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Looking for multiple drug resistance? Find out information about multiple drug resistance. in biology: see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all... Explanation of multiple drug resistance
LP INFORMATION offers a latest published report on Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis and Forecast 2019-2025 delivering key insights and providing a competitive advantage to clients through a detailed report.. According to this study, over the next five years the Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market will register a xx% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ xx million by 2024, from US$ xx million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment business, shared in Chapter 3.. Click to view the full report TOC, figure and tables:. https://www.lpinformationdata.com/reports/214783/global-multiple-drug-resistance-bacterial-infection. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market by product type, ...
Following is the transcript of The Bodys live chat on multidrug resistance, which took place on July 10, 2006, at 3:30 p.m. Eastern Time. The chat was ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market - Market Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 26,169.09 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 6.01 % from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market - Market Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/multiple-drug-resistance-bacterial-infection-treatment-market. Market Insights. World Health Organization in 2016 had started a joint initiative between Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiatives (DNDi) to develop new antibiotic treatment for antimicrobial resistance ensuring its optimal use. In 2016, critical segment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of refractory and relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia with combination chemotherapy plus the multidrug resistance modulator PSC 833 (Valspodar). AU - Advani, Ranjana. AU - Saba, Hussain I.. AU - Tallman, Martin S.. AU - Rowe, Jacob M.. AU - Wiernik, Peter H.. AU - Ramek, Joseph. AU - Dugan, Kathleen. AU - Lum, Bert. AU - Villena, Jenny. AU - Davis, Eric. AU - Paietta, Elisabeth. AU - Litchman, Manuel. AU - Sikic, Branimir I.. AU - Greenberg, Peter L.. PY - 1999/2/1. Y1 - 1999/2/1. N2 - A potential mechanism of chemotherapy resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the multidrug resistance (MDR-1) gene product P- glycoprotein (P-gp), which is often overexpressed in myeloblasts from refractory or relapsed AML. In a multicenter phase II clinical trial, 37 patients with these poor risk forms of AML were treated with PSC 833 (Valspodar; Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation, East Hanover, NJ), a potent inhibitor of the MDR-1 efflux pump, plus mitoxantrone, etoposide, and ...
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Principal Investigator:TAKESHITA Akira, Project Period (FY):2002 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Endocrinology
Multi-drug resistance is the biggest threat to long-term survival of cancer patients. Despite treatment, some tumor cells survive chemotherapy and become resistant to the drugs, causing follow-up treatments to fail. These drug-resistant tumors become untreatable and continue to flourish, ultimately killing the patient. Multi-drug resistance proteins expressed by tumor cells are a major source of resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can silence these messenger RNAs that make multi-drug resistance proteins and EnGeneIC has discovered that EDVs can effectively load up to 10,000 copies of siRNA and deliver them directly to cancer cells. This process silences the respective messenger RNAs and makes the tumor cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs which are subsequently delivered via the EDVs to eradicate the formerly drug resistant tumor. EnGeneIC has demonstrated in mouse studies carrying human drug resistant tumors and the data has been published in ...
In the only available low resolution crystal structure of EmrE, the protein is complexed with a cationic substrate, tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP). The structure shows the two subunits in an antiparallel orientation with different conformations. This structure has led to the hypothesis that transport of protons and substrates by EmrE occurs through interconversion of the subunits between the two conformations (Figure 1b). Such an interconversion would expose the opening into the active site alternately between the cytoplasmic and periplasmic side of the membrane. However, prior work in the Mchaourab lab [S. T. Amadi, et al., (2010) J. Biol. Chem., 285, 26710] called this hypothesis into question. Their structural dynamics studies of EmrE in liposomes revealed discrepancies with the X-ray crystallography data, suggesting that the structure of the protein in crystals may not reflect its structure in membranes. Furthermore, the investigators realized that a complete cycle of the pump required ...
View Notes - lecture14drugres+vac from BIOL 12d at UC Irvine. 1 Bio 12D Lecture 14 I. Multi-drug resistance II. Vaccines Week 9 Reading
Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps.
