulation as a candidate mechanism for maintaining variation in animal social competence. We tested this hypothesis in a highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher, reared with or without caring parents. We find that the molecular pathway translating early social experience into later-life alterations of the stress axis is homologous across vertebrates: fish reared with parents expressed the glucocorticoid receptor gr1 more in the telencephalon. Furthermore, expression levels of the transcription factor egr-1 (early growth response 1) were associated with gr1 expression in the telencephalon and ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1/CD54 plays an important role in T cell dependent B cell activation and for function of B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells. ICAM-1 expression is upregulated as a consequence of B lymphocyte antigen receptor (BCR) signaling, thereby serving to render antigen-stimulated B cells more receptive to T cell-mediated costimulatory signals. We have investigated BCR-induced expression of the Icam-1 gene in primary B cells and B cell lines and have found it to be dependent on BCR-induced expression of the transcription factor EGR1. Icam-1 transcription, induced by BCR cross-linking or bypassing the BCR with phorbol ester, is absent in a B cell line in which the EGR1-encoding gene (egr-1) is methylated and not expressed. A potential EGR1-binding site was located at -701 bp upstream of the murine Icam-1 gene transcription start site and shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay to bind to murine EGR1. Mutation of this site in the context of 1.1 kb of the ...
The recall of a memory by a reminder stimulus places this memory back into an active and labile state, from which it is reconsolidated into an inactive and stable state. Is this cellular reconsolidation of memory simply a recapitulation of the events engaged at consolidation, or is there a more complicated process at work (see the Perspective by Izquierdo and Cammarota)? Lee et al. show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), but not transcription factor Zif268, is necessary for the consolidation of contextual fear conditioning within the hippocampus. However, Zif268, but not BDNF, is required for reconsolidation of the contextual fear memory. Frankland et al. show that processing fear memories involves the activation of multiple cortical regions of the brain. Cortical activation was greater after remote, rather than recent, memory tests, which is consistent with an increasingly important role for the cortex over time. The anterior cingulate cortex, an area involved in processing ...
CAR-mediated induction of CYP2B6 mRNA was strongly potentiated by the activation of p38 MAPK in HepG2 cells as effectively as that in human primary hepatocytes. In addition, p38 MAPK is constitutively activated in human primary hepatocytes but not in human hepatoma cell lines including HepG2 cells. Thus, p38 MAPK may play a role in the CAR-mediated CYP2B6 induction in human primary hepatocytes. Only one set of CAR-regulated genes requires p38 MAPK for their activation: this set includes genes such as CYP2A7 and CYP2C9, in addition to CYP2B6. In contrast, p38 MAPK plays no role in CAR activation of the CYP3A4 or UGT1A1 genes. Various cell signaling has been shown to regulate activation of CAR and CAR-mediated transcription of a target gene. Growth factor-activated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 signaling represses CAR activation and nuclear translocation (Koike et al., 2007). cAMP and early growth response 1 synergize CAR-mediated transcription of CYP2B6 genes in HepG2 cells (Ding et ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Adenosine 5′-triphosphate activates nuclear translocation of mitogen-activated protein kinases leading to the induction of early growth response 1 and Raf expression in human granulosa-luteal cells. AU - Tai, Chen Jei. AU - Chang, Shu Ju. AU - Leung, Peter C K. AU - Tzeng, Chii Ruey. PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - With the stimulation of many types of cell surface receptors, MAPKs are activated. We have previously demonstrated an effect of extracellular ATP on ERKs and gonadotropin-induced progesterone secretion, implicating the significance of ATP in the regulation of ovarian function. However, little is known about the specific role of ATP in the subsequent MAPK-induced signaling cascade in human granulosa-luteal cells (hGLCs). The present study was designed to examine the effect of ATP on the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway, including nuclear translocation and the expression of the immediate early genes in hGLCs. Western blot analysis, using a monoclonal antibody, ...
Background. The molecular mechanism of small-forsize graft injury remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the gene expression pattern of acute phase response in relation to graft size in a rat-liver transplantation model. Methods. A rat orthotopic liver transplantation model using 30%, 50%, and whole grafts was used. The graft survival rates and liver morphology were compared among the three groups. Two transcription factors, nuclear factor (NF)-κB (p65) and early growth response (Egr-1), and their downstream genes were compared. Results. According to the graft size, the rats were grouped as follows: group 1 (n=20), 32% (24-47%); group 2 (n=10), 56% (50-65%); and group 3 (n=10), 104% (89-120%). The 7-day survival rates were 20% (P=0.039 vs. group 2, P=0.000 vs. group 3), 60%, and 100% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Dilation of hepatic sinusoids and vacuolization of hepatocytes were observed in group 1. Up-regulation of Egr-1 and endothelin (ET)-1 and over-expression of ...
