TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of the LINE-like I element in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. AU - Sezutsu, Hideki. AU - Nitasaka, Eiji. AU - Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki. PY - 1995/3/1. Y1 - 1995/3/1. N2 - LINE-like retrotransposons, the so-called I elements, control the system of I-R (inducer-reactive) hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. I elements are present in many Drosophila species. It has been suggested that active, complete I elements, located at different sites on the chromosomes, invaded natural populations of D. melanogaster recently (1920-1970). But old strains lacking active I elements have only defective I elements located in the chromocenter. We have cloned I elements from D. melanogaster and the melanogaster subgroup. In D. melanogaster, the nucleotide sequences of chromocentral I elements differed from those on chromosome arms by as much as 7%. All the I elements of D. mauritiana and D. sechellia are more closely related to the chromosomal I elements of D. melanogaster ...
Van Der Straten, A., Johansen, H., Sweet, R., & Rosenberg, M. (1987). Efficient expression of foreign genes in cultured drosophila melanogaster cells using hygromycin B selection. In Y. Kuroda, E. Kurstak, & K. Maramorosch (Eds.), Invertebrate and Fish Tissue Culture: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Invertebrate and Fish Tissue Culture, Japan (pp. 131-134). New York, NY: Springer Verlag ...
Drosophila melanogaster Adult enhancer factor 1 (Aef1) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Locale, Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts, Publications, Species, Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on drosophila melanogaster in New York, United States
Abstract: Currently, there are significant gaps in understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in nociceptor sensitivity. Dysregulated nociceptor sensitivity is the likely pathogenesis in many types of chronic pain, a disease that ails over 100 million people in the United States alone. To improve current chronic pain therapies, it is essential to define the regulatory mechanisms responsible for nociception. The goal of this study was to characterize how genes classically involved in RNA processing and translation regulate nociceptor sensitivity. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used for this study because of their quantifiable response to noxious stimuli and the powerful tools available for genetic manipulations. My results suggest that eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and components of the exon junction complex (EJC) control nociceptor sensitivity by regulating RNA processing and translation, suggesting a major role for RNA metabolism and translation in controlling ...
We have used flow visualizations and instantaneous force measurements of tethered fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to study the dynamics of force generation during flight. During each complete stroke cycle, the flies generate one single vortex loop consisting of vorticity shed during the downstroke and ventral flip. This gross pattern of wake structure in Drosophila is similar to those described for hovering birds and some other insects. The wake structure differed from those previously described, however, in that the vortex filaments shed during ventral stroke reversal did not fuse to complete a circular ring, but rather attached temporarily to the body to complete an inverted heart-shaped vortex loop. The attached ventral filaments of the loop subsequently slide along the length of the body and eventually fuse at the tip of the abdomen. We found no evidence for the shedding of wing-tip vorticity during the upstroke, and argue that this is due to an extreme form of the Wagner effect acting ...
Humanised fruit fly models are transgenic Drosophila melanogaster strains expressing human genes. Specifically, we study the characteristics of fly models expressing human genes involved in neurological disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons Diseases (AD and PD). Interestingly, these Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models show a high degree of conservation in the fundamental biological pathways and in the molecular, genetic and pathophysiological aspects of neurodegenerative human diseases. These characteristics explain why Drosophila models have paved the way for the development of initial fast screening for potential drug candidates in vivo, and represent also a promising tool for biomedical research in neuroscience ...
Author Summary Organisms such as the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster have long been used as model systems to understand complex aspects of human biology. Work on Drosophila antimicrobial immunity has led to identification of mechanisms underlying human innate immunity, such as the use of Toll-like receptors for recognizing antigen and initiating humoral immune responses. Flies and humans are also infected by larger parasites against which they mount immune blood-cell based responses, but the genetic basis for cellular immunity is poorly characterized. In nature, flies are often infected by parasitoid wasps that lay their eggs in fly larvae, inducing a cellular immune response in the flies. Fly blood cells surround the wasp egg and form a tightly connected capsule leading to death of the egg in a process called encapsulation, which is similar to human granuloma formation. In this study we identified eight new genes that are important for encapsulation. These genes are part of the N-glycosylation pathway
Assembly/Alignment/Annotation of 12 related Drosophila species: »Assembly/Alignment/Annotation, LBNL, USA BDGP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Project: »Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP): »BDGP, University of California, Berkeley, USA BDTNP, ChIP/chip in vivo DNA binding data: »Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA CluSTr protein sequence similarity analysis of Drosophila: »CluSTr proteome analysis, EBI, UK D. pseudoobscura genome project: »Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, USA D. simulans genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D. yakuba genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D.melanogaster UCSC Genome Browser Gateway: »University of California, Santa Cruz, USA DDBJ, the DNA Data Bank of Japan: »DDBJ, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan DNase I ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The M/SAR elements of the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Boykova, T. V.. AU - Orlando, V.. AU - Lupo, R.. AU - Bogachev, S. S.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory system of the BX complex is its association with the nuclear skeleton structures through a specific interaction of the M/SAR DNA with the nuclear matrix proteins. In the present work, M/SAR elements were mapped on the molecular-genetic map of the region. All of the elements examined were found to colocalize with regulatory elements and form clusters that restrict/bracket the genetically active domains. All M/SAR DNA revealed was shown to bins specifically to the purified Drosophila melanogaster lamin.. AB - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Biochemical phylogeny of the eight species in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, including D. sechellia and D. orena. by M L Cariou
Calcium signaling are conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates and plays critical roles in many molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis and postnatal development. As a critical component of the signaling pathway, the RyR medicated calcium-induced calcium release signaling system, has been well studied along with their regulator FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12/Calstabin). Lack of FKBP12 is known to result in lethal cardiac dysfunction in mouse. However, precisely how FKBP12 is regulated and effects calcium signaling in Drosophila melanogaster remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified both temporal and localization changes in expression of DmFKBP12, a translational and transcriptional regulator of Drosophila RyR (DmRyR) and FKBP12, through embryonic development. DmFKBP12 is first expressed at the syncytial blastoderm stage and undergoes increased expression during the cellular blastoderm and early gastrulation stages. At late gastrulation, DmFKBP12 expression begins to decline until it
Background. The calcium-imaging technique allows us to record movies of brain activity in the antennal lobe of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, a brain compartment dedicated to information about odors. Signal processing, e.g. with source separation techniques, can be slow on the large movie datasets.,br /,Method. We have developed an approximate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for fast dimensionality reduction. The method samples relevant pixels from the movies, such that PCA can be performed on a smaller matrix. Utilising a priori knowledge about the nature of the data, we minimise the risk of missing important pixels.,br /,Results. Our method allows for fast approximate computation of PCA with adaptive resolution and running time. Utilising a priori knowledge about the data enables us to concentrate more biological signals in a small pixel sample than a general sampling method based on vector norms.,br /,Conclusions. Fast dimensionality reduction with approximate PCA removes a ...