Background] Most NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations benefit from treatment with EGFR-TKIs, but the final clinical efficacy of EGFR-TKIs varies because of development of tumor resistant to EGFR-TKIs. Multiple kinase-targeted 2nd generation TKIs such as afatinib have been developed to overcome drug resistance to the 1st generation TKIs. Afatinib is an irreversible multitargeted TKI targeting EGFR including T790M, HER2 and HER4. To develop further personalized therapeutics and drug resistance modifiers, we should understand the molecular based mechanism of drug resistance to 2nd as well as 3rd generation TKIs. In our present study, we present a novel finding that acquisition of cancer stem-like cells properties accompanying with activation of residual Src family kinase (SFK)/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is responsible for the survival of afatinib-resistant lung cancer cells when expression of targeted EGFR, HER2 and HER4 is abraded.. [Materials and methods] We have established ...
Anthracycline-formaldehyde conjugates: Cellular uptake, localization, toxicity, and circumvention of multidrug resistance. Journal Article ...
Natural residues versus antiretroviral drug-selected mutations in HIV type 1 group O reverse transcriptase and protease related to virological drug failure **in vivo** ...
Isolation Of Multiple Drugs Resistance - INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance is not new, but the number of resistant organisms, the geographic locations affected by drug resistance, and the breadth of resistance in single organisms are unprecedented and mounting. Diseases and disease agents that were once thought to be controlled by antibiotics …. Read More » ...
The researchers focused on two strains of E. coli, one resistant to ampicillin and the other resistant to chloramphenicol. These bacteria and many others defend themselves from antibiotics by producing enzymes that break down the antibiotics. As a side effect, this also protects cells that dont produce those enzymes, by removing the antibiotic from the environment ...
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There are a lot of drugs out there and some are far more dangerous than others. Weve listed the ones you should definitely avoid.
The Aussiedoodle is the super-clever hybrid produced by crossing the Poodle with the Australian Shepherd. Both parent breeds are renowned for their intelligence, and this is the outstanding characteristic that comes through in their pups. An Aussiedoodle can almost read its owners mind, which can be both a blessing and a curse! These are also extremely active dogs, and this combination of intellect and energy can be a recipe for bad behaviour without adequate stimulation and companionship. The ideal home for this cross-breed is with an active family, with at least one person in the house throughout the day who is willing to go for long walks both morning and evening. From the Aussiedoodles viewpoint, the presence of children in the home is a major bonus, as this is a very playful and affectionate hybrid that lives for cuddles and games. Because either the Standard or Miniature Poodle can be used in the breeding, the Aussiedoodles size is very variable. So too is the colour of its coat, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter (MDR1) with high affinity peptide chemosensitizers in isolated membranes, reconstituted systems, and intact cells. AU - Sharom, Frances J.. AU - Yu, Xiaohong. AU - Lu, Peihua. AU - Liu, Ronghua. AU - Chu, Joseph W K. AU - Szabó, Katalin. AU - Müller, M.. AU - Hose, Curtis D.. AU - Monks, Anne. AU - Váradi, A.. AU - Seprődi, J.. AU - Sarkadi, B.. PY - 1999/8/15. Y1 - 1999/8/15. N2 - P-Glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance can be reversed by the action of a group of compounds known as chemosensitizers. The interactions with P-glycoprotein of two novel hydrophobic peptide chemosensitizers (reversins 121 and 205) have been studied in model systems in vitro, and in a variety of MDR1-expressing intact tumor cells. The reversins bound to purified P-glycoprotein with high affinity (77-154 nM), as assessed by a quenching assay using fluorescently labeled purified protein. The peptides modulated P-glycoprotein ATPase activity ...
