The 2009 report for the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database is now available to download.. The UK HIV Drug Resistance Database was established in 2001 as a national repository for resistance tests, giving rise to an important scientific resource. It has been highly successful, capturing 90-95% of all tests conducted.. The report outlines the achievements of the Database in the previous year including highlights of the various analyses that have been carried out.. If you would like to order a hard copy of the report, please send your request via email.. For more information, please visit the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database website.. ...
Ambrose JC, Foster GM, Fernhill E, Leigh Brown A.J, Porter K, Mackie NE, Fidler S, Geretti A M, On behalf of the UK Register of HIV Seroconverters and the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database. 2011. The contribution of recent infections to HIV-1 transmission clusters in the UK. 18th International HIV Dynamics and Evolution Conference, 1-4 May 2011. ...
Ambrose JC, Foster GM, Fernhill E, Leigh Brown A.J, Porter K, Mackie NE, Fidler S, Geretti A M, On behalf of the UK Register of HIV Seroconverters and the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database. 2011. The contribution of recent infections to HIV-1 transmission clusters in the UK. 18th International HIV Dynamics and Evolution Conference, 1-4 May 2011. ...
Abbott RealTime HBV Assay Is More Sensitive in Detection of Low Viral Load and Little Impacted by Drug Resistant Mutation in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients under Nucleotside Analogues Therapy. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
If HIV-1 RNA titer (HIVDQ / HIV-1 RNA Detection and Quantification, Plasma) is 500 copies/mL or higher, then HIV-1 genotypic drug resistance mutations (HIVPR / HIV-1 Genotypic Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Drug Resistance, Plasma) will be performed at an additional charge.. See HIV Treatment Monitoring Algorithm in Special Instructions.. ...
We investigated the evolution of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT)- and protease-associated antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance mutations during the time taken to perform genotypic drug resistance testing. Thirty treatment-experienced patients who were adherent to therapy and who underwent genotypic drug resistance testing provided blood samples at randomization and when reviewing the test results (baseline). Patients remained on their existing therapy between randomization and baseline. The predominant HIV strains in 10 patients (33%) either lost and/or gained primary RT inhibitor (RTI) or protease inhibitor (PI) associated resistance mutations during the testing period. Of the 9 patients with RT mutations, 2 lost, 5 gained, and 2 both lost and gained RTI resistance mutations. One patient gained a significant PI-associated resistance mutation on an existing PI-resistant background. The evolution that occurred in the RT may have altered the effectiveness of subsequent ARV therapy in some patients ...
A retrospective, blinded study was conducted to examine the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance among a cohort of HIV-infected infants born in 1998 and 1999 in New York State. The earliest available HIV-positive specimen was tested. Most samples were from infants younger than 60 days of age. Genotype data were generated for the protease and reverse transcriptase genes of HIV-1 proviral DNA from 91 infected infants. Eleven infants (12.1%) had provirus with mutations associated with drug resistance, with all three classes of antiretroviral drugs represented. Two infants (2.2%) had mutations associated with resistance to two classes of antiretrovirals. Perinatal antiretroviral drug exposure was examined; it was not found to be significantly associated with the presence of resistance mutations. However, for those infants who had perinatal antiretroviral exposure and genotypic evidence of drug resistance to HIV, the mutations that were detected correlated with at least one antiretroviral ...
2. With a simple alteration of denaturation temperature in the thermal cycle, COLD-PCR could detect drug resistance mutations that existed at a level of 5-10% within a mixed pool, compared with a level of ≥25% for conventional PCR ...
Viral genotypic and phenotypic resistance profiles were assessed for virologic rebound (HIV-1 RNA level ≥40 c/mL). Only patients with HIV-1 RNA levels ≥500 c/mL met the criteria for resistance testing. Genotypic substitutions at baseline were summarized for virologic rebound. The genotypic resistance profile presented patients with genotypable isolates, those with protease inhibitor substitutions from genotypable isolates, those with integrase substitutions from genotypable isolates, and those with selected reverse transcriptase substitutions from genotypable isolates using the most current version of the International AIDS Society-USA list and Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. Newly emergent genotypic substitutions were summarized analogously for virologic rebound without baseline phenotypic resistance to atazanavir, ritonavir, or raltegravir, using all on-treatment isolates. pts= ...
