Drosophila hydei Sturtevant, 1921 è un insetto del genere Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae). È una sottospecie della specie Drosophila repleta. Ha una lunghezza (3-4 mm) allincirca doppia rispetto al comune moscerino della frutta Drosophila melanogaster (2 mm). ^ (EN) Greg S. Spicer, Scott Pitnick, Molecular Systematics of the Drosophila hydei Subgroup as Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Sequences, in J Mol Evol, vol. 43, nº 3, 1996, pp. 281-286, DOI:10.1007/BF02338836. PDF Archiviato il 11 giugno 2010 in Internet Archive. (EN) H. D. Berendes, Salivary gland function and chromosomal puffing patterns in Drosophila hydei, in Chromosoma, vol. 17, nº 1, 1965, pp. 35-77, DOI:10.1007/BF00285155. (EN) H. D. Berendes and H. G. Keyl, Distribution of DNA in Heterochromatin and Euchromatin of Polytene Nuclei of Drosophila hydei, in Genetics, vol. 57, nº 1, 1967, pp. 1-13. PDF (EN) J. B. Boyd, H. D. Berendes and H. Boyd, Mass Preparation of Nuclei from the Larval Salivary Glands of Drosophila hydei, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterizing recurrent positive selection at fast-evolving genes in Drosophila miranda and Drosophila pseudoobscura. AU - Jensen, Jeffrey. AU - Bachtrog, Doris. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Characterizing the distribution of selection coefficients in natural populations remains a central challenge in evolutionary biology. We resequenced a subset of 19 fast-evolving protein-coding genes in the sister species Drosophila miranda and D. pseudoobscura and their flanking regions to characterize the spatial footprint left by recurrent and recent selection. Consistent with previous findings, fast-evolving genes and their flanking regions show reduced levels of neutral diversity compared with randomly chosen genes, as expected under recurrent selection models. Applying a variety of statistical tests designed for the detection of selection at different evolutionary timescales, we attempt to characterize parameters of adaptive evolution. In D. miranda, fast-evolving genes generally show ...
Active and inactive mariner elements from natural and laboratory populations of Drosophila simulans were isolated and sequenced in order to assess their nucleotide variability and to compare them with previously isolated mariner elements from the sibling species Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila sechellia. The active elements of D. simulans are very similar among themselves (average 99.7% nucleotide identity), suggesting that the level of mariner expression in different natural populations is largely determined by position effects, dosage effects and perhaps other factors. Furthermore, the D. simulans elements exhibit nucleotide identities of 98% or greater when compared with mariner elements from the sibling species. Parsimony analysis of mariner elements places active elements from the three species into separate groups and suggests that D. simulans is the species from which mariner elements in D. mauritiana and D. sechellia are most likely derived. This result strongly suggests that the ...
Kitagawa M., Oyama T., Kawashima T., Yedvobnick B., Kumar A., Matsuno K., Harigaya K.. Mastermind (Mam) has been implicated as an important positive regulator of the Notch signaling pathway by genetic studies using Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe a biochemical mechanism of action of Mam within the Notch signaling pathway. Expression of a human sequence related to Drosophila Mam (hMam-1) in mammalian cells augments induction of Hairy Enhancer of split (HES) promoters by Notch signaling. hMam-1 stabilizes and participates in the DNA binding complex of the intracellular domain of human Notch1 and a CSL protein. Truncated versions of hMam-1 that can maintain an association with the complex behave in a dominant negative fashion and depress transactivation. Furthermore, Drosophila Mam forms a similar complex with the intracellular domain of Drosophila Notch and Drosophila CSL protein during activation of Enhancer of split, the Drosophila counterpart of HES. These results indicate that Mam is ...
In Drosophila ananassae, artificial selection was carried out for fast and slow remating speed for 10 generations. Response to selection resulted in rapid divergence in remating time in each of two replicates of both fast and slow lines. There were significant differences in mean remat-ing time in females among fast, slow, and control lines. Regression coefficients for both fast and slow lines are significantly different from zero. The realized heritability over 10 genera-tions of selection is from 0.26 to 0.33 for two replicates of fast line and from 0.23 to 0.27 for two replicates of slow line. These findings suggest that female remating time in D. ananassae is under polygenic control. Remating frequency of females showed a correlated response in both fast and slow lines. At generation 10, correlated response to selection was also investigated. Mating propensity of D. ananassae of fast and slow lines was observed in an Elens-Wattiaux mating chamber. Fifteen pairs per test showed that on the ...
Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution. Here we compare the TE content of three genomes: D. buzzatii st-1, j-19, and D. mojavensis. We have sequenced a new D. buzzatii genome (j-19) that complements the D. buzzatii reference genome (st-1) already published, and compared their TE contents with that of D. mojavensis. We found an underestimation of TE sequences in Drosophila genus NGS-genomes when compared to Sanger-genomes. To be able to compare genomes sequenced with different technologies, we developed a coverage-based method and applied it to the D
Publications - Link to Drosophila publication page: (Most title links need intranet password - DOI links need subscription) 279. Kuhn GC, Schwarzacher T, Heslop-Harrison JS. 2010. The non-regular orbit: three satellite DNAs in Drosophila martensis (buzzatii complex, repleta group) followed three different evolutionary pathways. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 284(4): 251-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-010-0564-1. 268. Kuhn GCS, Teo CH, Schwarzacher T, Heslop-Harrison JS. 2009. Evolutionary dynamics and sites of illegitimate recombination revealed in the interspersion and sequence junctions of two nonhomologous satellite DNAs in cactophilic Drosophila species. Heredity 102: 453-464. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2009.9 (The link to the title contains the full colour plate - also available here - which is not in the Heredity DOI for the PDF but is in the HTML version; it is rather essential to show the results in the paper.). 255. Kuhn GCS, Sene FM, Moreira-Filho O, Schwarzacher T, Heslop-Harrison JS. ...
Hi Marc, I am working a little bit with drosophila epithelium, specifically the abdomen. What I can say is that it is not very difficult to dissect Drosophila pupae (at leats with 26h APF). There is a protocol in the web from a Nicolas Gompel that is very good. Good Luck Pedro Marco Antunes wrote: , , Hello! , Im interested in working in the Drosophila pupal epithelium. , However, most literature about Drosophila pupa is very old... , Does anyone have some ideas about the difficulties and protocols for , dissecting and manipulating Drosophila pupae (without getting it killed)? , Also, does anyone know which is the best part of the pupa to visualize the , epithelium? The Thorax or the Abdomen? , Thank you for any help! , Marc , _______________________________________________ , Dros mailing list , Dros from net.bio.net , http://www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/dros , , -- View this message in context: http://www.nabble.com/Drosophila-pupal-epithelium-tf2941767.html#a9310296 Sent from the Bio.net - ...
Accurate models of gene structure including untranslated regions (UTRs), intron-exon boundaries, as well as coding sequences are essential for proper interpretation of molecular genetics (Fire et al. 1998, Jinek et al. 2012), demographic inference (Halligan and Keightley 2006, Parsch et al. 2010, Clemente and Vogl 2012), tests of selection (Mcdonald and Kreitman 1991), and comparative genomics (Chen et al. 2014). The Drosophila offer an excellent model for comparative genomics, with high-quality sequenced genomes for 12 species(Drosophila Twelve Genomes Consortium 2007) as well as draft genomes for an additional eight species (Chen et al. 2014) spanning a total of 63 million years (Tamura et al. 2004). Previous gene models provided for the 12 Drosophila genomes focused on gene prediction with the aid of homology to establish putative annotations of coding sequences across taxa with 15,000−16,000 genes for most species (Drosophila Twelve Genomes Consortium 2007). These gene models produce ...
Species of the Drosophila obscura species group (e.g., D. pseudoobscura, D. subobscura) have served as favorable models in evolutionary studies since the 1930s. Despite numbers of studies conducted with varied types of data, the basal phylogeny in this group is still controversial, presumably owing to not only the hypothetical rapid radiation history of this group, but also limited taxon sampling from the Old World (esp. the Oriental and Afrotropical regions). Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of this group by using sequence data from 6 loci of 21 species (including 16 Old World ones) covering all the 6 subgroups of this group, estimate the divergence times among lineages, and statistically test the rapid radiation hypothesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that each of the subobscura, sinobscura, affinis, and pseudoobscura subgroups is monophyletic. The subobscura and microlabis subgroups form the basal clade in the obscura group. Partial species of the obscura subgroup (the D. ambigua/D. obscura
Release-recapture experiments using Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis strains of different karyotypes were performed in a heterogeneous environment. The heterogeneity was due to both spatial variation and the species of yeast used to attract the released flies. No karyotypic-specific habitat preferences were detected. However, in all releases, different strains did behave differently with respect to one or both of the heterogeneous factors. These results indicate there is variation for dispersal behavior in these species that is most likely based on genotype-dependent habitat preferences.. ...
