Drought stress occurring during the reproductive growth stage leads to considerable reductions in crop production and has become an important limiting factor for food security globally. In order to explore the possible role of drought priming (pre-exposure of the plants to mild drought stress) on the alleviation of a severe drought stress event later in development, wheat plants were subjected to single or double mild drought episodes (soil relative water content around 35-40%) before anthesis and/or to a severe drought stress event (soil relative water content around 20-25%) 15 d after anthesis. Here, single or double drought priming before anthesis resulted in higher grain yield than in non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. The photosynthesis rate and ascorbate peroxidase activity were higher while malondialdehyde content was lower in primed plants than in the non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. Proteins in flag leaves differently expressed by ...
Drought stress is one of the serious problems that restricted agronomic plant production worldwide. In molecular level, the harmful effect of drought stress is mostly caused by producing of large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Catalase and Metallothionein genes have a crucial role to mope the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resulting reducing oxidative damage. In this research the gene expression pattern of Catalase and Metallothionein was studied in response to drought stress treatments. The treatments included - 0.3 bar, - 0.9 bar, - 8 bar and -12 bar and wheat varieties included Zagros (drought tolerant), Moghan (semi- tolerant) and Tajan (drought sensitive). The amount of cellular oxidative levels (TBARM) increased steady by intensify of drought stress levels. Real time PCR analysis showed different expression pattern for catalase and metallothionein encoded genes. Catalase gene expression was increased during drought stress up to -8 bar and reduced in -12 bar treatment, in all cultivars
Drought is an important environmental stress limiting the productivity of major crops worldwide. Understanding drought tolerance and possible mechanisms for improving drought resistance is therefore a prerequisite to develop drought-tolerant crops that produce significant yields with reduced amounts of water. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is a key model species for cereals, forage grasses and energy grasses. In this study, initial screening of a Brachypodium germplasm collection consisting of 138 different ecotypes exposed to progressive drought, highlighted the natural variation in morphology, biomass accumulation and responses to drought stress. A core set of ten ecotypes, classified as being either tolerant, susceptible or intermediate, in response to drought stress, were exposed to mild or severe (respectively 15% and 0% soil water content) drought stress and phenomic parameters linked to growth and colour changes were assessed. When exposed to severe drought stress, phenotypic data and
In this study, responses of rice under drought stress correlating with changes in chemical compositions were examined. Among 20 studied rice cultivars, Q8 was the most tolerant, whereas Q2 was the most susceptible to drought. Total phenols, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activities, and their accumulation in water deficit conditions were proportional to drought resistance levels of rice. In detail, total phenols and total flavonoids in Q8 (65.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 37.8 mg rutin equivalent (RE) were significantly higher than Q2 (33.9 mg GAE/g and 27.4 mg RE/g, respectively) in both control and drought stress groups. Similarly, the antioxidant activities including DPPH radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and lipid peroxidation inhibition in Q8 were also higher than in Q2, and markedly increased in drought stress. In general, contents of individual phenolic acids in Q8 were higher than Q2, and they were significantly increased in drought stress to much greater extents than in Q2.
The development of new tools that provide timely agricultural drought risk assessment is essential for improving drought preparedness and response. This thesis developed an operational model framework to assess real-time agricultural drought risk on the Canadian prairies, as related to spring wheat crop yield. The agricultural drought risk assessment (ADRA) model integrates multiple drought indices including the Standardized Precipitation Index, the Palmer Drought Severity Index and the Palmer Moisture Anomaly Index. Drought risk is assessed at the beginning of each month before and during the growing season using principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis. The performance of the model was validated by cross-validation. The results showed that drought risk can be detected at pre-planting ; the assessment accuracy improves as the crop develops, and the most accurate assessment can be achieved at the beginning of August (average R2 = 0.61). The model performed best in regions ...
The decline in SVC indicated that the drought treatment imposed severe water stress on plants. SVC in a 20-cm soil depth declined to ≈2% after 14 d of drought treatment. Our results demonstrate that GABA- (50 mm) treated perennial ryegrass maintained significantly higher RWC under drought stress than non-treated plants. RWC in leaves is a measure of internal water status during drought stress (Matin et al., 1989). The results suggest that GABA-treated perennial ryegrass plants were better able to maintain water under drought stress. The function of GABA as a compatible osmolyte under osmotic stress has been proposed by Shelp et al. (1999). Osmolyte accumulation in plant cells results in maintenance of cell turgor pressure and also protects cell membranes, protein, and metabolic machinery from cell dehydration (Hare et al., 1998; Ingram and Bartels, 1996; Rathinasabapathi, 2000). Two recent studies demonstrated that GABA was differentially accumulated in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × ...
The Sahel has long experienced a series of historic droughts, dating back to at least the 17th century. The Sahel region is a climate zone sandwiched between the African Savannah grasslands to the south and the Sahara desert to the north, across West and Central Africa. While the frequency of drought in the region is thought to have increased from the end of the 19th century, three long droughts have had dramatic environmental and societal effects upon the Sahel nations. Famine followed severe droughts in the 1910s, the 1940s, and the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, although a partial recovery occurred from 1975-80. The most recent drought occurred in 2012. While at least one particularly severe drought has been confirmed each century since the 17th century, the frequency and severity of recent Sahelian droughts stands out. Famine and dislocation on a massive scale-from 1968 to 1974 and again in the early and mid-1980s-was blamed on two spikes in the severity of the 1960-1980s drought period. From the ...
Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant−1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth
Scoffoni et al. determined the physiological drought tolerance and architecture of 10 woody species. The authors test key components of leaf venation architecture to understand the underlying leaf structural mechanisms for drought tolerance. Most work on drought tolerance focuses on stems and highlight xylem geometries, but the authors show that the density of veins in a leaf are the best correlate with its physiological tolerance of drought. High vein density provides insurance against embolism and allows water to continue to be supplied to areas adjacent to veins that have experienced embolisms that necessarily accompany low water potentials. ...
Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). Index name: Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI).. Ease of use: Green.. Origins: Developed by a team of scientists from NDMC, the United States Geological Surveys Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, and the United States Geological Survey Flagstaff Field Center.. Characteristics: Developed as a drought index that was intended to monitor drought-induced vegetation stress using a combination of remote sensing, climate-based indicators, and other biophysical information and land-use data.. Input parameters: SPI, PDSI, percentage annual seasonal greenness, start of season anomaly, land cover, soil available water capacity, irrigated agriculture and defined ecological regions. As some of the inputs are derived variables, additional inputs are needed.. Applications: Used mainly as a short-term indicator of drought for agricultural applications.. Strengths: An innovative and integrated technique using both surface and remotely sensed data ...