Viral genotypic and phenotypic resistance profiles were assessed for virologic rebound (HIV-1 RNA level ≥40 c/mL). Only patients with HIV-1 RNA levels ≥500 c/mL met the criteria for resistance testing. Genotypic substitutions at baseline were summarized for virologic rebound. The genotypic resistance profile presented patients with genotypable isolates, those with protease inhibitor substitutions from genotypable isolates, those with integrase substitutions from genotypable isolates, and those with selected reverse transcriptase substitutions from genotypable isolates using the most current version of the International AIDS Society-USA list and Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. Newly emergent genotypic substitutions were summarized analogously for virologic rebound without baseline phenotypic resistance to atazanavir, ritonavir, or raltegravir, using all on-treatment isolates. pts= ...
Seegene Inc., (KOSDAQ: 096530), a leading developer of multiplex molecular diagnostic technologies and tests, today announced that it will introduce Quantplex MTB/MDR/XDR Detection, a real time test that detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance mutations associated with multiple drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) forms of M
UNLABELLED: The efficacy of specifically targeted anti-viral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) (STAT-C), including HCV protease and polymerase inhibitors, is limited by the presence of drug-specific viral resistance mutations within the targeted proteins. Genetic diversity within these viral proteins also evolves under selective pressures provided by host human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted immune responses, which may therefore influence STAT-C treatment response. Here, the prevalence of drug resistance mutations relevant to 27 developmental STAT-C drugs, and the potential for drug and immune selective pressures to intersect at sites along the HCV genome, is explored. HCV nonstructural (NS) 3 protease or NS5B polymerase sequences and HLA assignment were obtained from study populations from Australia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Four hundred five treatment-naïve individuals with chronic HCV infection were considered (259 genotype 1, 146 genotype 3), of which 38.5% were coinfected with
This tool takes as input a set of Gag-Pol sequences including the gene for the viral PR and one or more of its CSs, and produces a prediction for potential secondary drug resistance mutations in the latter. The cleavage of the Gag-Pol polyprotein by the PR is essential for the infectivity of HIV virions. PI therapy can give rise to primary resistance mutations in the PR, which are often associated with a decreased activity of the enzyme. Impaired function can be partially restored by compensatory mutations in the CS, probably by providing a better substrate for the mutated proteases. Associated pairs of mutations have been detected from large sets of sequences (populations of molecules) by covariation analysis (Hoffman et al. 2003), and we have extended this approach to identify CS mutations that arise in response to primary resistance mutations in the PR. We analysed HIV-1 subtype B nucleotide sequences containing the protease region from the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database ...
The major limitation of drug resistance genotyping for human immunodeficiency virus remains the interpretation of the results. We evaluated the concordance in predicting therapy response between four different interpretation algorithms (Rega 6.3, HIVDB-08/04, ANRS [07/04], and VGI 8.0). Sequences were gathered through a worldwide effort to establish a database of non-B subtype sequences, and demographic and clinical information about the patients was gathered. The most concordant results were found for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (93%), followed by protease inhibitors (84%) and nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTIs) (76%). For therapy-naive patients, for nelfinavir, especially for subtypes C and G, the discordances were driven mainly by the protease (PRO) mutational pattern 82I/V + 63P + 36I/V for subtype C and 82I + 63P + 36I + 20I for subtype G. Subtype F displayed more discordances for ritonavir in untreated patients due to the combined presence of PRO 20R and 10I/V. In ...