1. The optomotor control of orientation and locomotion in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster requires the conveyance of information from distinct movement detectors in the visual system to distinct movement effectors in the motor system. Abnormalities of the optomotor control system have been found occasionally in Drosophila.. 2. The abnormal flies can be isolated from population samples by appropriate fractionation according to the magnitude and the sign of the optomotor responses. A cyclically operating machine was used to fractionate two inbred strains, w+ and wα, which possess different alleles on the white-locus of their X-chromosomes.. 3. Movements of an artificial visual environment elicit similar orientation-control responses, but antagonistic locomotion-control responses in the two strains. The responses depend on various parameters and may even change with habituation to the stimulus. However, the application of selection pressure through eight generations has little if any effect ...
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P-13. Transcription Profiling of Cell Death in Drosophila Melanogaster. S. Chittaranjan, E. Garland, D. Freeman, S. Jones, M. Marra, and S. Gorski, Genome Sequence Centre BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, CANADA. Programmed Cell death - PCD - is a highly conserved and genetically controlled event that plays important roles in animal development, homeostasis and disease. We are employing a genomics approach, using EST and SAGE, to identify new PCD genes that are transciptionally regulated in the salivary glands - SGs - of Drosophila. We constructed a SG-specific cDNA library and SG-miniSAGE libraries from three consecutive developmental stages leading up to PCD.5461 high quality 3 ESTs from our SG cDNA library were used to perform BLAST analysis against Drosophila predicted genes and genomic sequence from the Drosophila Genome Project. The majority of the ESTs matched known or predicted genes in Drosophila including a number of ecdysone-induced genes and known PCD genes. We also identified a ...
... - geotaxis (Hi5) strains of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) differ in Keywords: gene-pleiotropy; Drosophila; geotaxis; circadian; cry; Pdf; tau. During
Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, is a model organism which has been extensively used in entymological research. It is one of the most studied organisms in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology. When its not being used for scientific research, D. melanogaster is a common pest in homes, restaurants, and anywhere else that serves food. They are not to be confused with Tephritidae flys (also known as fruit flys). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drosophila_melanogaster
Satellite DNA can make up a substantial fraction of eukaryotic genomes and has roles in genome structure and chromosome segregation. The rapid evolution of satellite DNA can contribute to genomic instability and genetic incompatibilities between species. Despite its ubiquity and its contribution to genome evolution, we currently know little about the dynamics of satellite DNA evolution. The Responder (Rsp) satellite DNA family is found in the pericentric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. Rsp is well-known for being the target of Segregation Distorter (SD) an autosomal meiotic drive system in D. melanogaster. I present an evolutionary genetic analysis of the Rsp family of repeats in D. melanogaster and its closely-related species in the melanogaster group (D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. mauritiana, D. erecta, and D. yakuba) using a combination of available BAC sequences, whole genome shotgun Sanger reads, Illumina short read deep sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization
Insects possess a rhythmically active tubular heart that shows remarkable similarity to the mammalian heart despite differing in gross structure. Studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have demonstrated remarkable molecular and developmental similarities between the two. Key genes in heart development are homologous between insects and mammals (e.g. tinman), as are key components of cardiac myocyte physiology, including ion channels, pumps and exchangers.. Consequently, studies of the Drosophila heart can provide invaluable insights into the functioning of the mammalian hearts but little of this potential has been realised. Investigations of the Drosophila heart have focussed almost exclusively on the output of the larval heart measured through the electrocardiogram (ECG), ignoring the cellular level. Yet, heart cells are capable of showing substantial plasticity and redundancy so knowing the overall output is insufficient to characterise the impact of changes in molecular networks ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relation between recombination rate and patterns of molecular evolution and variation in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Campos, José L. AU - Halligan, Daniel L. AU - Haddrill, Penelope R. AU - Charlesworth, Brian. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill-Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on ...
Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a 46,000 mol wt major cytoplasmic protein from Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells. These antibodies reacted with the 46,000 and a 40,000 mol wt protein from Kc cells. Some antibodies showed cross-reaction with 55,000 (vimentin) and 52,000 mol wt (desmin) proteins from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that form intermediate sized filaments in vertebrate cells. In indirect immunofluorescence, the group of cross reacting antibodies stained a filamentous meshwork in the cytoplasm of vertebrate cells. In Kc cells the fluorescence seemed to be localized in a filamentous meshwork that became more obvious after the cells had flattened out on a surface. These cytoskeletal structures are heat-labile; the proteins in Kc or BHK cells rearrange after a brief heat shock, forming juxtanuclear cap structures.
Dimitris J. Panagopoulos, (2012): Gametogénesis, desarrollo embrionario y post-embrionario de Drosophila melanogaster, como un sistema modelo para la Evaluación de la Radiación y Genotoxicidad ambiental, en M. Spindler-Barth (Ed), Drosophila melanogaster : Ciclo de la Vida, Genética y Desarrollo, Nova Science Publishers, Nueva York, EE.UU.. Los experimentos Drosophila de Panagopoulos et al (2007: Muerte celular inducida por GSM 900 MHz y DCS 1800MHz radiación de telefonía móvil, Mutation Research, 626, 69 - 78.) fueron los primeros en mostrar daño en el ADN después de la exposición en vivo a la radiación del teléfono móvil GSM verdadero sólo unos pocos minutos al día durante unos días. Estos experimentos mostraron que la radiación GSM es aún más genotóxico que previamente arrojaron factores genotóxicos como los productos químicos, la privación de alimentos, y el calor. También explicaron la gran disminución de la reproducción (hasta 60%) del mismo animal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantifying interactions within the NADP(H) enzyme network in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Merritt, Thomas J S. AU - Kuczynski, Caitlin. AU - Sezgin, Efe. AU - Zhu, Chen Tseh. AU - Kumagai, Seiji. AU - Eanes, Walter F.. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - In this report, we use synthetic, activity-variant alleles in Drosophila melanogaster to quantify interactions across the enzyme network that reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to NADPH. We examine the effects of large-scale variation in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in a single genetic background and of smaller-scale variation in IDH, G6PD, and malic enzyme across 10 different genetic backgrounds. We find significant interactions among all three enzymes in adults; changes in the activity of any one source of a reduced cofactor generally result in changes in the other two, although the magnitude and directionality of change differs depending on the gene ...