The geo-climatic conditions of South and South-East Asian countries are diverse and vulnerable to multiple natural hazards such as drought. Drought evolves over months or even years, affects a large spatial extent and causes enormous damages. Drought Risk Management in South and South-East Asia is a comprehensive reference on overall perspectives and scenarios on drought risk mitigation and management, based on researches and case studies from South and South-East Asian countries. Drought management is a complex area of work that requires active and continuous participation of the national, provincial and local governments, multiple ministries, and divisions. This book demonstrates the best practices of socio-economic and technological interventions to enhance drought risk management, which will help to develop plans and policies, and their implementation to reduce the impact of droughts. It also offers views of field practitioners on impacts of the interventions practised at the national, ...
Initial physiological adjustments in response to drought stress lead to drastic changes in gene expression. The traditional approaches of assessing such drought-induced changes in gene expression involve measuring the differences in mRNA levels of one or few genes at a time. DNA expression microarray technology is a powerful tool that can monitor changes in expression of a large number of genes simultaneously. Expression microarrays also provide new insights into physiological and biochemical pathways of drought tolerance, and thus can lead to identification of novel candidate genes that can rapidly advance breeding for drought tolerance. This review describes the basic principles and potential applications of gene expression microarrays in understanding and improving drought tolerance in plants. A case study is presented involving hybridization of field-grown panicle samples from drought tolerant and susceptible rice germplasm targets with probes from a normalized panicle cDNA library. Results ...
Analysis - New research confirms that extreme droughts amid the deepening climate crisis are forcing nocturnal aardvarks in the Kalahari to feed and forage when the suns up -- but even so, their ant and termite food sources are dying out as the vegetation they survive on is affected by the droughts.
Histone acetylation is one of the vital reversible modifications of chromatin structure that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) maintain the homeostasis of histone acetylation. Studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that HATs are involved in plant responses to various stresses including light, temperature, salt and ABA. Drought stress, a very common environmental stress, could cause a range of physiological and biochemical responses in plants involving HATs. Eight HATs in four different families (CBP, GNAT, MYST, and TAFII250 family) are known in rice. In this research, four OsHATs, one from each family, were chosen based on in silico domain and promoter analysis for their response under drought conditions. Drought stress was introduced to two-leaf-stage rice seedlings. The effectiveness of drought treatment was confirmed by the measurement of relative water content (RWC). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction ...
Drought has dramatic negative effects on plants growth and crop productivity. Although some of the responses and underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, there is increasing evidence that drought may have a negative effect on photosynthetic capacity. Biochemical models of leaf photosynthesis coupled with models of radiation transfer have been widely used in ecophysiological studies, and, more recently, in global change modeling. They are based on two fundamental relationships at the scale of the leaf: (i) nitrogen content-light exposure and (ii) photosynthetic capacity nitrogen content. Although drought is expected to increase in many places across the world, such models are not adapted to drought conditions. More specifically, the effects of drought on the two fundamental relationships are not well documented. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of a long-term drought imposed slowly on the nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity of leaves similarly exposed ...
In contrast to wild species, drought-tolerance in crops requires a fully functional metabolism during drought (particularly photosynthetic processes). However, the link between drought-tolerance, photosynthetic regulation during drought, and the associated transcript and metabolic foundation, remains largely unknown. For this study, we used two rice cultivars with contrasting drought-tolerance (the drought-intolerant cultivar IRAT109 and the drought-tolerant cultivar IAC1246) to explore transcript and metabolic responses to long-term drought. The drought-tolerant cultivar represented higher osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacity, as well as higher relative photosynthesis rate under a progressive drought stress occurred in a modified field with shallow soil-layers. A total of 4059 and 2677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in IRAT109 and IAC1246 between the drought and well-watered conditions, respectively. A total of 69 and 47 differential metabolites (DMs) were identified
by David Hart. An extended drought in parts of the United States has been characterized as an act of God, or somehow the result of our own doings. Maybe the drought is just a terrible stroke of bad luck.. Whatever the cause, much of the country remains locked in an epic drought. The impacts of the drought on people have made national headlines. The impacts on wildlife are often even more harsh.. California is in the midst of its worst drought on record. Experts say it could last for several more years. Numerous reservoirs in Texas are just a fraction of their normal volume, and farmers in parts of Kansas, Oklahoma and Colorado are struggling to survive.. Food prices are up, water tables are down, and churches throughout the west are filled with voices praying for rain.. Life during a drought may be hard for humans, but its hell for wildlife. Virtually every species of bird, fish and mammal that is suffering through a prolonged dry spell is facing population declines. Nowhere is that more ...
An unprecedented 82 percent of California is in an "extreme drought," according to a 2014 U.S. Drought Monitor report. Of that, 58 percent of the state is in an "exceptional drought" - the driest conditions possible. Record-low rainfall has sent rivers, lakes and water reservoirs to their lowest levels in decades-threatening the water supply of many cities. The unusually dry conditions have increased the risk of wildfires, which have already ravaged parts of the state - most recently an area near Yosemite National Park. But the droughts biggest victim could be Californias Central Valley, the source of fully half the nations fruits and vegetables, where roughly 500,000 acres of farmland have been left barren this season because of a lack of water. In three of the hardest-hit counties - Fresno, Kern and Tulare - farmers are worried the drought could drive them out of business. (Photos by Holly Bailey/Yahoo News ...
New research has questioned the consensus among many scientists that climate change is leading to a global increase in drought levels. The research has wide implications for how we predict the impacts of, and adapt to, climate change, concluding we need to take a much more regional approach to the issue.. The paper, Little change in global drought over the past 60 years, was completed by Dr Michael Roderick from the Australian National University, and Dr Justin Sheffield and Professor Eric Wood from Princeton University. Conducting an extensive review of data, the team found that global drought levels have not significantly increased over the past 60 years.. Roderick says the trend can be seen both globally, and within Australia. "Our new model shows that over the past 60 years, weve got a slight increase in drought in eastern part of Australia and a slight increase in drought in the south-west. However, we also have a very large decrease in drought over much of South Australia, Northern ...