Transmission of drug-resistant pathogens presents an almost-universal challenge for fighting infectious diseases. Transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) can persist in the absence of drugs for considerable time. It is generally believed that differential TDRM-persistence is caused, at least partially, by variations in TDRM-fitness-costs. However, in vivo epidemiological evidence for the impact of fitness costs on TDRM-persistence is rare. Here, we studied the persistence of TDRM in HIV-1 using longitudinally-sampled nucleotide sequences from the Swiss-HIV-Cohort-Study (SHCS). All treatment-naïve individuals with TDRM at baseline were included. Persistence of TDRM was quantified via reversion rates (RR) determined with interval-censored survival models. Fitness costs of TDRM were estimated in the genetic background in which they occurred using a previously published and validated machine-learning algorithm (based on in vitro replicative capacities) and were included in the survival models ...
It can. Say you are positive and not on treatment. Chances are your virus will not have any drug resistant mutations. If you come in contact with someone who is on meds, with detectable virus, and...
Schuurman, R., Brambilla, D., De Groot, T., Huang, D., Land, S., Bremer, J., ... Boucher, C. (2002). Underestimation of HIV Type I drug resistance mutations: Results from the ENVA-2 genotyping proficiency program. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 18, 243 - 48. ...
Purpose of review: Surveillance for transmitted HIV drug resistance is essential to assessing the longer term sustainability and durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART).
HIV-1 protease recognizes and cleaves more than 12 different substrates leading to viral maturation. While these substrates share no conserved motif, they are specifically selected for and cleaved by protease during viral life cycle. Drug resistant mutations evolve within the protease that compromise inhibitor binding but allow the continued recognition of all these substrates. While the substrate envelope defines a general shape for substrate recognition, successfully predicting the determinants of substrate binding specificity would provide additional insights into the mechanism of altered molecular recognition in resistant proteases. We designed a variant of HIV protease with altered specificity using positive computational design methods and validated the design using X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry. The engineered variant, Pr3 (A28S/D30F/G48R), was designed to preferentially bind to one out of three of HIV proteases natural substrates; RT-RH over p2-NC and CA-p2. In kinetic ...
As discussed in What is Drug Resistance?, HIV drug resistance means a reduction in the ability of a drug -- or combination of drugs -- to block HIV ...
General Principles of Regimen Switching. The fundamental principle of regimen switching is to maintain viral suppression without jeopardizing future treatment options (AI). If a regimen switch results in virologic failure with the emergence of new resistance mutations, the patient may require more complex or expensive regimens.. The review of a patients full antiretroviral (ARV) history-including virologic responses, past ARV-associated toxicities, and cumulative resistance test results (if available)-is warranted before any treatment switch (AI). If a patient with pre-ART wild-type HIV achieves and maintains viral suppression after ART initiation, one can assume that no new resistance mutation emerged while the patient was on the suppressive regimen.. Once selected, a resistance mutation is generally archived in the HIV reservoir and is likely to re-emerge under the appropriate selective drug pressure, even if not detected in the patients most recent resistance test. If resistance data are ...
The emergence of drug resistance remains a major problem for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. However, the variety of mutational patterns that evolve in clinical practice have made the application of resistance data to clinical decision-making challenging. Despite (or because of) an abundance of drug-resistance data from disparate sources, there is only limited information available describing the patterns of drug resistance which usually appear in the clinic.
Antimicrobial resistance has become an imminent concern for public health. As methods for detection and characterization of antimicrobial resistance move from targeted culture and polymerase chain reaction to high throughput metagenomics, appropriate resources for the analysis of large-scale data are required. Currently, antimicrobial resistance databases are tailored to smaller-scale, functional profiling of genes using highly descriptive annotations. Such characteristics do not facilitate the analysis of large-scale, ecological sequence datasets such as those produced with the use of metagenomics for surveillance. In order to overcome these limitations, we present MEGARes (https://megares.meglab.org), a hand-curated antimicrobial resistance database and annotation structure that provides a foundation for the development of high throughput acyclical classifiers and hierarchical statistical analysis of big data. MEGARes can be browsed as a stand-alone resource through the website or can be ...