Several pH-dependent low-spin ferric haem forms are identified in a frozen solution of the ferric 121CysSer mutant of Drosophila melanogaster haemoglobin (DmHb1*) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Different forms with EPR parameters typical of bis-histidine coordinated haem iron centers were observed. Strong pH-dependent changes in the EPR signatures were observed related to changes in the haem pocket. The pulsed EPR data indicate that both the distal and proximal histidine exhibit a large libration around the FeNHis axis. The resonance Raman spectra of the CO-ligated ferrous form of Drosophila melanogaster haemoglobin are typical of an open conformation, with little stabilization of the CO ligand by the surrounding amino-acid residues. The EPR data of the cyanide-ligated ferric DmHb1* indicates a close similarity with cyanide-ligated ferric myoglobin. The structural characteristics of DmHb1* are found to clearly differ from those of other bis-histidine-coordinated globins. ...
Precise estimates of costs and benefits, the fitness economics, of mating are of key importance in understanding how selection shapes the coevolution of male and female mating traits. However, fitness is difficult to define and quantify. Here, we used a novel application of an established analytical technique to calculate individual- and population-based estimates of fitness-including those sensitive to the timing of reproduction-to measure the effects on females of increased exposure to males. Drosophila melanogaster females were exposed to high and low frequencies of contact with males, and life-history traits for each individual female were recorded. We then compared different fitness estimates to determine which of them best described the changes in life histories. We predicted that rate-sensitive estimates would be more accurate, as mating influences the rate of offspring production in this species. The results supported this prediction. Increased exposure to males led to significantly ...
Met N-vinylpyrrolidon-(2) of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidon is geen mutagene werking gevonden met Klebsiella pneumoniae bij 5 ml/l of minder. Met Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 is geen mutagene werking gevonden bij 10 mul of minder per selectieplaat en evenmin met Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 bij 50 mul of minder per selectieplaat. Het onderzoek met beide Salmonella stammen is zowel met als zonder metabolische activering verricht. Met Drosophila melanogaster is met N-vinylpyrrolidon-2 (injectie van 0,2 mul van een 75 of 50 mmol/l oplossing) geen mutagene werking gevonden. Met L5178Y muize-lymfoomcellen is bij 8 mul/ml of minder zonder metabolische activering en bij 6 mul/ml met metabolische activering geen mutagene werking gevonden. Bij hogere concentraties dan de bovengenoemde heeft N-vinylpyrrolidon een groeiremmende werking op microorganismen of een toxische werking bij Drosophila melanogaster en muize-lymfoomcellen. N-vinylpyrrolidon is een stof die negatief is in testen voor genmutaties.,br ...
Definition of Drosophila melanogaster with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Motivation: The highly coordinated expression of thousands of genes in an organism is regulated by the concerted action of transcription factors, chromatin proteins and epigenetic mechanisms. High-throughput experimental data for genome wide in vivo protein-DNA interactions and epigenetic marks are becoming available from large projects, such as the model organism ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (modENCODE) and from individual labs. Dissemination and visualization of these datasets in an explorable form is an important challenge.. Results: To support research on Drosophila melanogaster transcription regulation and make the genome wide in vivo protein-DNA interactions data available to the scientific community as a whole, we have developed a system called Flynet. Currently, Flynet contains 101 datasets for 38 transcription factors and chromatin regulator proteins in different experimental conditions. These factors exhibit different types of binding profiles ranging from sharp localized peaks to ...
The neurogenic genes of Drosophila melanogaster are involved in the decision of ectodermal cells to take on a neural or an epidermal fate. We present evidence in support of the notion that six of the neurogenic genes are functionally related. We studied the phenotype of embryos lacking one of the neurogenic genes in the presence of an increased dosage of the wild-type allele of another neurogenic gene. Our analysis also included the Hairless locus, whose function is related to that of the neurogenic genes, as well as to many other genes. The effects observed were asymmetric in that triploidy for a given gene modified the phenotype of loss of the function of another gene, but triploidy of the latter gene did not modify the phenotype of loss of the function of the former gene. These asymmetries allowed us to establish a polarity of gene interactions, as well as to order the genes according to the assumed ability of some of them to modify the activity of others. In this sequence, almondex is the ...
Drosophila melanogaster often shows correlations between latitude and phenotypic or genetic variation on different continents, which suggests local adaptation with respect to a heterogeneous environment. Previous phenotypic analyses of latitudinal clines have investigated mainly physiological, morphological, or life-history traits. Here, we studied latitudinal variation in sleep in D. melanogaster populations from North and Central America. In parallel, we used RNA-seq to identify interpopulation gene expression differences. We found that in D. melanogaster the average nighttime sleep bout duration exhibits a latitudinal cline such that sleep bouts of equatorial populations are roughly twice as long as those of temperate populations. Interestingly, this pattern of latitudinal variation is not observed for any daytime measure of activity or sleep. We also found evidence for geographic variation for sunrise anticipation. Our RNA-seq experiment carried out on heads from a low and high
The goals of the Drosophila Genome Center are to finish the sequence of the euchromatic genome of Drosophila melanogaster to high quality and to generate and maintain biological annotations of this sequence. In addition to genomic sequencing, the BDGP is 1) producing gene disruptions using P element-mediated mutagenesis on a scale unprecedented in metazoans; 2) characterizing the sequence and expression of cDNAs; and 3) developing informatics tools that support the experimental process, identify features of DNA sequence, and allow us to present up-to-date information about the annotated sequence to the research community. [Information of the supplier ...
Protocol for performing ATAC-seq on nuclei isolated from Drosophila melanogaster stage 5 embryos that were flash frozen and then cut in half along the anterior-posterior midline....
We describe a collection of P-element insertions that have considerable utility for generating custom chromosomal aberrations in Drosophila melanogaster. We have mobilized a pair of engineered P elements, p[RS3] and p[RS5], to collect 3243 lines unambiguously mapped to the Drosophila genome sequence. The collection contains, on average, an element every 35 kb. We demonstrate the utility of the collection for generating custom chromosomal deletions that have their end points mapped, with base-pair resolution, to the genome sequence. The collection was generated in an isogenic strain, thus affording a uniform background for screens where sensitivity to genetic background is high. The entire collection, along with a computational and genetic toolbox for designing and generating custom deletions, is publicly available. Using the collection it is theoretically possible to generate ,12,000 deletions between 1 bp and 1 Mb in size by simple eye color selection. In addition, a further 37,000 deletions, ...
A pair of muscles span the fifth abdominal segment of male but not female Drosophila melanogaster adults. To establish whether genes involved in the development of other sexually dimorphic tissues controlled the differentiation of sex-specific muscles, flies mutant for five known sex-determining genes were examined for the occurrence of male-specific abdominal muscles. Female flies mutant for alleles of Sex-lethal, defective in sex determination, or null alleles of transformer or transformer-2 are converted into phenotypic males that formed male-specific abdominal muscles. Both male and female flies, when mutant for null alleles of doublesex, develop as nearly identical intersexes in other somatic characteristics. Male doublesex flies produced the male-specific muscles, whereas female doublesex flies lacked them. Female flies, even when they inappropriately expressed the male-specific form of doublesex mRNA, failed to produce the male-specific muscles. Therefore, the wild-type products of the ...