Soil quality - Determination of the toxic effects of pollutants on germination and early growth of higher plants (ISO 18763:2016)
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. The epithelium lining the intestine undergoes rapid and continuous renewal. Growth factors play a role in intestinal epithelial growth regulation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) is shown to act as a mitogen and induce the expression of two zinc finger-containing immediate early genes [Zif268 (zinc finger protein 268) and Nup475 (nuclear protein 475)] in rat intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells in culture. These two gene products were initially isolated from serum-treated fibroblasts and represent growth-stimulated transcription factors. In TGF alpha-treated RIE-1 cells, nuclear run-on experiments demonstrate that TGF alpha induction of these two genes is regulated predominantly at the level of gene transcription. Utilizing in situ hybridization techniques, we show that systemic administration of TGF alpha induces expression of these two genes in the rat ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Egr-1 expression induced by ZnO nanoparticles in human keratinocytes. AU - Jeong, Sang Hoon. AU - Ryu, Hwa Jung. AU - Park, Yoon Hee. AU - Bae, Hyun Cheol. AU - Son, Sang Wook. PY - 2012/11/22. Y1 - 2012/11/22. N2 - Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in cosmetics and sunscreen. In spite of the broad application of ZnO NPs on human skin, there are limited literatures on the potential toxicities of ZnO NPs at the cellular and molecular levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways of ZnO NPs-induced early growth response-1 (Egr-1) expression and the role of Egr-1 in ZnO NPs-induced cytokine expression. ZnO NPs increased the Egr-1 expression, promoter activity and its nuclear translocation in HaCaT cells. ZnO NPs activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Up-regulation of Egr-1 expression by ZnO NPs stimulation was found to be inhibited by an ERK inhibitor, but by neither ...
When the GnT-V enzyme activity in the cells was increased in mammary gland cells, they increased proliferation and began to take on many characteristics of cancer cells. Using a mouse model of human breast cancer, tumors appeared when the enzyme was deleted, but onset was delayed an average of 10 weeks in the mice. "In human terms," said Michael Pierce, director of the UGA Cancer Center and study co-author, "the corresponding delay would be many months and maybe years. You basically are slowing everything down and keeping the cancer from forming and progressing very early." Slowing the pace of the cancer could eliminate its spread to other organs, keeping it localized where it could be treated successfully, Pierce explained.. The researchers, lead by Hua-Bei Guo, assistant research scientist in the department of biochemistry and molecular biology in the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, stimulated breast cancer formation in mouse mammary glands by over-expressing a her-2 protein that is a ...
Research in our laboratory is focused on providing a more complete understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in cognition and memory storage in the mammalian brain. Specifically, we are interested in the role that immediate-early genes (IEGs) induced by neural activated associated with learning play in stabilizing neural networks to ultimately encode long-term memories. These studies require a multidisciplinary approach, using methods from molecular biology, biochemistry, and systems- and behavioral neuroscience. Our work can be divided broadly into 3 main areas: 1) Determining the molecular and systems interactions regulating IEG expression following learning, 2) Identifying the role of different IEGs to neuroplastic processes, and 3) Using advanced IEG imaging methods to define neuronal population interactions involved in learning and memory. This research will increase understanding of the neurobiological bases of memory, and may provide the basis for future advances in ...
Since 1970, the population of Lautoka has grown rapidly, and in the last twenty years it has also changed dramatically in structure. In the early 1970s the population was estimated to be about 12,000, the vast majority of inhabitants being Indian, as would be expected considering the early growth of the city was entirely associated with the sugar industry. Almost all of the present Indian inhabitants are descendants of the early girmityas. In 1986 the population was 39,000 and in 1996 almost 43,000, but it is not clear exactly how the boundaries of the urban area were defined at either of these censuses. In 2005 the population including the suburban zones was probably about 50,000, occupying a total area of about 16 km². The population of Lautoka including the rural districts is around 80,000. But much of the recent growth of the city itself has been due to indigenous Fijians moving into the urban area. The city is the birthplace of PGA Tour Hall of Famer Vijay Singh and Ghazal and Tabla star ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - DNA Microarray analysis of immediate response to EGF treatment in rat schwannoma cells. AU - Oh, Min-Kyu. AU - Scoles, Daniels R.. AU - Pulst, Stefan M.. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates many intracellular effector molecules, which subsequently influence the expression levels of many genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis and signal transduction, etc. In this study, the early response of gene expressions due to EGF treatment was monitored using oligonucleotide DNA microarrays in rat schwannoma cell lines. An immunoblotting experiment showed the successful activation of EGF receptors and an effector protein, STAT5, due to EGF treatment. The microarray study showed that 35 genes were significantly induced and 2 were repressed within 60 min after the treatment. The list of induced genes included early growth response 1, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, c-fos, interferon regulatory factor 1 and early growth response 2, etc. According to ...