Several regions throughout our County are currently experiencing drought conditions. These dry spells pose some unique healthcare and management challenges for horses. Whether it is stress from heat and blowing dust, changing feeds or dwindling water supplies, the additive stresses from drought can cause potentially serious health problems for horses. Understanding and anticipating these problems will help maintain your horses health and welfare during this stressful time.. Horses that are stressed for any reason, including drought, benefit from good basic care. It is important to ensure that all horses are properly vaccinated and dewormed. In addition, stressed horses require the other basics, like good shelter, nutrition, hoof care, and fresh water.. Horses that are normally maintained on dry-land pasture are affected most by drought, as their feed supply dwindles and their management requires change. Any grass that is still present on pastures is usually severely drought-stressed. Under ...
Flavonoids are major secondary metabolites in plants, which play important roles in maintaining the cellular redox balance in cells. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key enzyme in the flavonoids biosynthesis pathway, and has been proved to monitor the changes to drought stress tolerance. In this work, we overexpressed a CHS gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The transgenic tobacco plants were more tolerant than the control plants to drought stress. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in the flavonoids pathway and the contents of seven flavonoids were also significantly raised in the transgenic tobacco plants. In addition, overexpression of the CHS gene lead to a lower concentration of the oxidative stress product malondialdehyde. Overall, the NtCHS gene studied in this work was considered as a candidate gene for genetic engineering to enhance drought tolerance of plants and improve response to oxidative stress.
In order to effectively mitigate against drought, the "root causes" need to be addressed. Drought management is too often restricted to treating the symptoms, often when it is too late and when only a relief function can be performed.. As can be seen from the variety of factors which are quoted above as causing or exacerbating drought conditions, a multi-sectoral approach needs to be adopted which involves a wide variety of different government and other parties. Advocacy is required to ensure that these different bodies understand the impact of their policies on conditions of water scarcity and drought vulnerability. It is therefore necessary to give attention to the policies of several government departments at both national and provincial level. Local Government plays a critical role in disaster relief, particularly in the mobilisation of local resources.. In terms of the directly water related elements of drought policy, the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry obviously plays an ...
In leaf, after forty minutes of dehydration, approximately two hundred genes showed at least 8-fold induction in mRNA levels (Additional file 5: Table S4). This number increased to over eight hundred after four hours. The up-regulated genes at the early time points included a large percentage of signalling molecules such as transcription factors, protein kinases, F Box proteins, and phosphatases (Additional file 5: Table S4). Over the time course of drought stress, the most strongly up-regulated gene in tobacco leaves also encodes a signalling molecule, a U-Box E3 ubiquitin ligase that we have called Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Like 1 (NtUPLL1) (Additional file 5: Table S4). The level of NtUPLL1 mRNA increases 52-fold after 40 minutes and over 290-fold by the four hour time point. NtUPLL1 and the closely related NtUPLL2 are similar to the Arabidopsis U-Box E3 ubiquitin ligases AtPUB18 and AtPUB19 that regulate ABA-mediated stomatal closure and drought stress responses [58].. At the later time ...
Only about 1 percent of the country was severely to extremely wet for the year. "We had such widespread drought, it just exaggerated the impacts and drove prices for commodities higher," said Colorado State climatologist Nolan Doesken.. What made 2012 one for the record books actually started in 2011, when a drought in the southern U.S. crept into Colorado and the Midwest, setting the stage for disaster, Doesken said. March 2012 arrived with blustery winds and bone-dry conditions, sparking wildfires much earlier than many could imagine during a time when the area typically sees its rains for the year. Add in a blazing month of June and a relentless summer, and the situation worsened with uncertainty looming for 2013. It will take sopping spring rains in addition to a heavy snowpack to fix the soil and promote grass growth, Doesken said.. "Itll be tough with it being so large in area," he said of the drought. "Itll be unlikely that all the areas will recover as we move into next spring." ...
LUBBOCK - Weather officials said Wednesday they considered reclassifying parts of North Texas into the least severe stage of drought but held off because recent rains havent boosted lakes levels. Bone-dry soil suffering from the states worst single-year drought is sucking up the rainfall before it runs into reservoirs in the Dallas-Fort Worth area and parts of northeast Texas, National Weather Service meteorologist Victor Murphy said. Data is submitted Tuesday mornings and the U.S. Drought Monitor map is released Thursday. Murphy says recent rains will help drought conditions in the short term, but the precipitation forecast for coming months remains bleak. The current drought started last fall with the arrival of the La Nina weather condition that causes below-normal rainfall. Hundreds of wildfires have blackened some 6,000 square miles and destroyed more than 2,700 homes in the state since the fire season started nearly a year ago.
The aim of this study is to compare the tolerance mechanisms of two industrial tomato varieties (X5671R and 5MX12956) under drought stress. 14 days-old tomato seedlings were subjected to 7 days-long drought stress by withholding irrigation. The effects of stress were determined by enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters. The physiological damages were evaluated via lipid peroxidation ratio, total protein content, relative water content, chlorophyll content and proline accumulation. Enzymatic responses were determined by biochemical analysis and electrophoresis of SOD, APX, POX and CAT enzymes. Relative water contents of X5671R and 5MX12956 varieties at 7th day of drought were decreased to 8.4 and 12.2%, respectively. Applied drought decreased all photosynthetic pigments of X5671R and 5MX12956 varieties during the treatment period significantly comparing to the Day 0 as the control. Total protein content, lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation presented increased values in both varieties in
Considerable amounts and varieties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are exchanged between vegeta-tion and the surrounding air. These BVOCs play key ecological and atmospheric roles that must be adequately repre-sented for accurately modeling the coupled biosphere-atmosphere-climate earth system. One key uncertainty in existing models is the response of BVOC fluxes to an important global change process: drought. We describe the diur-nal and seasonal variation in isoprene, monoterpene, and methanol fluxes from a temperate forest ecosystem before, during, and after an extreme 2012 drought event in the Ozark region of the central USA. BVOC fluxes were domi-nated by isoprene, which attained high emission rates of up to 35.4 mg m -2h -1 at midday. Methanol fluxes were characterized by net deposition in the morning, changing to a net emission flux through the rest of the daylight hours. Net flux of CO 2 reached its seasonal maximum approximately a month earlier than isoprenoid fluxes, ...
The California-Nevada Drought Early Warning System (CA-NV DEWS) May 2017 Drought & Climate Outlook Webinar is part of a series of regular drought and climate outlook webinars designed to provide stakeholders and other interested parties in the region with timely information on current drought status and impacts, as well as a preview of current and developing climatic events (i.e. El Niño and La Niña). The webinar takes place at 11 a.m. PDT, Tuesday May 30, 2017. ...