Cyclin Y is a highly conserved member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. In Drosophila the Cyclin Y gene (CycY) is required for progression through several stages of development but the specific pathways that Cyclin Y belongs to and that account for its requirement are not known. Studies in human and Drosophila cell lines have shown that membrane-localized Cyclin Y is required for phosphorylation of the wingless/Wnt co-receptor, arrow/LRP6, and for full activation of the canonical wingless/Wnt pathway. CycY null Drosophila, however, do not phenocopy loss-of-function mutations in canonical wingless pathway genes, suggesting that Cyclin Y may have additional roles outside the wingless pathway in vivo. To identify roles for Cyclin Y in Drosophila I used RNAi to knock down CycY expression in 31 distinct tissue patterns. The screen revealed that expression of the CycY shRNA in specific tissue patterns causes larval lethality and other developmental defects. Knockdown of CycY but not arrow in imaginal
Circularization was recently recognized to broadly expand transcriptome complexity. Here, we exploit massive Drosophila total RNA-sequencing data, |5 billion paired-end reads from |100 libraries covering diverse developmental stages, tissues, and cultured cells, to rigorously annotate |2,500 fruit fly circular RNAs. These mostly derive from back-splicing of protein-coding genes and lack poly(A) tails, and the circularization of hundreds of genes is conserved across multiple Drosophila species. We elucidate structural and sequence properties of Drosophila circular RNAs, which exhibit commonalities and distinctions from mammalian circles. Notably, Drosophila circular RNAs harbor |1,000 well-conserved canonical miRNA seed matches, especially within coding regions, and coding conserved miRNA sites reside preferentially within circularized exons. Finally, we analyze the developmental and tissue specificity of circular RNAs and note their preferred derivation from neural genes and enhanced accumulation in
words that start with drosophila, words starting with drosophila, words that begin with drosophila, words beginning with drosophila
Metz, Charles William, Moses, Mildred S., Mason, Eleanor D. (July 1923) Genetic studies on Drosophila virilis with considerations on the genetics of other species of Drosophila. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 328 . Carnegie Institution of Washington , Washington, D.C., pp. 1-94. ...
Vectors derived from the Drosophila P element transposon are widely used to make transgenic Drosophila. Insertion of most P-element-derived vectors is nonrandom, but they exhibit a broad specificity of target sites. During experiments to identify cis-acting regulatory elements of the Drosophila segmentation gene engrailed, we identified a fragment of engrailed DNA that, when included within a P-element vector, strikingly alters the specificity of target sites. P-element vectors that contain this fragment of engrailed regulatory DNA insert at a high frequency near genes expressed in stripes.. ...
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The mammalian mRNA m6A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir)8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)13. However, the functions of m6A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain3. Here we show that m6A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models5, 7, 14, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though flightless, and show a sex bias towards maleness. This is ...
The circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster represents an easily amenable genetic model whose analysis at different levels, i.e., from single molecules up to functional anatomy, has provided new insights into general aspects of cardiogenesis, heart physiology and cardiac aging, to name a few examples. In recent years, the Drosophila heart has also attracted the attention of researchers in the field of biomedicine. This development is mainly due to the fact that several genes causing human heart disease are also present in Drosophila, where they play the same or similar roles in heart development, maintenance or physiology as their respective counterparts in humans. This review will attempt to briefly introduce the anatomy of the Drosophila circulatory system and then focus on the different cell types and non-cellular tissue that constitute the heart.
P elements containing a 7 kb DNA fragment from the middle of the Drosophila bithorax complex insert preferentially into the bithorax complex or into the adjacent chromosome regions. This homing property is similar to that reported for the engrailed promoter (Hama, C., Ali, Z. and Kornberg, T. B. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1079-1093). The 7 kb fragment does not contain any known promoter, but it acts as a boundary element separating adjacent segmental domains. An enhancer-trap P element was constructed with the homing fragment and the selectable marker flanked by FRT sites. P insertions can be trimmed down by Flp-mediated recombination to just the lacZ reporter, so that the (beta)-galactosidase pattern is not influenced by sequences inside the P element. Twenty insertions into the bithorax complex express (beta)-galactosidase in segmentally limited patterns, reflecting the segmental domains of the bithorax complex where the elements reside. The mapping of segmental domains has now been revised, with ...
