Multi Drug Resistance ist eine Erkrankung, die sich durch eine Überempfindlichkeit gegenüber bestimmten Antiparasitika und vielen anderen Medikamenten bemerkbar und Tiere empfänglich für eine potentiell tödliche Neurotoxikose macht. Die Krankheit wird durch die Degeneration des P-Glykoproteins verursacht, einem Protein, das normalerweise in den kapillaren Endothelzellen exprimiert wird, die als Teil der Blut-Hirnschranke fungieren, um Medikamente aus dem zentralen Nervensystem zu pumpen. Auf diese Weise beschränkt die Blut-Hirn-Schranke den Übergang von Medikamenten in das Nervensystem. Hunde mit dieser Gendeletion weisen erhöhte Hirnkonzentrationen von Medikamenten einschließlich Ivermectin, Moxidectin, Loperamid und Corticosteroiden.. Hunde, bei denen die Mutation reinerbig auftritt, exprimieren kein funktionales P-Glykoprotein und zeigen eine erhöhte Sensibilität gegenüber vielen Medikamenten. Für einige dieser Medikamente wird der Übergang in das Gehirn hochgradig verstärkt ...
4EYR: Insights into the mechanism of drug resistance: X-ray structure analysis of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease ritonavir complex.
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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport is common worldwide. Outbreak investigations and targeted studies have identified dairy cattle as the main reservoir this serotype. Antimicrobial resistance (Newport MDR-AmpC) is particularly problematic in this serotype, and the prevalence of Newport MDR-AmpC isolates from humans in the United States has increased from 0% during 1996-1997 to 26% in 2001. MDR strains have been recorded as resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT) and many of these strains show intermediate or full resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, kanamycin, potentiated sulphonamides, and gentamicin. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport str SL254. The SL254 strain is an MDR strain from one of two distinct lineages of the Newport serovar. (NCBI BioProject: bp_list[1 ...
The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical outcomes of intestinal transplant recipients colonized with multidrug-resistant organisms. T2 - a retrospective study. AU - Simkins, Jacques. AU - Morris, Michele I.. AU - Camargo, Jose F.. AU - Vianna, Rodrigo. AU - Beduschi, Thiago. AU - Abbo, Lilian M.. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) colonization among intestinal transplant (ITx) recipients have not been reported. Colonization rates with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained retrospectively in adults undergoing ITx (isolated or multivisceral) from 1/2009 to 12/2015. We assessed for VRE, CR-GNB, and MRSA bacteremia during the first year post-transplant for patients colonized with VRE, CR-GNB, and MRSA, respectively, and for those who were not colonized. We evaluated whether the number of hospitalization days and one year post-transplant survival ...
INTRODUCTION: The term multidrug-resistants (MDR) applies to the bacterium that is simultaneously resistant to some antimicrobials belonging to different chemical classes 1-3.. Furthermore, Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that impacts all pharmaceutically used antibiotic.. In recent years pharmaceutical companies have almost stopped producing new antibiotics which have led researchers to look for alternative antimicrobial. Herbs widely use for the treatment of infectious diseases in many developing countries 4. Therefore, in Sudan, with a high percentage of multidrug-resistant bacteria, we in urgent need to develop a new drug from our traditional medicine.. A wide range of medicinal plant parts use for extract as unprocessed drugs, and they possess various medicinal properties. The secondary metabolism of the plant was found to be a source of various phytochemicals that could directly be used as intermediates for the production of new drugs 5-8.. Nosocomial infection is one of the ...
Scientists and physicians at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, working with colleagues at the U.S. Navy Medical Research Center - Biological Defense Research Directorate, Texas A&M University, a San Diego-based biotech and elsewhere, have successfully used an experimental therapy involving bacteriophages -- viruses that target and consume specific strains of bacteria -- to treat a patient near death from a multidrug-resistant bacterium.
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Antibiotic Resistance, Antibiotic Resistant Infection, Antimicrobial Resistance, Multidrug-Resistant Organism, Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria.
PORTO ALEGRE, Brazil -- Hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas bacteria are frequently lethal.
3OQA: Contribution of the 80s loop of HIV-1 protease to the multidrug-resistance mechanism: crystallographic study of MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants.
A new way to fight multidrug-resistant bacteria by blinding them rather than killing them proved highly effective in a model of burn injuries, UT Southwestern Medical Center research shows.