1. Introduction. Drought is a worldwide problem, and the study of drought has become one of the main research directions of global plant biology. In particular, great effort has been expended to develop drought-resistant plants by producing transgenic plants using different types of gene technologies, or genotypes possessing full physiological potential under limited soil water conditions (Casadebaig et al., 2008; Hong-Bo et al., 2006; Stella and Christoph, 2006; Sang-Eun et al., 2005). As a result of this research, the introduction of drought-resistant transgenic plants for commercial use has also become possible (Hilbeck et al., 2005).. Thus, a deeper understanding of plant physiological mechanisms operating under drought conditions is needed. Drought resistance in plants involves many biochemical, molecular and structural mechanisms, including the biosynthesis of different biomolecules (Bajguz and Hayat, 2009; Hong-Bo et al., 2006; Fiehn, 2002). For example, one well-known response of plants ...
Across a wide range of environmental conditions, forest types and tree species we found carbon isotope ratios of wood to be a strong and reliable indicator of past drought occurrence (Fig. 2a). However, despite this clear physiological signal of drought on δ13C, we only found a weak and context-dependent effect of these same drought events on tree growth (Fig. 2b). Previous studies have suggested that the relationship between carbon isotopes and growth might not be a simple one (Ferrio et al. 2003; Peñuelas et al. 2008; Jansen et al. 2013; Hentschel et al. 2016; Shestakova et al. 2017), but to our knowledge none had explored the relationship across a broad enough range of species and environmental conditions to draw this conclusion robustly. The relatively small declines in growth we observed in response to drought suggest that most European tree species are - on average - able to maintain growth under conditions of low soil water availability.. This is not to say that water availability is ...
Squalene epoxidase enzymes catalyse the conversion of squalene into 2,3-oxidosqualene, the precursor of cyclic triterpenoids. Here we report that the Arabidopsis drought hypersensitive/squalene epoxidase 1-5 (dry2/sqe1-5) mutant, identified by its extreme hypersensitivity to drought stress, has altered stomatal responses and root defects because of a point mutation in the SQUALENE EPOXIDASE 1 (SQE1) gene. GC-MS analysis indicated that the dry2/sqe1-5 mutant has altered sterol composition in roots but wild-type sterol composition in shoots, indicating an essential role for SQE1 in root sterol biosynthesis. Importantly, the stomatal and root defects of the dry2/sqe1-5 mutant are associated with altered production of reactive oxygen species. As RHD2 NADPH oxidase is de-localized in dry2/sqe1-5 root hairs, we propose that sterols play an essential role in the localization of NADPH oxidases required for regulation of reactive oxygen species, stomatal responses and drought tolerance.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most consumed grain in the world and improving maize yield is of great importance of the world food security, especially under global climate change and more frequent severe droughts. Due to the limitation of phenotyping methods, most current studies only focused on the responses of phenotypes on certain key growth stages. Although light detection and ranging (lidar) technology showed great potential in acquiring three-dimensional (3D) vegetation information, it has been rarely used in monitoring maize phenotype dynamics at an individual plant level. In this study, we used a terrestrial laser scanner to collect lidar data at six growth stages for 20 maize varieties under drought stress. Three drought-related phenotypes, i.e., plant height, plant area index (PAI) and projected leaf area (PLA), were calculated from the lidar point clouds at the individual plant level. The results showed that terrestrial lidar data can be used to estimate plant height, PAI and PLA at an
In the current study; mature bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) embryos from doubled haploid wheat line obtained from Pehlivan cultivar were cultured on drought stress induction medium (MS + 0.1 mgL-1 2.4-D + diffe- rent concentrations PEG 6000 (0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 gL-1) for 28 days. Effects of drought stress on regenerated plants and methylation alterations due to both drought stress treatment and in vitro culture conditions were investigated in the combination of Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) with methylation sensitive restriction enzyme (MspI and HpaII) digestions techniques on 28-day-old control and stress treated regenerated plants. Drought stress decreased the average of plant height and fresh weight of regenerated plants than the controls. A 90% polymorphism rate and 0.6 epigenetic similarity were obtained between cont- rols and drought stress treated experimental groups with the combination of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and IRAP. Additionally, the ...
Rising temperatures, persistent drought, and depleted aquifers could set the stage for a second Dust Bowl, a period of drought and dust storms that affected the prairies in the USA and Canada during the 1930s.. The southern Great Plains have been ravaged, and a cool October broke a 16-month streak of higher than average temperatures across the Lower 48. However, temperatures are projected to remain above normal across most of the western half of the country in the following months and future temperature gains could be on the high side, according to various climate models.. As of November, 59.5% of the contiguous US was experiencing persistent drought conditions that are even more severe in the Great Plains in North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado. The drought is expected to persist in intensity for the foreseeable future. Large dust storms have been reported across some of the states.. Farmers are seeing major shifts in the places and times ...
About 32% of the 99 million ha wheat grown in developing countries experiences varying levels of drought stress. Three major drought types have been identified: Late drought (LD) is common in the Medi
President Barack Obama wrapped up his visit to the Fresno area Friday evening after meeting with farmers and local leaders to address Californias historic drought.. "Today, were here to talk about the resource thats keeping more and more Californias farmers and families up at night, and that is water - or the lack of it," Obama said.. "… What happens here matters to every working American.". With him were Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, Democratic Sens. Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer and Rep. Jim Costa.. "I applaud the President for coming to California during this very difficult drought, and I thank him for moving so quickly to provide relief for our state," Boxer said.. The president quickly met with Fresno Mayor Ashley Swearengin before boarding Marine One, the presidential helicopter, to visit farms and meet with local leaders.. According to the U.S. Drought Monitor, 91.6 percent of California is experiencing severe to exceptional drought.. Earlier this month, Valley ...
Drought stress at the reproductive stage causes severe damage to productivity of wheat. However, little is known about the metabolites associated with drought tolerance. The objectives of this study were to elucidate changes in metabolite levels in wheat under drought, and to identify potential metabolites associated with drought stress through untargeted metabolomic profiling using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS)-based technique called Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis. Metabolomic analysis was performed on flag leaves of drought-stressed and control (well-watered) plants after 18 days of post-anthesis drought stress at three-hour intervals over a 24-hour period. Out of 723 peaks detected in leaves, 221 were identified as known metabolites. Sixty known metabolites were identified as important metabolites by 3 different methods, PLS-DA, RF and SAM. The most pronounced accumulation due to drought stress was demonstrated by tryptophan, proline, pipecolate and ...