The chordotonal (Ch) organ, an internal stretch receptor located in the subepidermal layer, is one of the major sensory organs in the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Although the cell lineage of the Ch organ has been well characterized in many studies, the determination machinery of Ch organ precursor cells (COPs) remains largely unresolved. Here we report that the rhomboid (rho) gene and the activity of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) signaling pathway are necessary to induce specifically three of the eight COPs in an embryonic abdominal hemisegment. The cell-lineage analysis of COPs using the yeast flpase (flp/FRT) method indicated that each of the eight COPs originated from an individual undifferentiated ectodermal cell. The eight COPs in each abdominal hemisegment seemed to be determined by a two-phase induction: first, five COPs are determined by the action of the proneural gene atonal and neurogenic genes. Subsequently, these five COPs start to express the rho gene, ...
Drosophila is an insect from the order Diptera, also called the fruit fly. The genus Drosophila includes about 400 species, found all over the planet. Life of the drosophila Drosophila flies...
Polyamine transport is elevated in many tumor types, suggesting that toxic polyamine-drug conjugates could be targeted to cancer cells via the polyamine transporter (PAT). We have previously reported the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its PAT-deficient mutant cell line, CHO-MG, to screen anthracene-polyamine conjugates for their PAT-selective targeting ability. We report here a novel Drosophila-based model for screening anthracene-polyamine conjugates in a developing and intact epithelium (Drosophila imaginal discs), wherein cell-cell adhesion properties are maintained. Data from the Drosophila assay are consistent with previous results in CHO cells, indicating that the Drosophila epithelium has a PAT with vertebrate-like characteristics. This assay will be of use to medicinal chemists interested in screening drugs that use PAT for cellular entry, and it offers the possibility of genetic dissection of the polyamine transport process, including identification of a Drosophila PAT.
The cytokine-activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway plays an important role in the control of a wide variety of biological processes. When misregulated, JAK/STAT signaling is associated with various human diseases, such as immune disorders and tumorigenesis. To gain insights into the mechanisms by which JAK/STAT signaling participates in these diverse biological responses, we carried out a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in cultured Drosophila cells. We identified 121 genes whose double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdowns affected STAT92E activity. Of the 29 positive regulators, 13 are required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT92E. Furthermore, we found that the Drosophila homologs of RanBP3 and RanBP10 are negative regulators of JAK/STAT signaling through their control of nucleocytoplasmic transport of STAT92E. In addition, we identified a key negative regulator of Drosophila JAK/STAT signaling, protein tyrosine ...
EGF signaling is a well-known oncogenic pathway in animals. It is also a key developmental pathway regulating terminal and dorsal-ventral patterning along with many other aspects of embryogenesis. In this review, we focus on the diverse roles for the EGF pathway in Drosophila embryogenesis. We review the existing body of evidence concerning EGF signaling in Drosophila embryogenesis focusing on current uncertainties in the field and areas for future study. This review provides a foundation for utilizing the Drosophila model system for research into EGF effects on cancer.
The relatively simple communication, breeding and egg-making systems that govern reproduction in female Drosophila retain homology to eusocial species in which these same systems are modified to the social condition. Despite having no parental care, division of labour or subfertile caste, Drosophila may nonetheless offer a living test of certain sociobiological hypotheses framed around gene function. In this review, we make this case, and do so around the recent discovery that the non-social fly, Drosophila melanogaster, can respond to the ovary-suppressing queen pheromone of the honey bee Apis meliffera. Here, we first explain the sociobiological imperative to reconcile kin theory with molecular biology, and qualify a potential role for Drosophila. Then, we offer three applications for the fly-pheromone assay. First, the availability and accessibility of massive mutant libraries makes immediately feasible any number of open or targeted gene screens against the ovary-inhibiting response. The sheer
Fissioncytorace-1, a member of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila is an evolutionary product of centric fission, which had occurred in the chromosome X3 of Cytorace 1, a hydridization product of Drosophila nasuta nasuta male (2n=8) and Drosophila nasuta albomicans female (2n=6). Cytorace 1 (males 2n=7; females 2n=6) has inherited this chromosome from its D. n. albomicans parent. The chromosome X3 of D. n. albomicans is a derivative of a centric fusion between the acrocentric chromosome 3 and the chromosome X of D. n. nasuta. The Fissioncytorace-1 has crossed 200 generations from the time of its evolution in the laboratory environment. When this centromeric fission race was subjected to some of the morphophenotypic and fitness assessment to find its overall population fitness showed, increased body size, sternopleural bristle, ovarioles, lifetime fecundity and fertility with reduced interspecific competitive ability and hatching success when compared with its parent (Cytorace 1). These ...