Author Summary Environmental conditions can strongly modulate the phenotype produced by a particular genotype. This process, called phenotypic plasticity, has major implications in medicine and agricultural sciences, and is thought to facilitate evolution. Phenotypic plasticity is observed in many animals and plants but its mechanisms are only partially understood. As a model of phenotypic plasticity, we study the effect of temperature on female abdominal pigmentation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Here we show that temperature affects female abdominal pigmentation by modulating the expression of tan (t), a gene involved in melanin production, in female abdominal epidermis. This effect is mediated at least partly by a particular regulatory sequence of t, the t_MSE enhancer. However we detected no modulation of chromatin structure of t_MSE by temperature. By contrast, the level of the active chromatin mark H3K4me3 on the t promoter is strongly increased at lower temperature. We show that the
We are interested in the relationship between cellular lipid metabolism and organismal aging. To mechanistically understand this relationship, we utilize the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly).. Recent studies revealed a connection between the fruit fly gene snazurus (SNZ) and fly lifespan (Suh, PLOS One, 2008). Snazurus, the fly homolog of yeast protein Mdm1, is highly expressed in the fly fat body, the insect hub for lipid metabolism analogous to the mammalian liver adipose tissue.. We are currently focused on understanding the role(s) of SNZ in fly metabolism and lifespan extension.. ...
Under optimal growth conditions at 25 °C (77 °F), the D. melanogaster lifespan is about 50 days from egg to death.[10] The developmental period for D. melanogaster varies with temperature, as with many ectothermic species. The shortest development time (egg to adult), 7 days, is achieved at 28 °C (82 °F).[11][12] Development times increase at higher temperatures (11 days at 30 °C or 86 °F) due to heat stress. Under ideal conditions, the development time at 25 °C (77 °F) is 8.5 days,[11][12][13] at 18 °C (64 °F) it takes 19 days[11][12] and at 12 °C (54 °F) it takes over 50 days.[11][12] Under crowded conditions, development time increases,[14] while the emerging flies are smaller.[14][15] Females lay some 400 eggs (embryos), about five at a time, into rotting fruit or other suitable material such as decaying mushrooms and sap fluxes. Drosophila melanogaster is a holometabolous insect, so it undergoes a full metamorphosis. Their life cycle is broken down into 4 stages: embryo, larva, ...
A second chromosome line of Drosophila melanogaster (Symbol: T-007) has previously been shown to be responsible for the induction of male recombination. In the present investigation, the genetic elements responsible for this phenomenon have been partially identified and mapped. A major element (Symbol: Mr, for M ale recombination) locates on the second chromosome between the pr (2L-54.4) and c (2R-75.5) loci and is responsible for the large majority of male recombination. In addition, there appear to be "secondary elements" present which have the ability to induce male recombination in much reduced frequencies and which are diluted out through successive backcross generations when Mr is removed by recombination. The possible nature of these "secondary elements" is discussed.. ...
Attractiveness is a major component of sexual selection that is dependent on sexual characteristics, such as pheromone production, which often reflect an individuals fitness and reproductive potential. Aging is a process that results in a steady decline in survival and reproductive output, yet little is known about its effect on specific aspects of attractiveness. In this report we asked how aging impacts pheromone production and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster. Evidence suggests that key pheromones in Drosophila are produced as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC), whose functions in attracting mates and influencing behavior have been widely studied. We employed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to show that the composition of D. melanogaster CHC is significantly affected by aging in both sexes and that these changes are robust to different genetic backgrounds. Aging affected the relative levels of many individual CHC, and it ...
The long-term goal of our laboratory is to understand how the cell-cycle events of meiosis are coordinated with the developmental events of gametogenesis. Chromosome mis-segregation during female meiosis is the leading cause of miscarriages and birth defects in humans. Recent evidence suggests that many meiotic errors occur downstream of defects in oocyte growth and/or the hormonal signaling pathways that drive differentiation of the oocyte. Thus, an understanding of how meiotic progression and gamete differentiation are coordinated during oogenesis is essential to studies in both reproductive biology and medicine. We use the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster to examine how meiotic progression is both coordinated with and instructed by the developmental program of the egg.. In mammals, studies on the early stages of oogenesis face serious technical challenges in that entry into the meiotic cycle, meiotic recombination, and the initiation of the highly conserved ...
Transcriptome analysis may provide means to investigate the underlying genetic causes of shared and divergent phenotypes in different populations and help to identify potential targets of adaptive evolution. Applying RNA sequencing to whole male Drosophila melanogaster from the ancestral tropical African environment and a very recently colonized cold-temperate European environment at both standard laboratory conditions and following a cold shock, we seek to uncover the transcriptional basis of cold adaptation. In both the ancestral and the derived populations, the predominant characteristic of the cold shock response is the swift and massive upregulation of heat shock proteins and other chaperones. Although we find ~25 % of the genome to be differentially expressed following a cold shock, only relatively few genes (n = 16) are up- or down-regulated in a population-specific way. Intriguingly, 14 of these 16 genes show a greater degree of differential expression in the African population. Likewise, there
FlyAtlas, a new online resource, provides the most comprehensive view yet of expression in multiple tissues of Drosophila melanogaster. Meta-analysis of the data shows that a significant fraction of the genome is expressed with great tissue specificity in the adult, demonstrating the need for the fu …
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the {approximately}120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map. Efforts are under way to close the remaining gaps; however, the sequence is of sufficient accuracy and contiguity to be declared substantially complete and to support an initial analysis of genome structure and preliminary gene annotation and interpretation. The genome encodes {approximately}13,600 genes, somewhat fewer than the smaller Caenorhabditis elegans genome, but with comparable functional diversity. ...
The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C). LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw) for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata) and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues ...
Spatiotemporal gene expression is the activation of genes within specific tissues of an organism at specific times during development. Gene activation patterns vary widely in complexity. Some are straightforward and static, such as the pattern of tubulin, which is expressed in all cells at all times in life. Some, on the other hand, are extraordinarily intricate and difficult to predict and model, with expression fluctuating wildly from minute to minute or from cell to cell. Spatiotemporal variation plays a key role in generating the diversity of cell types found in developed organisms; since the identity of a cell is specified by the collection of genes actively expressed within that cell, if gene expression was uniform spatially and temporally, there could be at most one kind of cell. Consider the gene wingless, a member of the wnt family of genes. In the early embryonic development of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, or fruit fly, wingless is expressed across almost the entire ...