Multidrug efflux systems display the ability to transport a variety of structurally unrelated drugs from a cell and consequently are capable of conferring resistance to a diverse range of chemotherapeutic agents. This review examines multidrug efflux systems which use the proton motive force to drive drug transport. These proteins are likely to operate as multidrug/proton antiporters and have been identified in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Such proton-dependent multidrug efflux proteins belong to three distinct families or superfamilies of transport proteins: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family, and the resistance/ nodulation/cell division (RND) family. The MFS consists of symporters, antiporters, and uniporters with either 12 or 14 transmembrane-spanning segments (TMS), and we show that within the MFS, three separate families include various multidrug/proton antiport proteins. The SMR family consists of proteins with four TMS, and the ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , MarkerGene \ MarkerGene™ Multiple Drug Resistance Microtiterplate Assay Kit, High-throughput assay system based on measurement of efflux of green fluorescent dye known to bind to MDR transporters ABCG2 and ABCB1 \ M1580 for more molecular products just contact us
Friberg and Nyström J Nanobiotechnol (2016) 14:17 DOI 10.1186/s12951-016-0172-2. Journal of Nanobiotechnology. NANOMEDICINE: will it offer possibilities w to overcome multiple drug resistance in cancer?. Sten Friberg1 and Andreas M. Nystrom2*. Abstract. This review is written with the purpose to review the current nanomedicine literature and provide an outlook on the developments in utilizing nanoscale drug constructs in treatment of solid cancers as well as in the potential treatment of multi-drug resistant cancers. No specific design principles for this review have been utilized apart from our active choice to avoid results only based on in vitro studies. Few drugs based on nanotechnology have progressed to clinical trials, since most are based only on in vitro experiments which do not give the necessary data for the research to progress towards pre-clinical studies. The area of nanomedicine has indeed spark much attention and holds promise for improved future therapeutics in the treatment of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Topological folding and proteolysis profile of P-glycoprotein in membranes of multidrug-resistant cells. T2 - Implications for the drug-transport mechanism. AU - Zhang, Mei. AU - Wang, Guichun. AU - Shapiro, Adam. AU - Zhang, Jian-Ting. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - P-glycoprotein (Pgp)1 is a polytopic membrane protein and functions as an energy-dependent drug efflux pump. It is responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cell lines. Recently, the topological structure of Pgp has been investigated. However, the results are in dispute. A major question concerning the Pgp topology is the membrane orientation of the loop linking TM4 and TM5 (loop 4) and the loop linking TM8 and TM9 (loop 8). In this study, we generated polyclonal antibodies specific to these two loops. In combination with a panel of other well-characterized site-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies of Pgp, we tested the membrane orientation of these two loops of Pgp in multidrug-resistant cells using ...
As is known to all, the intracellular Rhodamine123 concentrations in MDR cells were extremely lower than sensitive cells. Meanwhile, the molecular mechanism of MDR is not fully clarification. It is well known that formation of MDR is complicated process and involves multiple factors, including increased drug efflux, alteration the apoptotic response, and change of DNA damage repair capacity in drug resistance tumor cells [16]. Among these factors, the most important reason is the drug efflux resulting from enhancement of drug transporter activity. These transporters originated from ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters super family such as P-gp, MRP1, MRP2, BCRP and LRP [17]. Accumulated evidences have indicated that over expression of P-gp directly contributes to MDR, and blocking P-gp drug pump functions and suppressing its expression might enhance the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs on MDR cancer cells [18]. Giada has reported that they reverse MDR in colon cancer cells by inhibiting the ...
One of the fundamental questions in cancer research asks why patients treated for some types of cancer develop a resistance to chemotherapy drugs. Drs. Susan Cole and Roger Deeley showed that a multidrug resistant protein (MRP) is a factor. It prevents chemotherapy from working by pumping the drugs out of cancer cells. The Queens University researchers discovered the gene that codes for MRP, giving drug researchers a target for solving the problem.. Their paradigm-shifting discovery led to a subsequent explosion in research on multidrug resistance in humans and other animals. MRP is Queens most-licensed (28x) technology to date.. Susan Cole ». Roger Deeley ». ...
How to deal with cancer drug resistance - posted in Research Idea, Design and Collaboration: Anybody has a good idea on how to solve cancer drug resistance issues. Many new drugs are designed to block one or more signal transduction pathways in order to block cancer cell proliferation. But cancer cell can bypass the blocked pathway and survives later in the treatment cycles. Combination or coktail of multiple drugs can have serious side-effects. What other general ideas can provide better...
Biomedical Science Grant (Mercedes Rincón, PI) 7/01/98-6/30/01 Arthritis Foundation $ 80,000 (direct costs)p38 MAP kinase pathway in Th1 response and arthritisThe major goal is to determine the role of the p38 MAP kinase pathway in the differentiation and activation of naive CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cells and the relevance of this intracellular mechanism in the progression of arthritis.. Gustavus and Louise Pfeiffer Research Foundation 1/1/99-12/31/02 (Mercedes Rincón, PI) $51,901 (direct cost) Role of IL-6 on tumor multidrug resistance and anti-tumor immune responses The major goal of this work is to determine the role of IL-6 in the resistance of tumor cells to cell death induce by drugs and the role in the modulation of the anti-tumor immune response. In addition, we are examing the correlation between IL-6 expression in tumor cells from breast, ovarian and prostate cancer patients and their response to chemotherapy ...