Applications are invited for a postdoc position and a full-time technician = position in Drosophila epigenetics research laboratory of Dr. Tulin at the = Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA. Both positions planned for at = least three years, with possible renewal. The successful applicants will = use Drosophila model system to study epigenetics of development and = cancer. The primary research focus of Dr. Tulin=92s lab is on = fundamentals of chromatin reprogramming and RNA fate regulation during = normal development and carcinogenics, as well as on translating = fundamental research for clinical applications in oncology. Projects in = Dr. Tulin=92s lab cover the molecular mechanisms of the chromatin = remodeling and regulation of gene expression and employ Drosophila model = and in vitro assays as well as human cells, mouse models. Applicants for the postdoctoral position should have a Ph.D. in molecular = biology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, or a related field and 0-3 = years of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DCtBP mediates transcriptional repression by Knirps, Kruppel and Snail in the Drosophila embryo. AU - Nibu, Yutaka. AU - Zhang, Hailan. AU - Bajor, Ewa. AU - Barolo, Scott. AU - Small, Stephen. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1998/12/1. Y1 - 1998/12/1. N2 - The pre-cellular Drosophila embryo contains 10 well characterized sequence-specific transcriptional repressors, which represent a broad spectrum of DNA-binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that two of the repressors, Hairy and Dorsal, recruit a common co-repressor protein, Groucho. Here we present evidence that three different repressors, Knirps, Kruppel and Snail, recruit a different co-repressor, dCtBP. Mutant embryos containing diminished levels of maternal dCtBP products exhibit both segmentation and dorsoventral patterning defects, which can be attributed to loss of Kruppel, Knirps and Snail activity. In contrast, the Dorsal and Hairy repressors retain at least some activity in dCtBP mutant embryos, dCtBP interacts ...
Primary Drosophila embryo cells from postgastrulation embryos differentiate when cultured on a substratum of Drosophila laminin or human vitronectin. Tiggrin, and a fusion protein of Tiggrin (residues 1,891-2,161) that contains the RGD binding site have been tested as substrata. Excellent differentiation of several different cell types occurs; e.g. abundant multinucleate myotubes and neurites form and both hemocytes and clusters of epidermal cells are present after 18 hours of culture at 22 degrees C. On control coverslips coated with bovine serum albumin very limited differentiation is observed (Fogerty, 1994). The finding of an RGD cell attachment motif in Tiggrin, which conspicuously colocates with both alphaPS integrins at muscle apodemes and at Z-bands, emphasized the need to test Tiggrin as an integrin ligand. To do this, the ability of Tiggrin-coated substratum to mediate the spreading of Drosophila S2 cells that have been transformed with genes for alphaPS2 and betaPS integrin chains was ...
Binding of pumilio to maternal hunchback mRNA is required for posterior patterning in Drosophila embryos. Developmental regulation of vesicle transport in Drosophila embryos: forces and kinetics
Water conservation and thermotolerance are crucial to the ecological success of different insect taxa from diverse types of habitats (Hadley, 1994; Willmer et al., 2000; Angilletta, 2009). Several studies have compared desiccation as well as cold and heat resistance levels of Drosophila species of temperate and tropical origin but few studies have investigated genetic variation for stress-related traits (Parsons, 1983; Hoffmann, 2010; Kellermann et al., 2012a; Kellermann et al., 2012b). Kellermann and co-workers have shown low genetic variation for desiccation and cold resistance (estimated as additive genetic variance and narrow sense heritability) in D. bipectinata and four other tropical species, whereas five widespread Drosophila species have been shown to have higher genetic variation (Kellermann et al., 2009). For the two tropical species (D. malerkotliana and D. bipectinata), there are no studies that have investigated the overall levels of genetic variation. However, D. malerkotliana has ...