Gametogenesis and early embryogenesis in many animal species often occur in the context of little or no new transcription. Instead, they rely on the translation of preexisting mRNAs that had been synthesized and stockpiled earlier in gametogenesis. Translation of these mRNAs must be repressed during their synthesis and deposition, and then be activated later. One mechanism to regulate the translation of maternal mRNAs is to control the length of their 3 poly(A) tails through cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Studies in C. elegans identified a cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase (PAP) GLD-2 that, in complex with an RNA-binding protein GLD-3, extends poly(A) tails of stored maternal mRNAs during oogenesis. Here, I identified the two GLD-2 cytoplasmic PAPs in Drosophila melanogaster. Using yeast two-hybrid assays I showed that both can interact with the Drosophila GLD-3 (Bic-C). I showed that one Drosophila GLD-2 PAP is expressed in the female germline, and the other in testes. I focused my subsequent ...
Studies on genetic variation can reveal effects on traits and disease, both in humans and in model organisms. Good technology for the analysis of DNA sequence variations is critical. Currently the development towards assays for large-scale and parallel DNA sequencing and genotyping is progressing rapidly. Single base primer extension (SBE) is a robust reaction principle based on four-colour fluorescent terminating nucleotides to interrogate all four DNA nucleotides in a single reaction. In this thesis, SBE methods were applied to the analysis and discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and in humans.. The tag-array minisequencing system in a microarray format is convenient for intermediate sized genotyping projects. The system is scalable and flexible to adapt to specialized and novel applications. In Study I of the thesis a tool was established to automate quality control of clustered genotype data. By calculating "Silhouette scores", the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sexual dimorphism in the nutritional requirement for adult lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Wu, Qi. AU - Yu, Guixiang. AU - Cheng, Xingyi. AU - Gao, Yue. AU - Fan, Xiaolan. AU - Yang, Deying. AU - Xie, Meng. AU - Wang, Tao. AU - Piper, Matthew D.W.. AU - Yang, Mingyao. PY - 2020/3. Y1 - 2020/3. N2 - The nutritional requirements of Drosophila have mostly been studied for development and reproduction, but the minimal requirements for adult male and female flies for lifespan have not been established. Following development on a complete diet, we find substantial sex difference in the basic nutritional requirement of adult flies for full length of life. Relative to females, males require less of each nutrient, and for some nutrients that are essential for development, adult males have no requirement at all for lifespan. The most extreme (and surprising) sex differences were that chronic cholesterol and vitamin deficiencies had no effect on the lifespan of adult males, but ...
The fruit fly is the common laboratory assistant that can almost drive you crazy! (A whop bop a lu a, whop bam boo..)|br /| Also loves fruit cake!
GenEZ™ ORF cDNA clones makes it easy to order customized expression-ready ORF clones from the worlds largest commercial ORF clone database. You can Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Drosophila melanogaster, letter r, page 1
The present report summarizes our progress in the genetic dissection of an elementary genetic unit in a higher organism. The rosy locus (ry:3-52.0) in Drosophila melanogaster codes for xanthine dehydrogenase, and is characterized by several classes of induced mutants as well as naturally occurring variants. Pursuing the hypothesis that the rosy locus includes a non-coding, control region as well as a structural element coding for the XDH peptide, experiments have been carried out which place genetic boundaries to the structural element in terms of a map of unambiguous structural element variants. More than sixty sites have been mapped within the boundaries of the structural element. Presently, our research is largely concerned with the elaboration of a cis acting control element located adjacent to the structural element ...
Drosophila melanogaster Larval cuticle protein 3 (Lcp3) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
BioAssay record AID 1595 submitted by NINDS Approved Drug Screening Program: Suppression of Polyglutamine Toxicity in Whole Organism Drosophila Model of SCA1 (SCA1FLYe).
Due to its genetic manipulability and relatively short reproductive cycle, genetic screens are often carried out in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Deficiency "kits" that cover the Drosophila genome with a minimum number of lines have been established by other groups to facilitate gene mapping. These kits cannot be systematically analyzed for many phenotypes, however, because embryos homozygous for many deficiencies fail to develop due to the loss of key gene products. To create new kits that can be screened for more phenotypes, we have examined the development of the nervous system in embryos homozygous for more than 700 distinct deficiency mutations. A kit of ~400 deficiency lines for which homozygotes have a recognizable nervous system and intact body walls encompasses ,80% of the genome. Here we show examples of screens of this kit for orphan receptor ligands and neuronal antigen expression. Screens of this kit can also be used to find genes involved in expression, patterning, and ...
Drosophila melanogaster, like most organisms, has an endogenous clock. This clock is mainly synchronized by light. To achieve this, D. melanogaster uses three photoreceptor organs: the compound eyes, the ocelli and the Hofbauer Buchner eyelet. Additionally, the fly has the blue light photoreceptor pigment chryptochrome and an unknown photoreceptor pigment in the dorsal neurons of the endogenous clock. To test the influence of those photoreceptors and pigments on the endogenous clock, the locomotor activity of various fly strains was recorded under long- and short-day conditions. This investigation revealed that cryptochrome is particularly important for the entrainment in short photoperiods. It mediates the after-effects of light on the endogenous clock, and it is responsible for period lengthening in long day scenarios. The compound eyes are important for the entrainment under short- and long-day conditions, yet more so in long days. Furthermore, they are responsible for the adjustment of the ...
Control of metabolic flux, the flow of metabolites through a complex metabolic network, is of importance to understand how an organism is sensing, and responding to, nutrient changes in its environment. Metabolic flux control can be measured for, and a control coefficient assigned to, each enzyme in a pathway. Measuring metabolic flux control in multicellular organisms is complicated by the fact that nutrient sensing and metabolic flux control may vary by tissue type. Major effects should be detectable in genomic information, as enzymes with high control coefficients will exhibit genetic patterns of adaptation when the pathway is under selection pressure. I used genetic variation within and among populations of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as divergence between D. melanogaster and the closely related D. simulans, to identify candidate genes for experimental study. I then conducted experiments with candidate genes using tissue specific RNA interference knockdown, focusing on two enzymes ...
Temperature adaptation is one of the most important determinants of distribution and population size of organisms in nature. Recently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and gene expression profiling approaches have been used for detecting candidate genes for heat resistance. However, the resolution of QTL mapping is not high enough to examine the individual effects of various genes in each QTL. Heat stress-responsive genes, characterized by gene expression profiling studies, are not necessarily responsible for heat resistance. Some of these genes may be regulated in association with the heat stress response of other genes. To evaluate which heat-responsive genes are potential candidates for heat resistance with higher resolution than previous QTL mapping studies, we performed genome-wide deficiency screen for QTL for heat resistance. We screened 439 isogenic deficiency strains from the DrosDel project, covering 65.6% of the Drosophila melanogaster genome in order to map QTL for thermal resistance.