Today, a generation of microbes has emerged that are so resistant to available medications that they might again become serious threats. Even the once easily treated organisms, such as staphylococcus and streptococcus, have acquired resistance to many standard antimicrobials, making them much harder to treat. The urgency of this situation has prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to issue guidelines that might help keep the situation under control, if universally followed. These guidelines include the concept that the proliferation of resistant organisms can be diminished if good sanitary practices are adhered to. This course will provide an overview of the mechanics of multidrug resistance and the most common resistant organisms.
Objectives. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strain HK302 was isolated from an outbreak of nosocomial infections in Switzerland in 1977. The aim of the present study was to assess whether this archive strain belongs to one of the known international clonal lineages of Acinetobacter baumannii and whether it harbours a genomic structure related to the AbaR1-like resistance islands.. Methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and HindIII ribotyping were used to determine the taxonomic position of HK302 at the species and subspecies (clonal) levels. The position and structure of the putative resistance island were investigated by AbaR1-based PCR mapping followed by restriction analysis and partial sequencing of amplicons. A. baumannii AYE harbouring AbaR1 was used as a positive control for PCR mapping.. Results. The MLST allelic profile (1-1-1-1-5-1-1) and HindIII ribotype of HK302 were typical of A. baumannii European (EU) clone I. In addition, an AbaR1-related region inserted into the ATPase gene ...
A total of 183 patients were colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates at a hospital in Spain during 2007-2010; prevalence increased over this period from 2.8% to 15.3%. To characterize these isolates, we performed molecular epidemiologic and drug resistance analysis. Genotyping showed that 104 (56.8%) isolates belonged to a single major clone (clone B), which was identified by multilocus sequence typing as sequence type (ST) 175. This clone was initially isolated from 5 patients in 2008, and then isolated from 23 patients in 2009 and 76 patients in 2010. PCR analysis of clone B isolates identified the bla(VIM-2) gene in all but 1 isolate, which harbored bla(IMP-22). ST175 isolates were susceptible to only amikacin (75%) and colistin (100%). Emergence of the ST175 clone represents a major health problem because it compromises therapy for treatment of P. aeruginosa nosocomial infections ...
Carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is most often associated with class D β-lactamases (OXA-23-like, OXA-40-like and OXA-58-like) and MBLs. OXA-type carbapenemases are predominant in A. baumannii, particularly in worldwide outbreaks of OXA-23 [24]. The molecular analysis of the isolates tested in this study revealed that 14 strains (51.8 %) carried the blaOXA-23-like gene and that two strains carried a blaOXA-24-like gene. All of the strains had a blaOXA-51-like gene, and four strains had a blaOXA-58 gene. In this study, the OXA-58 isolates presented lower MIC values for meropenem than OXA-23-like-positive isolates, which systematically exhibited higher MIC values (Table 1). The isolates with non-acquired OXA genes displayed a marked variation and included some carbapenem-resistant genes. Naturally occurring OXA carbapenemases, such as OXA-51-like enzymes (e.g., OXA 64-66, OXA 68-71, OXA 78-80, OXA-82, OXA-86, OXA-92 and OXA104-112), have been identified in A. baumannii isolates worldwide. In ...
Abstract. We performed whole genome sequencing on a clinical multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 223/14. Investigation into its draft genome revealed the presence of KPC-6 variant, suggesting carbapenemase is present in this isolate. We found a plasmid-borne KPC gene (882 bp) inserted between two transposase genes in the genome of K. pneumoniae 223/14.. Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC), multidrug resistance, whole genome sequencing ...
Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli are emerging threats in the intensive care unit setting worldwide. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing at an alarming rate, leaving limited therapeutic options. In addition, multidrug resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii has widely disseminated and become a frequent cause of nosocomial infections within many intensive care units. Therefore, resistance is increasing to all currently available antibiotics, including cephalosporins, penicillins, aztreonam, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. Some multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria remain susceptible to only a few antibiotics such as tigecycline, fosfomycin, and polymyxins. The steady trend of increasing resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics targeting resistant gram-negative bacilli has forced clinicians to increasingly apply more aggressive dosing strategies, ...