Gametes are highly specialized cell types produced by a complex differentiation process. Production of viable oocytes requires a series of precise and coordinated molecular events. Early in their development, germ cells are an interconnected group of mitotically dividing cells. Key regulatory events lead to the specification of mature oocytes and initiate a switch to the meiotic cell cycle program. Though the chromosomal events of meiosis have been extensively studied, it is unclear how other aspects of oocyte specification are temporally coordinated. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has long been at the forefront as a model system for genetics and cell biology research. The adult Drosophila ovary continuously produces germ cells throughout the organisms lifetime, and many of the cellular processes that occur to establish oocyte fate are conserved with mammalian gamete development. Here, we review recent discoveries from Drosophila that advance our understanding of how early germ cells balance
TY - JOUR. T1 - tramtrack is a transcriptional repressor required for cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye. AU - Xiong, Wen Cheng. AU - Montell, Craig. PY - 1993/6. Y1 - 1993/6. N2 - Cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye is mediated by inductive events between neighboring cells in the eye imaginai disc. These inductive signals lead to differential gene expression necessary for the elaboration of different cell types in the compound eye. Several putative transcription factors have been identified previously that may be required for expression of genes that specify cell fate in the compound eye. Repression of inappropriate gene expression may be as important as transcriptional activation in the determination of cell fate. We report the identification of a mutation in the Drosopbila tramtrack (ttk) locus that is required for cell fate determination in the compound eye. ttk is expressed as two proteins, p69 and p88, shown previously to bind to the regulatory regions of several ...
A majority of neurons that form the ventral nerve cord send out long axons that cross the midline through anterior or posterior commissures. A smaller fraction extend longitudinally and never cross the midline. The decision to cross the midline is governed by a balance of attractive and repulsive signals. This study has explored the role of a G-protein, Galphaq (G protein alpha49B), in altering this balance in Drosophila. Dgq was originally identified from a head cDNA library as a homolog of mammalian Galphaq. Initial functional characterization suggested that it was a visual-specific G-protein essential for Drosophila visual transduction. A splice variant of Galphaq, dgqalpha3, is expressed in early axonal growth cones, which go to form the commissures in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Misexpression of a gain-of-function transgene of dgqalpha3 (AcGq3) leads to ectopic midline crossing. Analysis of the AcGq3 phenotype in roundabout and frazzled mutants shows that AcGq3 function is antagonistic to ...
Receptors for Wingless and other signalling molecules of the Wnt gene family have yet to be identified. We show here that cultured Drosophila cells transfected with a novel member of the frizzled gene family in Drosophila, Dfz2, respond to added Wingless protein by elevating the level of the Armadillo protein. Moreover, Wingless binds to Drosophila or human cells expressing Dfz2. These data demonstrate that Dfz2 functions as a Wingless receptor, and they imply, in general, that Frizzled proteins are receptors for the Wnt signalling molecules ...
Analysis of 3H-thymidine autoradiograms of late third instar larval salivary glands of Drosophila pseudoobscura revealed a unique example of asynchrony of replication in the autosome complement. The two autosomal arms, 2 and 3, show similar labeling pattern during the initial phases, DD to 3C, and thereafter, the chromosome 3 has fewer labeled sites than chromosome 2 until the most terminal pattern, 1D. Detailed sitewise analysis of 3H-thymidine labeling shows that while nearly 54% of the sites examined in chromosome 2 have a labeling frequency greater than 50%, only 13% of all sites in chromosome 3 have labeling frequency at that range. The number of labeled sites on chromosome 3 plotted against that on chromosome 2 shows a hyperbolic profile rather than a linear relationship. The silver grain ratio of the 2nd to 3rd increases from 1.5 to 3.1 through different stages of the cycle. These results suggest that both chromosomes start replication simultaneously but the third chromosome appears to ...
Drosophila Models of Human Disease was founded in 2012 by Stephanie Mohr, PhD, who has more than fifteen years of experience in Drosophila genetics and related research. She is the Director of the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School. Grant support for the DRSC and related activities includes NIH NIGMS R01 GM067761 (N. Perrimon PI and S.M. Co-PI) and NIH NCRR/ORIP R24 RR032668 (N. Perrimon PI ...
The Drosophila brahma (brm) gene encodes an activator of homeotic genes that is highly related to the yeast transcriptional activator SWI2 (SNF2), a potential helicase. To determine whether brm is a functional homolog of SWI2 or merely a member of a family of SWI2-related genes, we searched for additional Drosophila genes related to SWI2 and examined their function in yeast cells. In addition to brm, we identified one other Drosophila relative of SWI2: the closely related ISWI gene. The 1,027-residue ISWI protein contains the DNA-dependent ATPase domain characteristic of the SWI2 protein family but lacks the three other domains common to brm and SWI2. In contrast, the ISWI protein is highly related (70% identical) to the human hSNF2L protein over its entire length, suggesting that they may be functional homologs. The DNA-dependent ATPase domains of brm and SWI2, but not ISWI, are functionally interchangeable; a chimeric SWI2-brm protein partially rescued the slow growth of swi2- cells and ...