Our understanding of postcopulatory sexual selection has been constrained by an inability to discriminate competing sperm of different males, coupled with challenges of directly observing live sperm inside the female reproductive tract. Real-time and spatiotemporal analyses of sperm movement, storage, and use within female Drosophila melanogaster inseminated by two transgenic males with, respectively, green and red sperm heads allowed us to unambiguously discriminate among hypothesized mechanisms underlying sperm precedence, including physical displacement and incapacitation of "resident" sperm by second males, female ejection of sperm, and biased use of competing sperm for fertilization. We find that competitive male fertilization success derives from a multivariate process involving ejaculate-female and ejaculate-ejaculate interactions, as well as complex sperm behavior in vivo.. ...
Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) with a neutral buoyant density of 1.681 g/cm3 has been isolated from unfertilized eggs of Drosophila melanogaster. This DNA is a circular molecule with an average length of 5.3 µm; it reassociates with a low C0t1/2 after denaturation, and in alkaline isopycnic centrifugation it separates into strands differing in density by 0.005 g/cm3. MtDNA isolated from purified mitochondria of unfertilized eggs or from total larval DNA melts with three distinct thermal transitions. The three melting temperature values suggest that the molecule may have three regions differing in average base composition. DNA isolated from unfertilized eggs of D. melanogaster contains approximately equal amounts of MtDNA and another DNA with a buoyant density of 1.697 g/cm3, slightly less dense than main peak DNA. The possibility that the heavier DNA fraction consists of amplified ribosomal DNA was excluded by hybridization experiments, but otherwise nothing is known of its origin or function. ...
Stephen, , The application to the ICZN (to protect a combination!) was a , ridiculous one. This was a misunderstanding, provoked by inaccurate headlines. , The application should have been to deem , melanogaster to be the type species of Drosophila, setting aside all , previous designations of type species for that nominal genus... That had actually been the case. The Commission was asked to set aside Drosophilas current type species and did not approve this. The case can be solved by creating a mega-genus Drosophila containing many species, probably more than the currently included 1500 species, so D. melanogaster would keep its genus-species combination. This is the responsibility of taxonomists. I see no constraint to create a genus instead of a subgenus Sophophora. Francisco University of Goettingen, Germany www.animalbase.org ...
1. PowsnerL (1935) The effects of temperature on the durations of the developmental stages of drosophila melanogaster. Physiological Zoology 8: 474-520.. 2. JamesAC, AzevedoRB, PartridgeL (1995) Cellular basis and developmental timing in a size cline of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 140: 659-666.. 3. JamesAC, AzevedoRB, PartridgeL (1997) Genetic and environmental responses to temperature of Drosophila melanogaster from a latitudinal cline. Genetics 146: 881-890.. 4. YamamotoA, OhbaS (1982) Strategic differences in thermal adaptation between two drosophila species, d. virilis and d. immigrans. Oecologia 52: 333-339.. 5. LillieFR, KnowltonFP (1897) On the effect of temperature on the development of animals. Zoological Bulletin 1: 179-193.. 6. LoebJ, NorthropJH (1916) Is there a temperature coefficient for the duration of life? PNAS 2: 456-7.. 7. PartridgeL, BarrieB, FowlerK, FrenchV (1994) Evolution and development of body and cell size in drosophila melanogaster in response to temperature. ...
Populations of Drosophila melanogaster show differences in many morphometrical traits according to their geographic origin. Despite the widespread occurrence of these differences in more than one Drosophila species, the actual selective mechanisms co
Perturbation of energy metabolism via NAD supplementation modifies the expression of larval development time, a genetically based trait relevant to development and whole-organism fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. The results suggest a link between energy metabolism and gene expression. Supplemental NAD significantly decreased larval development time for isofemale strains chosen on the basis of development time differences. This effect did not represent a trade-off with larval survival, and was not related to the effects of supplemental glucose. The isofemale strains were assayed by using a method derived from Warburgs manometric procedures which measured changes in the proportions of ATP, ADP and AMP in larval homogenates. Supplemental NAD appeared to increase the proportion of ATP and the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio in vitro and during larval development. The decrease in larval development time mediated by NAD was attributed to supplemental NAD modifying the NAD pool beyond levels established during ...
Read "GENETIC AND DEVELOPMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE LOCUS vnd IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Proteins often differ in amino-acid sequence across species. This difference has evolved by the accumulation of neutral mutations by random drift, the fixation of adaptive mutations by selection, or a mixture of the two. Here we propose a simple statistical test of the neutral protein evolution hypothesis based on a comparison of the number of amino-acid replacement substitutions to synonymous substitutions in the coding region of a locus. If the observed substitutions are neutral, the ratio of replacement to synonymous fixed differences between species should be the same as the ratio of replacement to synonymous polymorphisms within species. DNA sequence data on the Adh locus (encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.1) in three species in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup do not fit this expectation; instead, there are more fixed replacement differences between species than expected. We suggest that these excess replacement substitutions result from adaptive fixation of selectively ...
Contrabithorax, a mutant of the bithorax system in Drosophila melanogaster produces a partial homeotic transformation of mesothorax (wing) into metathorax (haltere). The wing of a fly homozygous or heterozygous for the mutant is a mosaic of wing and haltere structures. A genetic analysis of the mutant suggests that its phenotype is due to some form of derepression in the wing of two other genes of the bithorax system (bithorax and postbithorax) which are not normally active there. This repression is not complete. The activity of the two genes is below the normal level resulting in only a partial transformation of wing into haltere.. Clones of marked cells were generated by X-rays and were found to include both transformed (haltere) and untransformed (wing) territory; this was true even for those generated late in development. Thus the final expression of a cell depends not on its immediate ancestry but perhaps on the level of the products of the wild-type alleles of bithorax and ...
In D. melanogaster, the subdivision of dorsal ectoderm into amnioserosa (AS) and dorsal epidermis is controlled by the combined actions of two morphogens of the TGF-β family, Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Screw (Scw). They form an extracellular gradient with peak levels of Dpp/Scw signalling in the dorsal-most region of the embryo. Dpp/Scw signalling is transduced to the nucleus by a complex containing the phosphorylated Smad transcription factor, pMad and the co-Smad, Medea, which are responsible for the transcriptional activation of a number of targets in specific dorsal territories, including zerknullt (zen) gen. zen encodes a homeobox transcription factor, which is expressed for a brief period of time in the early developing embryo and is required for all aspects of AS formation, including the initial cell shape changes that drive the morphogenesis of the AS epithelium. However, the number and nature of Zen-target genes involved in AS differentiation subsequent to its specification are currently
Different individuals show different levels of resistance to infections and develop different pathologies in response to infections. We are interested in why this is the case. We use the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster as a model host to study these questions; this allows us to screen for genes that affect the progress of infection in a rapid and unbiased fashion. All of our experiments originate from a simple genetic screen. Mutant flies are infected with Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium closely-related to the causative agent of tuberculosis, or with Mycobacterium smegmatis, a related non-pathogen. We select lines of flies that die more quickly or more slowly than wild-type controls and identify the mutation that gives rise to this phenotype. We then try to understand what this phenotype tells us about the function of the mutated gene. So far, our work on this system has focused on the mechanisms of pathogenesis. We have found that this infection causes progressive loss of metabolic stores, ...