To understand the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and define individual risk factors for MDR, we used epidemiologic methods, performed organism typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and conducted a matched case-control retrospective study. We investigated 118 patients, on 27 wards, in whom MDR A. baumannii was isolated from clinical cultures. Each case-patient had a control without MDR A. baumannii and was matched for hospital length of stay, ward, and calendar time. The epidemiologic investigation found small clusters of up to 6 patients each with no common identified source. Ten different PFGE clones were found, of which 2 dominated. The PFGE pattern differed within temporospatial clusters, and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns varied within and between clones. Multivariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors: male sex, cardiovascular disease, having undergone mechanical ventilation, and having been treated with
In February 2006, a patient colonized with a multidrug-resistant sequence type 56 Acinetobacter baumannii strain was admitted to a hospital in Madrid, Spain. This strain spread rapidly and caused a large outbreak in the hospital. Clinicians should be ...
A series of clinical isolates of drug-resistant (DR) Acinetobacter baumannii with diverse drug susceptibility was detected from eight patients in the emergency intensive care unit of Tokai University Hospital. The initial isolate was obtained in March 2010 (A. baumannii Tokai strain 1); subsequently, seven isolates were obtained from patients (A. baumannii Tokai strains 2-8) and one isolate was obtained from an air-fluidized bed used by five of the patients during the 3 months from August to November 2011. The isolates were classified into three types of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns (RRR, SRR and SSR) according to their susceptibility (S) or resistance (R) to imipenem, amikacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Genotyping of these isolates by multilocus sequence typing revealed one sequence type, ST208, whilst that by a DiversiLab analysis revealed two subtypes. All the isolates were positive for bla OXA-51-like and bla OXA-66, as assessed by PCR and DNA sequencing. A. baumannii Tokai strains 1
Summary Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview o
Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infections Drugs Market Insights: Global Industry Analysis, Market Drivers, Restraints, Opportunities, Applications, Trends And Forecasts 2020-2026
Uropathogenic E. coli are paradoxically able to both cause disease in the urinary tract, and reside there asymptomatically. The pandemic, multi-drug resistant E. coli subclone ST131-H30 (H30) is of special interest, as it has been found to persist in the gut and bladder of healthy people. In order to understand this persistence, we investigated whether H30 is competitive in these niches and thus able to persist by excluding other E. coli, as well as whether H30 may persist via within-host adaptation. In order to assess the E. coli clonal landscape, we developed a novel method based on deep sequencing of two loci, along with an algorithm for analysis of resulting data. Using this method, we assessed fecal and urinary samples from healthy women carrying H30, and found that even in the absence of antibiotic use, H30 could completely dominate the gut and, especially, urine of healthy carriers. In order to ascertain whether H30 adapts within host, we employed population-level whole genome sequencing, ...
is an innately multidrug-resistant pathogen which is emerging in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. species exhibits innate resistance to many antibiotics, including cephalosporins (except ceftazidime), aztreonam, and aminoglycosides (1, 8C10). Clinical strains frequently harbor acquired resistances, especially to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and carbapenems. We have recently described the first resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump in MexAB-OprM efflux pump: AxyABM can extrude cephalosporins (except cefepime), fluoroquinolones, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, AxyABM plays a major role in the innate resistance to aztreonam. Nevertheless, the mechanism(s) leading to aminoglycoside and cefepime resistance remain(s) unknown. It is likely that other efflux systems contribute to the antibiotic resistance of AXX-A strain (GenBank accession number "type":"entrez-nucleotide","attrs":"text":"AFRQ01000000″,"term_id":"339120535″AFRQ01000000). We examined this sequence looking ...
is an innately multidrug-resistant pathogen which is emerging in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. species exhibits innate resistance to many antibiotics, including cephalosporins (except ceftazidime), aztreonam, and aminoglycosides (1, 8C10). Clinical strains frequently harbor acquired resistances, especially to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and carbapenems. We have recently described the first resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump in MexAB-OprM efflux pump: AxyABM can extrude cephalosporins (except cefepime), fluoroquinolones, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, AxyABM plays a major role in the innate resistance to aztreonam. Nevertheless, the mechanism(s) leading to aminoglycoside and cefepime resistance remain(s) unknown. It is likely that other efflux systems contribute to the antibiotic resistance of AXX-A strain (GenBank accession number "type":"entrez-nucleotide","attrs":"text":"AFRQ01000000″,"term_id":"339120535″AFRQ01000000). We examined this sequence looking ...
A multidrug-resistant organism is a germ that is resistant to many antibiotics. Find out about prevention and treatment. Get answers to your questions.