Epithelial tissue morphogenesis relies on tightly regulated cell shape changes and local cell-cell contact rearrangements. However, our knowledge on how these cells behaviours are controlled and implemented during organogenesis remains incomplete. To address this issue, I have made use of the genetically amenable developing Drosophila eye. Patterning of the Drosophila eye is initiated by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), a developmental compartment characterized by a wave of apically constricted cells that travels from the posterior pole of the disc. In the wake of the MF emerges a regular array of aligned photoreceptor-precursor cells that will further assemble into mature ommatidia, the building blocks of the flys compound eye. My thesis work is concerned with characterizing the cellular and molecular mechanisms directing early ommatidia patterning. My work demonstrates that the alignment of the ommatidial precursor cells is directed by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atonal ...
The Drosophila heart is a linear organ formed by the movement of bilaterally specified progenitor cells to the midline and adherence of contralateral heart cells. This movement occurs through the attachment of heart cells to the overlying ectoderm which is undergoing dorsal closure. Therefore heart cells are thought to move to the midline passively. Through live imaging experiments and analysis of mutants that affect the speed of dorsal closure we show that heart cells in Drosophila are autonomously migratory and part of their movement to the midline is independent of the ectoderm. This means that heart formation in flies is more similar to that in vertebrates than previously thought. We also show that defects in dorsal closure can result in failure of the amnioserosa to properly degenerate, which can physically hinder joining of contralateral heart cells leading to a broken heart phenotype.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Studies in vertebrates have suggested two roles for Amph: endocytosis of synaptic vesicles and deformation of membranes required for the generation of muscle T-tubules. Although this second function appears to be conserved in Drosophila (Razzaq et al., 2001), damph mutants show no defects in presynaptic vesicle cycling. Moreover, damph mutants show no genetic interaction with Shibire, the gene encoding the Drosophila Dynamin homolog (Zelhof et al., 2001), suggesting that in the fly, Damph does not play a role in endocytosis (Leventis et al., 2001; Razzaq et al., 2001; Zelhof et al., 2001).. At the Drosophila larval NMJ, Damph is enriched at the postsynaptic region (Leventis et al., 2001; Razzaq et al., 2001; Zelhof et al., 2001), suggesting a role in postsynaptic function. The observations that Damph colocalizes with FasII at the postsynaptic membrane, and that both severe hypomorphic fasII and null damph mutants show a similar decrease in synaptic bouton number at the NMJ, prompted us to ...
drosophila definition: Any of numerous tiny fruit flies for the genus Drosophila, specially D. melanogaster, used extensively in hereditary analysis.; Any fruit fly regarding the genus Drosophila; A genus…
Observations from different taxa, including plants, protozoa, insects and mammals, indicate that proteins involved in reproduction evolve rapidly. Several models of adaptive evolution have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, such as sexual conflict, sexual selection, self versus non-self recognition and pathogen resistance. Here we discuss the potential role of sexual conflict in the rapid evolution of reproductive genes in two different animal systems, abalone (Haliotis) and Drosophila. In abalone, we reveal how specific interacting sperm-egg proteins were identified and discuss this identification in the light of models for rapid protein evolution and speciation. For Drosophila, we describe the genomic approaches taken to identify male accessory gland proteins and female reproductive tract proteins. Patterns of protein evolution from both abalone and Drosophila support the predicted patterns of rapid protein evolution driven by sexual conflict. We stress however that other selective ...
Resumen en: Se estudió el efecto mutagéniw del formaldehído (FA) para inducir deleciones preferenciales sobre la región Adh en los cromosomas politénicos de Lkosoph...
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5,855-867. ,and Sanchez, L. The scute (T4) gene acts as a numerator element of the X:A signal that determines the state of activity of Sex-lethal in Drosophila. EMBO J. 8,3079-3086. ,and Sanchez, L. Gap gene properties of the pair-rule gene runt during Drosophila segmentation. Genet. Res. 59,189- 198. , and Gergen, J. P. Zygotic expression of the Drosophila segmentation gene runt antagonizes the activity of the maternal morphogen bicoid. Submitted. , Brown, J. , Scott, M. , and Wu, C. A sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that activates fushi turazu segmentation gene expression. Cells, cap tissue is induced to form mesoderm and an organizer (Fig. 2C) (Nieuwkoop, 1969). Using the animal cap assay, several growth factors and secreted molecules have been implicated in mesodermal induction (Fig. 2) (see review in Green and Smith, 1991). , 1990). , 1993). , 1988), but when combined with activin, produces mesoderm of dorsal character (Cooke, 1989). , 1992). Bone morphogenetic protein4 (BMP-4), ...