Clinical monitoring of pediatric HIV treatment remains a major challenge in settings where drug resistance genotyping is not routinely available. As a result, our understanding of drug resistance, and its impact on subsequent therapeutic regimens available in these settings, remains limited. We investigate the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1 drug resistance among 94 participants of the Ethiopia Pediatric HIV Cohort failing first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) using dried blood spot-based genotyping. Overall, 81% (73/90) of successfully genotyped participants harbored resistance mutations. Strikingly, 42% of resistant participants harbored resistance to all four nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors recommended for second-line use in this setting, meaning that there are effectively no remaining cART options for these children. Longer cART duration and prior regimen changes were significantly associated with detection of drug resistance mutations. Replicate genotyping ...
... gratefully acknowledges recent funding from the Genome Canada & Canadian Institutes of Health Researchs Bioinformatics & Computational Biology program, allowing integration of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO) with the Genomic Epidemiology Ontology, IRIDA platform, and OBO Foundry (see Genome Canada press release). As such, the next two years will be a time of active development for the ARO. Expect significant changes in the ARO between monthly releases as well as occasional incomplete revisions, which may affect downstream analyses ...
... gratefully acknowledges recent funding from the Genome Canada & Canadian Institutes of Health Researchs Bioinformatics & Computational Biology program, allowing integration of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO) with the Genomic Epidemiology Ontology, IRIDA platform, and OBO Foundry (see Genome Canada press release). As such, the next two years will be a time of active development for the ARO. Expect significant changes in the ARO between monthly releases as well as occasional incomplete revisions, which may affect downstream analyses ...
In sub-Saharan Africa, a 4-fold increase has been seen in pretreatment HIV drug resistance in children with prenatal exposure to ART.
Interrupting antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected persons whose treatment regimens are not achieving viral suppression provides an opportunity to study the evolution of drug-resistant mutations and viral fitness in vivo during the period after drug selection pressure is removed. In this study, WT, SDR and linked MDR mutations were analyzed from over 18,000 viral genomes at multiple time points in five treatment-interrupted patients using the PASS assay. These data demonstrated a three-phase evolution of drug-resistant mutations and complicated patterns of linked MDR mutations. Mathematical modeling showed that the relative loss of viral fitness increased with the number of mutations in the viral genome, and that WT viruses reached an estimated frequency of 1% after 1-2 months post treatment interruption. Understanding of the evolution of viral populations following treatment interruption has been hindered by inability to characterize a large number of viruses and the limited availability of ...
Health,A study of people newly diagnosed with HIV in the UK has found that se... Researchers from two UK hospitals and the Health Protection Agenc... The transmission of antiretroviral drug-resistant HIV is also wel... This study presented last week at the Fourteenth Conference on R... Genotypic resistance testing was performed on blood samples from ...,STIs,Significantly,Increase,Risk,of,Drug-resistant,HIV,Transmission,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Co-circulation HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and CRF31_BC in a drug-naive population from Southernmost Brazil: Analysis of primary resistance mutations ...
HIV genotyping is often unavailable in low and middle-income countries due to infrastructure requirements and cost. We compared genotype resistance testing in patients with virologic failure, by amplification of HIV pol gene, followed by
It is true, that I believe quite firmly that drug resistance testing should be performed in all newly HIV infected people prior or simultaneous to starting antiretroviral medications. This test...
Learn how REYATAZ® (atazanavir), as part of an HIV-1 treatment regimen, can help keep up drug levels to reduce the chance of HIV resistance. Read risk information and full Prescribing Information.