The lncRNA his team discovered in thale cress plants existed in low numbers under non-stress conditions, but levels increased when the plants encountered drought or salt stress, he said. Manually increasing the level of the lncRNA showed corresponding increases in drought and salt tolerance compared with plants where the lncRNA level was unaltered.. Most RNA direct or "code" cell machinery to produce proteins. Non-coding RNA, or ncRNA, does not direct protein production but could affect how gene expressions manifest in innumerable other ways. As such, they are considered regulators of important biological processes, Xiong said.. "And there are different types of ncRNA," he said. "Small ncRNA have received much attention in recent years, but in many long, or lncRNA, like the one we found to affect drought and salt tolerance in thale cress, the biological functions remain unknown.". The basic difference between small and long non-coding RNA is the number of nucleotides - the structural building ...
Water deficit is a severe environmental stress and the major constraint on plant productivity with an evident effect on plant growth. The aim of this work was to study Triticum and Aegilops seedlings differing in their response to drought stress at the physiological and molecular levels. The identification of resistant and sensitive genotypes was firstly based on the relative water content (RWC) measurement. Further characterization of genotypes contrasting in their response to water stress was performed at the physiological level by determination of RWC, water loss rate (WLR) and free proline content after different hours of dehydration. Modification in the expression level of five dehydrin (DHN) genes was also analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Five cDNAs coding for different DHNs were identified and characterized. These genes are not expressed in the wellwatered plants, but only in the stressed plants. Four of these cDNAs are related to novel DHN sequences. ...
Objective(s):. The effects of Californias extreme 2012-2016 drought were exacerbated by abnormally high temperatures, resulting in historically unprecedented tree mortality. To capture scientific information needed to prepare forest managers for similar events in the future, we launched the Leaf to Landscape project in 2014, with core funding from USGS, NPS, and USFS. Our 2014-2017 collection of "perishable" data was coordinated across spatial scales, from tree leaves to entire forested landscapes. Our globally-unique network of permanent forest plots in the Sierra Nevada has been a key component of this interdisciplinary effort.. Our primary goal for the next five years is to apply our existing Leaf to Landscape data and continued documentation of forest drought response and recovery to provide forest managers with key information and tools, as outlined the following six objectives:. Objective 1: Create and validate empirically derived, species-specific forest vulnerability maps, letting the ...
Table of Contents WHEN EVERY DROP Counts Protecting Public Health During Drought Conditions A Guide for Public Health Professionals Preparing for and Responding to Drought 3 How to obtain copies You can
The state is experiencing the worst drought in its history. Find out just how bad the situation is getting and what it means for you.
We investigated the impact of drought and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the morphological structure and physiological function of shoots and roots of male and female seedlings of the dioecious plant Populus cathayana Rehder. Pot-grown seedlings were subjected to well watered or water-limiting conditions (drought) and were grown in soil that was either inoculated or not inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices. No significant differences were found in the infection rates between the two sexes. Drought decreased root and shoot growth, biomass and root morphological characteristics, whereas superoxide radical (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide content, peroxidase (POD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and proline content were significantly enhanced in both sexes. Male plants that formed an AM fungal symbiosis showed a significant increase in shoot and root morphological growth, increased proline content of leaves and roots, and increased POD activity in roots under both watering
The actual causes of physiological plant stress and tree death during droughts are being investigated by various research teams using models and field and greenhouse experiments. One possibility is prolonged embolism, or the catastrophic disruption of the water column in wood vessels as trees struggle to pump moisture from the soil in the heat of summer. The other is carbon starvation as leaves shut their openings, called stomates, to conserve leaf water, slowing the uptake of carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis. Stomatal closure is triggered by deficits in the ambient vapor pressure, which controls the rate of evaporation for water and is very much influenced by temperature ...
The Midwest is experiencing its worst drought since 1988 , and corn crops are suffering as a result. Shortages are predicted due to the damage already done by the drought. But if drought conditions continue, the damage will be felt deeply by consumers.
The Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa project has contributed towards improving the seed system in sub-Saharan Africa in the face of extreme drought.
In this study, we identified a transcriptional repressor that is important for ABA responses and provided evidence that suggests a connection between ABA signaling and gene repression by chromatin remodeling. Our genetic analysis showed that AtERF7 and AtSin3 play important roles in mediating ABA responses in Arabidopsis. Transgenic lines overexpressing AtERF7 showed reduced sensitivity to ABA in stomatal closure and increased sensitivity to drought stress (Figure 2). Consistent with this finding, Arabidopsis RNAi lines with AtERF7 expression knocked down displayed increased sensitivity to ABA in stomatal closing as well as seed germination. The effects observed with AtERF7 overexpression or RNAi plants are not necessarily specific for AtERF7, because we did not test the effect of overexpression or RNAi of AtERF3 or AtERF4. AtSin3 RNAi lines also were more sensitive to ABA in seed germination (Figure 6B). Our results indicate that AtERF7 overexpression may downregulate the expression of some ...
Aug 2017. Despite widespread emergency response in Ethiopias agriculture sector last year to the El Niño-induced drought, humanitarian needs remain high in 2017. New threats to food security are emerging - including severe drought in southern and southeastern pastoral areas and a growing refugee crisis in Gambella Region. Livelihood recovery will remain slow for El Niño-affected farmers, especially those in areas where harvests were below average.. Building on the success of FAOs interventions and scaled up response last year, in 2017 FAO Ethiopia aims to support the livelihoods of 1 million farming, agropastoral and pastoral households. To reach this goal, FAO will require USD 20 million to save livestock-based livelihoods, diversify livelihood opportunities for refugees and host community members, support crop production, and strengthen coordination, information and analysis in the agriculture sector.. ...
Salinity and drought are two very important abiotic stresses that dramatically affect the growth and yield of crop plants because most of the economically important crops are intolerant/sensitive to abitoic stress. There is enormous current interest in improving the salinity and drought tolerance of crops. Salinity/drought tolerance is a complex trait that involves numerous aspects of developmental, physiological, biochemical and molecular adjustments. The regulatory pathways leading to these adjustments are poorly understood and remain a focal point of our research. The "rational" approach is to elucidate the physiological and molecular basis of existing salt- and drought-tolerance mechanisms in different plant species or cultivars and to identify the superior genes/alleles involved so that they can be incorporated into improved cultivars ...