Genomics-based target identification and screening using cell free systems has been the dominating principle in cancer drug discovery during the recent decade [6]. As an alternative to this approach the use of phenotype-cell-based screening may provide some distinct advantages [35]. We here performed a conditional screen with the aim of identifying compounds that are cytotoxic to multidrug resistant myeloma cells. A chemically diverse compound library was used for this purpose. The screening hit RH02104/VLX40 was the only compound that fulfilled the pre-determined criteria of a SI less than 50% in myeloma 8226/Dox40 and more than 50% in parental RPMI 8226 cells. In validation experiments VLX40 was found the difference was, albeit statistically significant, small. It can not be excluded that subtle differences in drug uptake and proliferation characteristics of the cell lines, not related to drug transporters, could contribute to the difference observed.. For exploration of mechanisms of action ...
1. Synthesis of pyrazole based hybrid molecules: Search for potent multidrug resistance modulators. Palwinder Singh, Kamaldeep Paul and Wolfgang Holzer. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2006, 14, 5061-5071. 2. Design, synthesis and anticancer activities of hybrids of indole and barbituric acids- Identification of highly promising leads. Palwinder Singh, Matinder Kaur, Pooja Verma. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009, 19, 3054-3058. 3. Synthesis and evaluation of indole, pyrazole, chromone and pyrimidine based conjugates for tumor growth inhibitory activities - Development of highly efficacious cytotoxic agents. Palwinder Singh, Matinder Kaur and W. Holzer. Eur. J. Med. Chem., 2010, 45, 4968-4982. 4. Mono-, di-, and triaryl substituted tetrahydropyrans as cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor growth inhibitors. Synthesis and biological evaluation. Palwinder Singh and Atul Bhardwaj.J. Med. Chem. 2010, 53, 3707-3717. 5. Synthesis and evaluation of indole based scaffolds for antimicrobial activities-Identification of promising ...
Multi-Drug Resistance and the Mechanism of Orlistat-Induced Cell Death Science Experiments Elementary, 2013 Science Experiments, Science Fair Projects,Science Fair Ideas Experiments, Kids Project Experiment Ideas, science experiment projects, kids experiments science, children simple,cool,fun and easy science fair experiments,topics for science experiments, and also for Middle school, Elementary School for class 5th Grade,6th,7th,8th,9th 10th,11th, 12th Grade and High School , MSC and College Students.
An overexpression of plasma membrane glycoprotein with a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 170,000-180,000 is consistently found in different multidrug-resistant human and animal cell lines, although the functional role of the protein in multidrug resistance is not fully understood. It has been reported previously that the Mr 170,000-180,000 glycoprotein is involved, directly or indirectly, in the drug transport mechanism and the proliferation of multidrug-resistant tumor cells. In an attempt to clarify further the function of the Mr 170,000-180,000 glycoprotein, we have studied the phosphorylation state of the protein in intact K562/ADM cells and found that: (a) the protein is phosphorylated in the basal state; (b) verapamil and trifluoperazine, which inhibit the active drug efflux and restore drug sensitivity in resistant cells, caused an increase in the phosphorylation of the Mr 170,000-180,000 glycoprotein; (c) 4β-phorbol 12β-myristate 13α-acetate and 1-oleoyl 2-acetylglycerol enhanced ...
The dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapeutics, heterogeneity and drug resistance of cancer cells, and difficulties of targeted delivery to tumors all pose daunting challenges to effective cancer therapy. We report that small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes readily penetrate intact bacterially derived minicells previously shown to cause tumor stabilization and regression when packaged with chemotherapeutics. When targeted via antibodies to tumor-cell-surface receptors, minicells can specifically and sequentially deliver to tumor xenografts first siRNAs or short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-encoding plasmids to compromise drug resistance by knocking down a multidrug resistance protein. Subsequent administration of targeted minicells containing cytotoxic drugs eliminate formerly drug-resistant tumors. The two waves of treatment, involving minicells loaded with both types of payload, enable complete survival without toxicity in mice with tumor xenografts, while involving several thousandfold less drug, ...