Read "Estimation of the levels of radiation-induced P-element transposition in Drosophila melanogaster experimental populations and laboratory strains, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Pleiotropic genes can influence the course of evolution by producing correlated responses to selection and potentially hindering adaptive evolution if alternative alleles have antagonistic effects on fitness traits. Little is known about the pleiotropic effects of natural variation in any gene on fitness and the selective agents acting on this variation. In this thesis, I examined the pleiotropic effects of natural variation in the ,italic,Dopa decarboxylase,,/, (,italic,Ddc,,/,) gene of ,italic,Drosophila melanogaster,,/,. I show that natural ,italic,Ddc polymorphism,,/, associated with life span variation has pleiotropic effects on larval defenses against parasitoid wasps, larval foraging behavior, and larval feeding rates. I measured these traits because,italic, Ddc,,/, catalyzes the production of two neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, which have known effects on behavior and immunity in invertebrates and vertebrates. Homozygote and heterozygote effects of two ,italic,Ddc,,/, alleles ...
Our primary interest is to probe into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the chemosensory and neuromuscular systems in Drosophila melanogaster. We have generated and characterized 40 Gal4 enhancer trap lines with P-Gal4 insertion as an attempt to identify genes with a likely role in the development and differentiation of chemosensory and neuromuscular tissues, and at the same time to obtain Gal4 drivers that would facilitate targeted ectopic expression of genes in these tissues. Insertion strain SG18.1 has reporter gene activity in major olfactory components of the adult fly and in their presumptive areas in the imaginal discs. SG29.1 has an insertion in the scalloped gene and has been useful in understanding genetic interactions that pattern the wing and in defining the role of scalloped in muscle development in flies.. ...
Drosophila melanogaster shows geographic clines in body size, with genetically larger flies being found further from the equator and at higher altitudes. In the laboratory, evolution at lower temperatures results in genetically larger flies, and development at low temperature increases adult body size. This study demonstrates that when newly hatched larvae from laboratory temperature selection lines were raised on fixed amounts of food (yeast) at the same temperature, larvae from the lines with the cold evolutionary history required less food to produce a given size of adult. Larvae from both high- and low-temperature selection lines required more food, however, to make a given size of adult when grown in the cold than when grown in the hot. The opposite associations between growth efficiency and adult body size seen with evolution or development at low temperature are puzzling, and suggest that different mechanisms may underlie the size changes. Since environmental and evolutionary effects of ...
BioAssay record AID 431525 submitted by ChEMBL: Binding affinity to ecdysone receptor ligand binding domain in Drosophila melanogaster assessed as number of hydrogen bonds formed.
Phagocytes remove apoptotic cells during development and eliminate pathogens in the immune system. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, particularly the differences between macrophages and non-professional phagocytes like glia, are not well understood. We used novel cell-based assays to screen phagocytic function of candidate genes assembled from literature and our genome-wide transcription profiling of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic glia. Gene function was knocked-down by RNAi and phagocytic efficiency assessed by flow cytometry; to explore functional specificity, we offered not only bacteria, but also apoptotic cells and beads as food. To validate results in vivo, we analysed glial clearance of apoptotic neurons in embryonic development and immune clearance of bacteria in adult flies using both genetic mutants and transgenic RNAi. Our screen provides a cross section of the different steps of phagocytosis from recognition to engulfment and phagosomal degradation. For the ...
Intercellular signalling via growth factors plays an important role in controlling cell differentiation and cell movements during the development of multicellular animals. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signalling induces changes in cellular behaviour allowing cells in the embryo to move, to survive, to divide or to differentiate. Several examples argue that FGF signalling is used in multi-step morphogenetic processes to achieve and maintain a transitional state of the cells required for the control of cell fate. In the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, FGF signalling via the receptor tyrosine kinases Heartless (Htl) and Breathless (Btl) is particularly well studied. These FGF receptors affect gene expression, cell shape and cell-cell interactions during mesoderm layer formation, caudal visceral muscle (CVM) formation, tracheal morphogenesis and glia differentiation. Here, we will address the current knowledge of the biological functions of FGF signalling in the fly on the tissue, at a cellular and
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. The transposable elements of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatin: a genomics perspective.
In metazoans, the hematopoietic system plays a key role both in normal development and in defense of the organism. In Drosophila, the cellular immune response involves three types of blood cells: plasmatocytes, crystal cells and lamellocytes. This last cell type is barely present in healthy larvae, but its production is strongly induced upon wasp parasitization or in mutant contexts affecting larval blood cell homeostasis. Notably, several zygotic mutations leading to melanotic mass (or tumor) formation in larvae have been associated to the deregulated differentiation of lamellocytes. To gain further insights into the gene regulatory network and the mechanisms controlling larval blood cell homeostasis, we conducted a tissue-specific loss of function screen using hemocyte-specific Gal4 drivers and UAS-dsRNA transgenic lines. By targeting around 10% of the Drosophila genes, this in vivo RNA interference screen allowed us to recover 59 melanotic tumor suppressor genes. In line with previous studies, we
We report the complete sequence of a calcium channel alpha 1 subunit cDNA cloned from a Drosophila head cDNA library. This cDNA encodes a deduced protein containing 2516 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 276,493. The deduced protein shares many features with vertebrate homologs, including four repeat structures, each containing six transmembrane domains, a conserved ion selectivity filter region between transmembrane domains 5 and 6, and an EF hand in the carboxy tail. The Drosophila subunit has unusually long initial amino and terminal carboxy tails. The region corresponding to the last transmembrane domain (IVS6) and the adjacent cytoplasmic domain has been postulated to form a phenylalkylamine-binding site in vertebrate calcium channels. This region is conserved in the Drosophila sequence, while domains thought to be involved in dihydropyridine binding show numerous changes. The Drosophila subunit exhibits 78.3% sequence similarity to the rat brain type D calcium channel alpha ...
Drosophila melanogaster locomotor activity responds to different seasonal conditions by thermosensitive regulation of splicing of a 3′ intron in the period mRNA transcript. Here we demonstrate that the control of locomotor patterns by this mechanism is primarily light-dependent at low temperatures. At warmer temperatures, when it is vitally important for the fly to avoid midday desiccation, more stringent regulation of splicing is observed, requiring the light input received through the visual system during the day and the circadian clock at night. During the course of this study, we observed that a mutation in the no-receptor-potential-AP41 (norpAP41 ) gene, which encodes phospholipase-C, generated an extremely high level of 3′ splicing. This cannot be explained simply by the mutations effect on the visual pathway and suggests that norpAP41 is directly involved in thermosensitivity ...