We are looking at the functionality of select, drought-responsive genes identified in the interaction network by transferring them into rice using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The genetically engineered rice plants evaluated for their growth responses to drought stress under greenhouse simulations would help our understanding of rice plant biology under field conditions as well as improve its adaptability, which will contribute to the sustainable rice production worldwide.. ...
Downloadable! For most of the last decade, water policy in Australia has been dominated by emergency responses to what was, on most measures, the worst drought in our history. Irrigators have received only small fractions of their normal allocations of water, while urban water users have been subject to restrictions of a stringency unparalleled in our recent experience. Debate continues on the extent to which the recent drought was the result of (natural or anthropogenic) climate change, and therefore on whether it can be seen as an exceptional shock or as a foretaste of a hotter and drier climate. At a minimum, it seems clear that the relatively wet conditions of the second half of the 20th century, which formed the basis of most water planning, are unlikely to recur. Despite the breaking of the drought in most regions, therefore, Australian water policy must deal with a fundamentally new environment. The era of abundant water availability, already reaching its limits in the 1980s, is now clearly
There are actually four different ways that drought can be defined. Meteorological is a measure of departure of precipitation from normal. Due to climatic differences, what might be considered a drought in one location of the country may not be a drought in another location. Agricultural - refers to a situation where the amount of moisture in the soil no longer meets the needs of a particular crop. Hydrological - occurs when surface and subsurface water supplies are below normal. Socioeconomic - refers to the situation that occurs when physical water shortages begin to affect people. This new book presents leading research from around the globe ...
Recent droughts in Puerto Rico and throughout the Caribbean have emphasized the regions agricultural vulnerability to this hazard and the increasing need for adaptation mechanisms to support sustainable production. In this study, we assessed the geographic extent of agricultural conservation practices incentivized by US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and evaluated their large-scale contribution to drought adaptability. We identified concentrations of drought-related practices (e.g. cover crops, ponds) applied between 2000 and 2016. Using information from spatial databases and interviews with experts, we assessed the spatial correlation between these practices and areas exposed to drought as identified by the US Drought Monitor. Between 2000 and 2016, Puerto Rico experienced seven drought episodes concentrated around the south, east and southeastern regions. The most profound drought occurred between 2014 and 2016 when the island experienced 80 ...
drought pushes corn and soybean prices to record levels. In a letter sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, a coalition that includes the National Cattlemens Beef Association and the National Pork Producers Council asked for a one-year waiver on federal ethanol quotas, saying that the ongoing drought in the U.S. Midwest has slashed the amount of corn available to feed livestock and poultry. The current renewable fuels standard would require that 13.2 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol be produced in 2012 and 13.8 billion gallons in 2013. In 2012, the meat producers say, those quotas would consume nearly 40 percent of all U.S.-produced corn. "The extraordinary and disastrous circumstances created for livestock and poultry producers by the ongoing drought in the heart of our grain growing regions requires that all relevant measures of relief be explored," the letter said ...
Our analyses establish a role for HSI2 in response to water stress during the vegetative stage of the Arabidopsis life cycle. Specifically, loss of HSI2 function results in plants better able to maintain physiological water potential under limiting water conditions, as indicated by reduced wilting and higher leaf RWC (Figure 2), while overexpression of HSI2 yields a complementary phenotype. These results are consistent with HSI2 acting as a negative regulator. The ability of the hsi2 mutant to avoid low water potential is likely attributed, at least in part, to lower stomatal conductance (Figure 4), effectively reducing transpirational water loss. Consistent with this phenotype, the mutant constitutively expresses higher levels of genes implicated in reducing water loss or improving water use. These include ERECTA, a positive regulator of water use efficiency through control of stomatal density and conductance [31] and PHOSPHOLIPASE Dα1, a positive regulator of ABA-induced stomatal movement and ...
Public Release: 26-Jun-2017 RIKEN Caption The effect of several organic acids on plant drought tolerance after 14 days. From left to right, water, HCl, formic acid, acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, citric acid. Note, only plants treated with acetic acid survived. Credit: RIKEN Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science…
Many U.S. farmers have been hit hard by drought conditions the past few years, but a new subsurface water retention technology may be able to help farms thrive even in dry years.
Cereal production will need to increase by 37 % to meet the food security challenge by 2050 [1]. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most widely grown cereals and an essential component of the global food security, supplying one-fifth of the total calories of the worlds population [2]. Drought is a major abiotic stress that reduces wheat yield and production in the world. As a result of climate change, the global frequency and severity of drought events is likely to increase. For example, regional projections show that South-Eastern Australia will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns and rising temperatures with 40 % more months of drought in the region by 2070 [3]. A way to improve the drought tolerance of crops is to discover new genes and alleles that allow plants to continue to grow and maintain or increase grain yield under water-limited growing conditions.. Flag leaf is one of the major contributors to wheat grain yield, particularly under drought [4-7]. This is ...
Weeks of rains have eliminated the worst drought conditions in the Southeast, but nearly three-quarters of the region remains well below nor…
The majority of nitrogen absorbed by plant roots is in the nitrate form, and in normal weather conditions, nitrate is rapidly converted into plant proteins. When pearlmillet and sorghum-sudangrass become stressed this conversion stops and nitrates begin to accumulate in the plant. High nitrate accumulation in forages is often the result of a heavy nitrogen application followed by drought conditions. In mild drought conditions, roots continue to absorb nitrate, but plant protein conversion does not take place. In a severe drought, nitrate absorption will cease because of a lack of moisture, but nitrates will be rapidly absorbed following a rain and will likely accumulate to high levels. It can take 7-14 days after a drought-ending rain for nitrates to be metabolized below a toxic level. An energy source is required for nitrate reduction, so extended periods of cloudy weather can contribute to nitrate accumulation, especially when coupled with wet days following a severe drought. Extreme ...
Scientists are studying these varieties to identify the genes and molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in order to engineer new drought-resistant crops of potato, as well as other Solanaceous vegetables.
Despite being predictable, drought is the most costly and the deadliest disaster of our time," said the Executive Secretary of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), Luc Gnacadja, adding that the decision to mitigate drought is ultimately political. "Governments of all drought-prone countries need to adopt, mainstream and operationalize national drought policies, based on the principles of early warning, preparedness and risk management."Since the 1970s, the land area affected by drought has doubled. Most recently, droughts have affected the Greater Horn of Africa and the Sahel region, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, parts of China and India, Russia and South-east Europe. In addition, 168 countries claim to be affected by desertification, a process of land degradation in the drylands that affects food production and is exacerbated by drought.The effects of drought can last long after the rains return, with food remaining scarce and expensive and depleted water resources, eroded ...