20 July 2017 | GENEVA: The World Health Organization (WHO) alerts countries to the increasing trend of resistance to HIV drugs detailed in a report based on national surveys conducted in several
Dawei Huang, a supervisor at the DAVID Bioinformatics Lab, noted in a talk at the ABRF conference that Sanger sequencing is currently used to detect drug resistance mutations in HIV, but the sensitivity of that approach limits its ability to perceive minor mutations. While he noted that next-generation sequencing improves upon that sensitivity to detect rare mutations, newer long-read approaches can detect both mutations and quasi-species of the HIV virus........... ...
Drug resistance to HIV medicines has been creeping higher in parts of Africa and Asia but is not steep enough to cause alarm, said a survey released by the
Current anti-HIV drugs targeted to the reverse transcriptase are severly limited by the development of drug resistance. We are currently undertaking a sytematic evaluation of the impact of drug resistance mutations in the viral RT on the viral fitness and drug sensitivity. We clone multi-resistant HIV-1 RTs from clinical isolates coming from AIDS patients failing therapy, express and purify the recombinant enzymes and evaluate their enzymological parameters. With this approach we already identified uncommon inter-class drug resistance patterns for mutations such as Y181I/C, Q145M, G190S, T215Y (1,2). ...
Standardized comparison of the relative impacts of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on nucleoside RT inhibitor susceptibility ...
HIV lacking Vif is susceptible to human APOBEC3 (A3)-mediated restriction, rendering the virus non-infectious. The archetypal family member, A3G, has a well-def...
Questions have arisen as to whether homeless or marginally housed people infected with HIV should be receiving HIV treatment because of their perceived ...
Researchers report that a new medication might revolutionize the treatment of HIV patients who don t respond to existing drugs. The intravenous drug, known as i
Drug resistance to targeted therapeutics is widespread and the need to identify mechanisms of resistance--prior to or following...
In Europe, a continuous programme (SPREAD) has been in place for ten years to study transmission of drug resistant HIV. We analysed time trends of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) in relation to the risk behaviour reported ...
This collection comprises 15 to 20 key slides selected by conference faculty from their lectures presented at live IAS-USA courses. Presenters are asked to choose slides of particular use to attendees who are presenting their own updates from this conference to their colleagues.. ...
How I was involved in the research work of epidermal cells: Why must clinicians do research works ? ( ^ ETEXT)
تأكد من الامتثال للمتطلبات القانونية: اسألنا كشريك من ذوي الخبرة لإجراء اختبار الانبعاثات الخاص بك. قم باكتشاف المزيد. المزيد ...
ضمان استمرارية الجودة من المنتج إلى المستهلك مع شهادة الأيزو 22000.. المزيد ...
Allolevas tabelis toodud ravimite pakendite kontrollimisel ei ole vajalik sama veakoodi ilmnemisest REKSi teavitada. Nimetatud partiide ravimid on lubatud tulenevalt Ravimiameti juhisest järgmisele tarbijale või lõpptarbijale väljastada. Vastutus nende ravimite väljastamisel lasub ravimi väljastajal. REKS kodulehel on esitatud vaid tootjate/müügiloahoidjate või Ravimiameti poolt saadud informatsioon ...
Infografika vysvětlující proces rezistence vůči antibiotikům, souvislost mezi spotřebou antibiotik a antimikrobiální rezistencí, nový trend rostoucího výskytu rezistence vůči antibiotikům poslední řady.
UNLABELLED: The R263K substitution in integrase has been selected in tissue culture with dolutegravir (DTG) and has been reported for several treatment-experienced individuals receiving DTG as part of salvage therapy. The R263K substitution seems to be incompatible with the presence of common resistance mutations associated with raltegravir (RAL), a different integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI). T66I is a substitution that is common in individuals who have developed resistance against a different INSTI termed elvitegravir (EVG), but it is not known whether these two mutations might be compatible in the context of resistance against DTG or what impact the combination of these substitutions might have on resistance against INSTIs. E138K is a common secondary substitution observed with various primary resistance substitutions in RAL- and EVG-treated individuals. Viral infectivity, replicative capacity, and resistance against INSTIs were measured in cell-based assays. Strand transfer and 3 ...