The Drosophila melanogaster Serpin 42 Da gene (previously Serpin 4) encodes a serine protease inhibitor that is capable of remarkable functional diversity through the alternative splicing of four different reactive centre loop exons. Eight protein isoforms of Serpin 42 Da have been identified to date, targeting the protease inhibitor to both different proteases and cellular locations. Biochemical and genetic studies suggest that Serpin 42 Da inhibits target proteases through the classical serpin suicide inhibition mechanism, however the crystal structure of a representative Serpin 42 Da isoform remains to be determined. We report two high-resolution crystal structures of Serpin 42 Da representing the A/B isoforms in the cleaved conformation, belonging to two different space-groups and diffracting to 1.7 Å and 1.8 Å. Structural analysis reveals the archetypal serpin fold, with the major elements of secondary structure displaying significant homology to the vertebrate serpin, neuroserpin. Key residues
Studies of Fb1s male sterility from outcrosses of wild-type Seto-Japan males of Drosophila melanogaster : an honors thesis [(HONRS 499 ...
Caudron, Q., Lyn-Adams, Ceri Louise, Aston, John A. D., Frenguelli, Bruno G. and Moffat, Kevin G. (2010) Quantitative assessment of ommatidial distortion in Drosophila melanogaster : a tool to investigate genetic interactions. Journal of Neurogenetics, Vol.24 (No.1). p. 87 ...
We have examined the embryonic development of an identified neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of Drosophila melanogaster using whole- cell patch-clamp and a variety of physiological and morphological techniques. Synaptic current at the embryonic NMJ is carried through a large-conductance (200 pS) L-glutamate receptor. Early synaptic communication is characterized by frequent, brief (, 10 msec) currents carried through few (1-10) receptors and relatively rare, prolonged currents (up to seconds) of similar amplitude. The brief currents have a time course similar to the mature larval excitatory junction currents (EJCs), but the prolonged currents are restricted to early stages of synaptogenesis. The amplitude of EJCs rapidly increases, and the frequency of the prolonged currents decreases, after the initial stages of synaptogenesis. Early prolonged (seconds), nonspiking synaptic potentials are replaced with rapid (, 0.10 sec), spiking synaptic potentials later in development. The early synapse appears ...
Salivary glands from 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster were dissected, fixed with formalin-acetic acid containing 0.1% Triton-X 100, and sq...
Konopka, R and Benzer, S. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971; 68(9): 2112-2116. Using mutagenesis by ethyl methane sulfonate, the authors investigated potential genes controlling the circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutagen-exposed males were mated to attached-X females resulting in offspring carrying the fathers mutated X chromosome. These offspring were then screened for…
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... GenEZ™ ORF cDNA clones makes it easy to order customized expression-ready ORF clones from the worlds largest commercial ORF clone database.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were originally discovered in the early 1960s by the pioneering work of Ferruccio Ritossa on the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster.
Feder, M.E., Cartaño, N.V., Milos, L., Krebs, R.A. & Lindquist, S.L. 1996. Effect of engineering hsp70 copy number on Hsp70 expression and tolerance of ecologically relevant heat shock in larvae and pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. J. Exp. Biol. 199: 1837-1844. ...
Molecular characterization of the computationally predicted miR-282 microRNA gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Acta biologica Szegediensis, (55) 1. p. 199. (2011 ...
Behavioral characterization and genetic analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster larval response to light as revealed by a novel individual assay. Academic Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-resolution crystal structures of drosophila melanogaster angiotensin-converting enzyme in complex with novel inhibitors and antihypertensive drugs. AU - Akif, M. AU - Georgiadis, D. AU - Mahajan, A. AU - Dive, V. AU - Sturrock, E D. AU - Isaac, R E. AU - Acharya, K Ravi. PY - 2010/7/16. Y1 - 2010/7/16. N2 - Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), one of the central components of the renin-angiotensin system, is a key therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Human somatic ACE (sACE) has two homologous domains (N and C). The N- and C-domain catalytic sites have different activities toward various substrates. Moreover, some of the undesirable side effects of the currently available and widely used ACE inhibitors may arise from their targeting both domains leading to defects in other pathways. In addition, structural studies have shown that although both these domains have much in common at the inhibitor binding site, there are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exploring the Conserved Role of MANF in the Unfolded Protein Response in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Lindström, Riitta. AU - Lindholm, Päivi. AU - Kallijärvi, Jukka. AU - Palgi, Mari. AU - Saarma, Mart. AU - Heino, Tapio I.. PY - 2016/3/14. Y1 - 2016/3/14. KW - ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM STRESS. KW - NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR MANF. KW - DOPAMINERGIC-NEURONS. KW - GENE-EXPRESSION. KW - CDNF PROTECTS. KW - ERSE-II. KW - CELLS. KW - MODEL. KW - BRAIN. KW - YEAST. KW - 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology. U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0151550. DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0151550. M3 - Article. VL - 11. JO - PLoS One. JF - PLoS One. SN - 1932-6203. IS - 3. M1 - 0151550. ER - ...
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.lib.rpi.edu/portal/Ovarian-development-in-Drosophila-melanogaster/fVcu_FIKOBw/ typeof=WorkExample http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Item,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.lib.rpi.edu/portal/Ovarian-development-in-Drosophila-melanogaster/fVcu_FIKOBw/,Ovarian development in Drosophila melanogaster, (by) Robert C. King,/a,,/span, - ,span property=offers typeOf=Offer,,span property=offeredBy typeof=Library ll:Library resource=http://link.lib.rpi.edu/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.lib.rpi.edu/,Rensselaer Libraries,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
Caloric restriction in Drosophila melanogaster.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Our lab is interested in basic science questions about how tissues are formed and how they are repaired. We focus on the interactions between epithelia and their neighboring extracellular matrix, the basement membrane. Current projects center on how cells detect a nearby wound, basement membrane repair, and extracellular signaling controlling stem cell functions. Most of our experiments are performed in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster whose biology is surprisingly similar to our own.. ...
Debora Bertaggia Calderara obtained her Master in biological sciences from the University of Padova (1994), Italy and a PhD Degree in molecular biology from the University of Pisa (1999), Italy. During her PhD, she worked at the University of Camerino, Italy and at the Swiss Federal Institute of Zurich, where she gained extensive experience as a molecular biologist. Her thesis focused on the cloning and study of the expression of metallothionein proteins, which protect organisms from metal toxicity and oxidative stress. Wishing to improve her knowledge in genetics, she worked (1999-2001) as a postdoc Fellow in the laboratory of Pr Craig Montell (Department of biological chemistry) at the Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine in Baltimore, USA, studying receptor and ion channels that control behavior in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In May 2003, she joined the diagnostic laboratory of molecular biology (Hematology Section) at the CHUV. From 2004 to 2011 she worked in the research ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for FBpp0298313 from Drosophila melanogaster 76_5. Plus protein sequence and external database links.