Plant Biotechnol J. 2011 Apr;9(3):315-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00560.x. Epub 2010 Aug 31. Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
A severe drought in northern China has hit almost 43% of the countrys wheat crop this winter, senior officials have warned. Low rainfall since October has affected more than 9.3m hectares (229.71 acres) of land in northern China across six major grain-producing provinces, according to the Office of State Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters.
Better Insight For Growers And Scientists. By measuring the stomata responses over a period of time, researchers were able to determine when plants were deprived of water to a point of stress, with greater accuracy and before other signs of drought became apparent. In the research process, carbon nanotube ink was printed directly on the plant. For potential agricultural, gardening, and environmental research applications, the same technology could be applied to a sticker, which would then provide insight to growers and field scientists. The technology may also be put to use for engineering plants that are more resistant to drought conditions.. ...
The following was contributed by Dr. John Keyantash, California State University, Dominguez Hills, January, 2014:. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is a widely accepted index for the quantification of drought. In fact, the SPI was recommended through the Lincoln Declaration on Drought as the internationally preferred index for meteorological drought (Hayes et al., 2011). The SPI specifically addresses the intensity of meteorological drought, or precipitation deficit. The shortage of precipitation is a fundamental, intuitive metric for drought-perhaps the most basic description possible. However, interpreting the magnitude of the precipitation deficit can be challenging, because precipitation climatology varies widely over geographical regions as well as temporal scales. For example, when an unusually wet month is embedded within a period of extended drought, should the month be considered droughty or not? Furthermore, the level of the precipitation deficit/excess should be judged ...
Physiological Response to Different Irradiation Regimes during Barley Seedlings Growth Followed by Drought Stress under Non-Photoinhibitory Light
Cellular and molecular aspects of abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana subjected to cold, drought, and high salinity and in two photosynthetic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Coccomyxa sp. C-169, subjected to nitrogen deprivation were investigated. Cold, drought, and high salinity can negatively affect plant growth and crop production. The first research aimed at determining the physiological functions of the stress-responsive Arabidopsis thaliana RD29A and RD29B genes. Cold, drought, and salt induced both genes; the promoter of RD29Awas found to be more responsive to drought and cold stresses, whereas the promoter of RD29B was highly responsive to salt stress. Therefore, RD29A and RD29B gene sequences have the potential to confer abiotic stress resistance in crop species grown in arid and semi-arid regions. RD29A and RD29B proteins were also found to unlikely serve directly as protective molecules. The second study aimed at investigating the impacts of nitrogen deprivation in
Drought Tolerant plants will go longer periods between waterings and require less water than water demanding plants. Drought Tolerant plants do still need water though, especially their first year while their root system is developing. If Xeriscaping is your goal, these plants are what you are looking for. ...
Sugarcane drought tolerant strain NXI-4T has a resistance to drought. This sugarcane was developed by PT Riset Perkebunan Nusantara which coorporates with Jember University. This strain already have been approved by Indonesian Agricultural Ministry. This strain has purple stem, green non-hairy leaves. This strain was modified using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and plasmid pMHL2113. Agrobacterium transferred the betA gene from Rhizobium meliloti. (in Indonesian) Rijzaani H. 2013. Tebu Biotek Toleran Kekeringan Disetujui untuk Dilepas [online]. http://biogen.litbang.deptan.go.id/index.php/2013/05/tebu-biotek-toleran-kekeringan-disetujui-untuk-dilepas/ [27 Apr 2014]. (in Indonesian)Johan. 2014. Mengenal Varietas Tebu NXI-4T Sebagai Produk Rekayasa Genetika Di PTPN XI [online]. http://www.ptpn-11.com/mengenal-varietas-tebu-nxi-4t-sebagai-produk-rekayasa-genetika-di-ptpn-xi-persero.html [28 Apr 2014 ...
State law requires that county pipes be purged of stagnant water, which may lose its disinfectant.. PALM HARBOR -- After countless news reports about Floridas drought, Henry Russell found it troublesome when he realized that a water valve installed by Pinellas County in his neighborhood spewed thousands of gallons of water a day into the street. The Tampa Bay area is suffering its worst drought in dozens of years. The Floridan Aquifer, its source of drinking water, is drying up, produce is withering and lawns are dehydrated. But until recently, the valve on Robin Avenue gushed three times a day, flooding the end of the street and sending brisk streams of water down the sides of the road to nearby drains. The sight made it hard to take water conservation seriously, Russell said. "You could just sense it was a heck of a lot of water getting dumped out of there," said Russell, 54, who has lived on Robin Avenue for 19 years. "It just got to me when I started seeing that release of water during the ...
That green expanse of lawn requires regular moisture, especially in the dry season. Drought resistant grass is an option or you can choose to use a substitute for grass. This article will help with both. Click here for more information.
The punishing seven-year drought of the 1950s in Texas brought about the modern era of water planning. But the drought of 2011 was the hottest, driest 12
Farmers can improve their drought resilience by making different crop choices, enrolling in crop insurance and other farm risk management programs, and investing in soil health. USDA conservation programs-intended primarily to improve on-site and off-site environmental quality-may also help producers adapt to drought risk.
Decades of drought in central Africa may have had a surprising cause, according to new research that challenges the notion that the severe dry weather was triggered mainly by bad agricultural practices and overgrazing.. The research, done at the University of Washington, shows that the drought was at least partially caused by pollution in the Northern Hemisphere.. The researchers said that sulfate-laden aerosols coming from coal-burning factories from the 1960s through the 1980s actually slowed warming in the Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern Hemisphere. This shifted tropical rain bands south, away from the Sahel region, and led ultimately to the near drying up of Lake Chad, which is used to water crops in surrounding areas.. Africas Sahel regionAfricas Sahel region "We think people should know that these particles not only pollute air locally, but they also have these remote climate effects," said the studys lead author, Yen-Ting Hwang, a University of Washington doctoral student ...
Our back yards, our favorite vistas and our best fishing holes are disappearing. These photos show nature wearing a most unwelcome face. Drought has robbed much of the lushness from Citrus County and, consequently, a piece of our souls is missing, too, because instead of wallowing in its most distinctive charm -- water -- we can only dream about communing with the wading birds and riding a boat in the evening sun. Receding shorelines promise a trip to nowhere. Only hope reconnects us with our surroundings. Isolated images of the drought pervade as we drink our morning coffee, drive to work, walk to lunch and return home. These aerial photos, taken over vast, water-starved acres, stitch together frustrating snapshots from our daily lives. In many places, the Withlacoochee River, normally a great place to fish and launch a canoe, is more puddle than waterway. The Tsala Apopka Chain of Lakes, all 19,000 acres of it, is shriveling. Pine trees are beginning to shed their needles for lack of moisture. ...