Liver cancer, being the sixth common cancer, causes approximately 700,000 deaths worldwide annually. Major treatment relies on chemotherapies because of the late diagnosis in many cases of liver cancer. However, the results are not satisfactory since the cancer cells develop multi-drug resistance (MDR), which greatly hampers the efficacy of multiple kinds of structurally different drugs, during the course of treatment. Several mechanisms of MDR were identified, the most notable one is the over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1), on plasma membrane. These transporters act as efflux pump of various types of chemo-drugs to accentuate the MDR phenotype. Nevertheless, the complete picture of MDR formation is yet to be explored. As mitochondria contribute vitally in apoptosis and energy production, in which both criteria are substantially altered in cancer context, we hypothesized that the organelle also ...
Multidrug resistance in human cells results from increased expression of the mdr1 (P-glycoprotein) gene. Although the same gene is activated in cells selected with different drugs, multidrug-resistant cell lines can be preferentially resistant to their selecting agent. The mdr1 cDNA sequence from vi …
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a significant obstacle to effective chemotherapy to many patients. Because of the overexpression of one membrane protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), there is an increased efflux of chemotherapeutic drug in the resistant cancer cells. The main research goal of MDR study is to get improved intracellular drug retention inside the cancer cells. So it is important to study the chemotherapeutic drug transport in the cancer cells. In this work, single leukemia CEM MDR cell has been isolated and captured by a microfluidic single-cell biochip for drug transport and retention study ...
Multiple drug resistance among bacteria has become a global issue with a considerable impact on the mortality associated with infectious diseases. This book is a detailed compilation of available knowledge on the surveillance and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in various countries throughout the world. Readers will be updated on current information on the understanding of mechanisms involved in drug resistance and the geographical distribution of resistance determinant markers. This volume should be a useful guide for microbiologists and clinicians interested in designing antimicrobial therapies tailored for patients in specific geographical regions ...
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The purpose of this work was to challenge the multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor through nanobubbles (NB) co-loaded reversal agent and chemotherapeutic drug layer by layer. The core/shell NB structure contains Doxorubicin (Dox) as anticancer drug in the core and Ciclosporin A (CsA), a cyclic polypeptide composed of 11 amino acids, as a reversal agent in the shell. The drug was designed to work against concurrent MDR processes and was defined as CsA/Dox/NB. HL60/ADM cells with typical high expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1) were assessed by flow cytometer, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, and Western blot analysis to observe the in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy and reversal ability of MDR ...
We investigated the mechanism of verapamil (VRP) effects on mdr1 gene expression in two leukemic multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines, K562/ADR and CEM VLB100. Exposure to VRP for 24 hr resulted in a decrease in mdr1 mRNA levels that was dose related at concentrations between 15 and 50 microM. The maximal decrease of mdr1 mRNA levels was found to be 6-fold in the K562/ADR cells and 3-fold in the CEM VLB100 cells. The effect of VRP on mdr1 mRNA levels was, however, biphasic. At 100 microM VRP, which strongly inhibited cell proliferation, a 2-fold increase of mdr1 mRNA levels was observed in the K562/ADR cells. To determine whether the decrease of mRNA levels resulted from post-transcriptional mechanisms, mRNA stability was studied after blocking of transcription with actinomycin D in VRP-treated cells and in control cells. This study revealed that mdr1 mRNA was stable in both cell lines and no increase in mdr1 mRNA degradation was observed in the 30 microM VRP-treated cells versus control cells ...
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A novel approach to circumvent multidrug resistance is hybridization of natural products in dimers. We analyzed homodimers of two artesunic acid molecules and heterohybrids of artesunic acid and betulin in human CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein-overexpressing CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells. Multidrug-resistant cells were not cross-resistant to the novel compounds. Collateral sensitivity was observed for artesunic acid homodimer. Artesunic acid and artesunic acid homodimer induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and formation of reactive oxygen species. ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
From ISTH 2015, Mark Crowther, MD, MSc, FRCPC, McMaster University discusses the results of the Annexa-Part 2 study. This trial evaluated the role of andexanet alfa as a reversal agent for the newest class of blood thinning medications. In this latest report from the Annexa series of studies, andexanets demonstrated reversal effects in healthy volunteers is presented., TV Network
Mouse anti Human CD243, clone UIC2 recognizes an extracellular conformational epitope of CD243, also known as MDR1 (multi-drug resistance
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is the development of resistance to a variety of structurally and functionally nonrelated anticancer drugs. This phenomenon has become a major obstacle to cancer chemotherapy seriously affecting the clinical outcome. MDR is associated with increased drug ef …
Ciapin1 - Ciapin1 (untagged ORF) - Rat cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (Ciapin1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.