Shop Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Recently the emergence of pan-resistant bacterial pathogens was published in The Lancet Infectious Disease, online August 11, 2010. In this study 107 enterobacteria isolates from UK, India and Pakistan harbouring a broad spectrum metallo-β- lactamase 1 (called New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1; NDM-1) were found to be highly resistant against most antibiotics. Two Klebsiella isolates from the UK have been shown to be resistant against all available antibiotics. These isolates or the plasmids conveying resistance were shown to have been transferred also from country-to-country.. This is the true beginning of a post-antibiotic era, which will have a dramatic impact on our current urological practice. Enterobacteria are the most important species causing urinary tract infections (UTI). Most of the isolates harbouring this NDM-1 enzyme also were from community-acquired UTI.. Whereas in Gram-positive bacteria several new antibiotics are seen on the market, there will be no new antibiotics against ...
Serotyping The thirteen isolates belonged to three serotypes: ten strains (77%) to serotype 4b; two strains (15%) to 1/2a, and one strain (8%) to 1/2b (Fig. 3). DISCUSSION Most industrialized countries have developed surveillance systems for listeriosis since 1987 (25), following outbreaks that demonstrated the importance of the foodborne transmission of the disease. Listeriosis has been mainly reported by those countries, with few or even no reports from Africa, Asia and South America. According to Rocourt et al. (25), whether this reflects different consumption patterns, dietary habits, different host susceptibility, or lack of testing facilities is not known. In order to help filling this gap, collecting some data from Brazil was one of the aims of this research. The first antibiotic resistant strain of L. monocytogenes was described in 1988 and, since then, other resistant strains have been detected in food and clinical isolates, including multidrug resistant strains (23). In this study, all ...
Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps.
The Cambridge-Chennai Centre Partnership on Antimicrobial Resistant Tuberculosis will bring together a multidisciplinary team of international researchers, and will be led by Professor Sharon Peacock and Dr Soumya Swaminathan. The team, including Professors Lalita Ramakrishnan, Ken Smith, Tom Blundell and Andres Floto, will focus on developing new diagnostic tools and treatments to address the sharp rise in cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (TB). This will include research into:
Analysis of adeABC gene expression in CIP 70-10 resistant mutants.Since it is likely that expression of AdeABC in clinical isolate BM4454 is secondary to an alteration in AdeRS, we analyzed this regulatory system in A. baumannii CIP 70-10. This reference strain is susceptible to antibiotics and harbors the adeABC and adeRS genes, as evidenced by PCR (data not shown) and sequencing (GenBank accession no. AY426969). The AdeR regulator from CIP 70-10 shared 98% amino acid identity with that from BM4454, and the AdeS sensor shared 96.7% amino acid identity with that from BM4454, although the latter protein was shorter by 4 amino acids. The proteins contained the conserved motifs previously reported for histidine kinases and response regulators (32), and inside these motifs, no differences were detected between the sequences from the two strains. Spontaneous one-step mutants of CIP 70-10 exhibiting a multidrug resistance phenotype indistinguishable from that of BM4454 were selected on BHI agar ...
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most intractable human pathogens that pose serious clinical challenge due to extensive prevalence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates. Armed with abundant virulence and antibiotic resistance mechanisms, it is a major etiologic agent in a number of acute and …
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Parasakthi, N.; Vadivelu, J.; Ariffin, H.; Iyer, L.; Palasubramaniam, Selvi; Arasu, A. (2000) Epidemiology and molecular characterization of nosocomially transmitted multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 4 (3). pp. 123-128. ISSN 12019712. Full text not available from this repository ...
1) Magnet S, et al. (2001) Resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pump involved in aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strain BM4454.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45(12):3375-80 PubMed: 11709311 ...
1) Magnet S, et al. (2001) Resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pump involved in aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strain BM4454.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45(12):3375-80 PubMed: 11709311 ...
The authors note that as and when ART becomes universally available to drug users with HIV, and their health status improves, so their other health problems will take on increased prominence, such as non-AIDS related comorbitities and TB, all of which will come with their own treatment priorities. HIV infected drug users with TB co-infection creates various clinical challenges since TB can be difficult to diagnose in HIV patients due to atypical chest radiographs, high-rates of TB in parts of the body outside the usual setting of the lungs, and the reduced sensitivity of skin tests used to diagnose TB in HIV patients. While people with latent TB but not HIV infection have a roughly 1 in 11 lifetime risk of having their TB develop into full blown disease, it becomes a 1 in 11 annual risk in patients with HIV co-infection. Concentration of people with HIV and substance use disorders behind bars facilitates transmission of TB, including multidrug resistant strains, due to overcrowding and increased ...