The carcass of an alligator gar rests along the shore at the edge of a small pool of red sludge-like water at the base of the dam at O.C. Fisher Lake on July 25, 2011 in San Angelo, Texas. The pool is the last water remaining in the 5,440 acre lake which was established to provide flood control and serve as a secondary drinking water source for San Angelo and the surrounding communities following an extended drought in the region. The lake which has a maximum depth of 58 feet is also used for boating, fishing and swimming. The San Angelo area has seen only 2.5 inches of rain this year. The past nine months have been the driest in Texas since record keeping began in 1895, with 75% of the state classified as exceptional drought, the worst level. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images) less ...
The current Cambria Community Services District management has, to date, not pursued offers with upstream farmers to utilize their riparian water to help Cambrians get through the temporary drought like the district has done in previous droughts. And now we learn a few years ago the district did not exercise due diligence to maintain pre-existing water rights for Santa Rosa well 4 (SR4), so mismanagement has further constrained our available water.
The nations widest drought in decades is spreading, with more than half of the continental United States in some stage of drought and most of the rest enduring abnormally dry conditions.
Ethiopia has a plan in place to build long-term drought resilience and rural food, which is almost exactly what Canadians did to build drought resilience on the Prairies during the Dirty Thirties. What the country needs now is money.
Abstract. Drought is a harmful and little understood natural hazard. Effective drought prediction is vital for sustainable agricultural activities and water re
QUEENSLAND graziers could be forced to shoot their cattle as parts of the state are savaged by soaring temperatures on top of an extended drought.
U.S. Drought Monitor reclassified cities as first metropolitan Texas area out of drought; Water restrictions expected to be eased
Accurate monitoring and prediction of agricultural droughts helps manage them, minimize losses attributed to them, and mitigate their extreme forms, which some countries face even today. This book presents the basic concepts of agricultual drought, various remote sensing techniques used to monitor them, and efforts by international organizations to check them.
Despite a summer drought that has driven corn futures higher, the price consumers pay at the pump for corn-derived ethanol-blended gasoline isnt likely to rise.This is a regional drought, not an
Droughts can be disruptive and dangerous for many sectors. We research the many factors that cause droughts in order to anticipate and respond to them.
Droughts can be disruptive and dangerous for many sectors. We research the many factors that cause droughts in order to anticipate and respond to them.
Drought is a type of natural calamity that occurs when an area gets less than its normal amount of rain over months or even years. Drought facts and more.
Gov. Jay Inslee declared a drought emergency in nearly half of usually damp Washington on Friday, and officials said the entire state could be classified as drought-stricken by early May. We've never experienced a drought like this before, said Maia Bellon, director of the state Department of...
This Month in Ag Connection] [Ag Connection - Other Issues Online] Fertility After A Drought. There are several considerations to keep in mind for the growing season after a drought. If the crops grown during a drought did not grow, yield, or perform as expected, then there may be leftover fertilizer that can be used for the coming season. The first consideration is if the field(s) were fertilized to recommended levels for an expected yield or above. This is important since if there was not a full rate applied, then the idea of leftover fertilizer may not be applicable. The other considerations have to do with the variability and severity of the drought conditions, how much the crop was affected, and how the crop was handled during the harvest. Every field probably had varying amounts of rain, were planted at different times, in different soils, to different crops and varieties so each field should be evaluated individually.. The extent of a drought and the crop s condition can be looked at ...
More than 98 percent of Texas is in some level of abnormal dryness as spring arrives, conditions that could set drought records and lead to severe water restrictions in some regions of the state. The weekly ...
US Drought Monitor Update: Significant expansion of abnormally dry drought conditions across the western counties of SE TX. A region of moderate drought was also added to Jackson, Wharton, and Colorado counties. Overall, 79% of the state of TX is experiencing drought conditions ...
According to the AtGenExpress transcriptome data sets, AtbZIP1 is an Arabidopsis gene induced by several abiotic stresses, such as salt, cold and drought. Here, we isolated AtbZIP1, and used...
Drought impedes the acquisition of potassium (K) by restricting root growth, in turn causing a reduction in the plants K nutritional status, thereby further depressing its tolerance of the stress. The product of RAA1 (Root Architecture Associated 1) is involved in the auxin-mediated development of the rice root system. Here, the introduction of a transgene comprising RAA1 driven by the promoter of HAK1, a gene which encodes a drought-enhanced K transporter, was shown to exert a positive effect on the size of the root system and the number of adventitious roots formed. Transgenic seedlings demonstrated a higher level of tolerance to moisture stress than wild type (WT) ones, accumulated more K, proline and abscisic acid and suffered a lower level of lipid peroxidation. The genes AKT1, HAK1 and HAK5 were all up-regulated in the roots of transgenic drought-stressed hydroponics-grown seedlings, as were several known stress-responsive genes in the leaves of soil-grown, moisture-stressed transgenic ...
An extended period of unusually low precipitation that produces a shortage of water for people, animals and plants. Drought is different from most other hazards in that it develops slowly, sometimes even over years, and its onset is generally difficult to detect. Drought is not solely a physical phenomenon because its impacts can be exacerbated by human activities and water supply demands. Drought is therefore often defined both conceptually and operationally. Operational definitions of drought, meaning the degree of precipitation reduction that constitutes a drought, vary by locality, climate and environmental sector.. ...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
AUSTRALIA - The past 12 to 18 months have been remarkable in terms of the number of sheep and cattle slaughtered - the result of the ongoing drought conditions in the north of the country and the strong sheep and lamb prices, according to Meat and Livestock Australia.
Guest post by Scott Gates Much as with the UK - where their drought is demonstrated by severe flooding ... in Minnesota it is much the same. The government forecasters (NOAA) claims were in a long term moderate to severe drought ......... LINK HERE - pic Here: .... the REALITY is far different ... LINK…
Forests slow their growth for up to four years after severe drought, a period during which they are less able to act as carbon sinks, a new study reports.
Severe drought and scorching heat has damaged over a million hectares of farmland in Chinas Henan and Inner Mongolia provinces, with no immediate relief in sight, state news agency Xinhua reported.