Good Morning David, Ive done several years of Multi Drug Resistance Protein work. It was a tough nut to crack back a few years ago. We use JSB-1 primary antibody [far superior to C219] and the procedure is long... weve added extra IgG fragments to give the DAB some extra places to bind. Its really a nice, clean, amplified method. I can send you the worksheet for the procedure if youd like. Please find the related publications below (methods paper is #2). I think #3 may be of special interest to you. 1)Toth, K., Vaughan, M.M., Slocum, H.K., Fredericks, W.J., Chen, Y., Arredondo, M.A., Harstrick, A., Karakousis, C., Baker, R.M., Rustum, Y.M. Comparison of an Immunoperoxidase sandwich Staining Method and Western Blot Detection of P-glycoprotein in Human Cell Lines and Sarcomas. Amer. J. Path. 140:1009-1016, 1992. 2)Toth, K., Vaughan, M.M., Slocum, H.K., Arredondo, M.A., Takita, H., Baker, R.M., Tsuro, T., and Rustum, Y.M. New Immunohistochemical Sandwich Staining Method for MDR1 ...
Multiple drug resistance among bacteria has become a global issue with a considerable impact on the mortality associated with infectious diseases. This book is a detailed compilation of available knowledge on the surveillance and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in various countries throughout the world. Readers will be updated on current information on the understanding of mechanisms involved in drug resistance and the geographical distribution of resistance determinant markers. This volume should be a useful guide for microbiologists and clinicians interested in designing antimicrobial therapies tailored for patients in specific geographical regions ...
A recent investigative report by Steve Silberman from Wired about the highly resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, encountered by clinicians treating wounded
To study the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns ofMDR S. aureus frompyogenic infections in diabetic and non-diabetic patients fromdifferent..
Antimicrobial resistance represent a serious threat to public health and patient safety and is a worldwide problem. Each year, in the European Union (EU) at least 25 000 patients die of infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria. ...
A technique for treating bacterial infections has successfully used light-activated quantum dots (QDs) to kill multiple multidrug-resistant strains.
chilling reality is that EPA states in its sludge rule that exposure through the air, water, or food to any of the pollutants (e ...
Serious infections in intensive care unit patients caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae represent a major threat worldwide owing to increased mortality and limited treatment options. With the application of tigecycline for MDR pathogens, tigecycline-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates have recently emerged in China. To identify the susceptibility profile of MDR K. pneumoniae to tigecycline and evaluate the molecular characterization of tigecycline resistance, 214 MDR K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from blood samples of patients in intensive care units. MICs and clonal relatedness were determined by standard broth microdilution and multilocus sequence typing, respectively. Expression levels of efflux pumps and their global regulators were examined using real-time PCR. Mutations of local repressor were identified by PCR and sequencing. Our results show that the tigecycline resistance rate of 214 MDR K. pneumoniae isolates was 6.07 %. ST11 was the predominant clone type of
This study reports the dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii clones in hospitals in Antananarivo, Madagascar. A total of 53 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates were obtained from September 2006 to March 2009 in five hospitals. These resistant strains represent 44% of all A. baumannii isolates. The double disk synergy test was performed to screen for production of metallo-beta-lactamases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were performed for the detection of bla(AmpC), bla(OXA-51),bla(OXA-23), bla(OXA-24), bla(IMP), bla(VIM). The presence of the insertion sequence ISAba1 relative to bla OXA-23 and bla OXA-51 was assessed by PCR. Isolates were typed by Rep-PCR. All the isolates were MDR and produced the OXA-23 carbapenemase, which was confirmed by sequencing. PCR analysis for AmpC and OXA-51 gave positive results for all strains studied. No isolates produced metallo-beta-lactamases. In all isolates ISAba1 laid upstream of bla OXA-23. The
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection has presented a global medical challenge. The antibiograms of paired colistin-susceptible and -resistant strains revealed increased susceptibility of colistin-resistant strains to most tested antibiotics, including those that are active against only gram-positive bacteria. Synergy between colistin and rifampicin was observed in the colistin-susceptible strains. The ability to form biofilm in the colistin-resistant strains was significantly lower (P , .001) than in the parent strains. Our study provides valuable information for potential expansion of our current therapeutic options against colistin-resistant A. baumannii infection.. ...