The Bicoid morphogen is amongst the earliest triggers of differential spatial pattern of gene expression and subsequent cell fate determination in the embryonic development of Drosophila. This maternally deposited morphogen is thought to diffuse in the embryo, establishing a concentration gradient which is sensed by downstream genes. In most model based analyses of this process, the translation of the bicoid mRNA is thought to take place at a fixed rate from the anterior pole of the embryo and a supply of the resulting protein at a constant rate is assumed. Is this process of morphogen generation a passive one as assumed in the modelling literature so far, or would available data support an alternate hypothesis that the stability of the mRNA is regulated by active processes? We introduce a model in which the stability of the maternal mRNA is regulated by being held constant for a length of time, followed by rapid degradation. With this more realistic model of the source, we have analysed three ...
Using immortalized [3H]inositol-labelled S3 cells, we demonstrated in the present study that various elements of the inositol phosphate signalling cascade are recruited by a Drosophila homologue from a cytokine family of so-called GBPs (growth-blocking peptides). HPLC analysis revealed that dGBP (Drosophila GBP) elevated Ins(1,4,5)P3 levels 9-fold. By using fluorescent Ca2+ probes, we determined that dGBP initially mobilized Ca2+ from intracellular pools; the ensuing depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by dGBP subsequently activated a Ca2+ entry pathway. The addition of dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) to knock down expression of the Drosophila Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor almost completely eliminated mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores by dGBP. Taken together, the results of the present study describe a classical activation of PLC (phospholipase C) by dGBP. The peptide also promoted increases in the levels of other inositol phosphates with signalling credentials: Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 and ...
Much of our understanding of synaptogenesis comes from studies that deal with the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Although well studied, it is not clear how far the NMJ represents an adequate model for the formation of synapses within the CNS. Here we investigate the role of Fasciclin II (Fas II) in the development of synapses between identified motor neurons and cholinergic interneurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Fas II is a neural cell adhesion molecule homolog that is involved in both target selection and synaptic plasticity at the NMJ in Drosophila. In this study, we show that levels of Fas II are critical determinants of synapse formation and growth in the CNS. The initial establishment of synaptic contacts between these identified neurons is seemingly independent of Fas II. The subsequent proliferation of these synaptic connections that occurs postembryonically is, in contrast, significantly retarded by the absence of Fas II. Although the initial formation of synaptic ...
Adaptive protein evolution at the Adh locus in Drosophila.: Proteins often differ in amino-acid sequence across species. This difference has evolved by the accu
Schneider Drosophila Medium with L-Glutamine, 500ml      Schneider’s Drosophila Medium was originally developed for the culture of Drosophila cells but can also be used for the culture
We report an extreme morphological difference between Drosophila sechellia and related species of the pattern of hairs on first-instar larvae. On the dorsum of most species, the posterior region of the anterior compartment of most segments is covered by a carpet of fine hairs. In D. sechellia, these hairs have been lost and replaced with naked cuticle. Genetic mapping experiments and interspecific complementation tests indicate that this difference is caused, in its entirety, by evolution at the ovo/shaven-baby locus. The pattern of expression of the ovo/shaven-baby transcript is correlated with this morphological change. The altered dorsal cuticle pattern is probably caused by evolution of the cis-regulatory region of ovo/shaven-baby in the D. sechellia lineage.. ...
Drosophila has long served as a valuable model for deciphering many biological processes, including immune responses. Indeed, the genetic tractability of this organism is particularly suited for large-scale analyses. Studies performed during the last 3 decades have proven that the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response are conserved between Drosophila and mammals. This review summarizes the recent advances on Drosophila hematopoiesis and immune cellular responses, with a particular emphasis on phagocytosis.
The Drosophila immune response is characterized by the rapid and robust production of a battery of antimicrobial peptides immediately following infection. The genes encoding these antimicrobial peptides are controlled by two NF-κB signaling pathways that respond to microbial infection. The IMD pathway is triggered by DAP-type peptidoglycan, from the cell wall of most Gram-negative and certain Gram-positive bacteria, and activates the NF-κB precursor protein Relish. The Toll pathway, on the other hand, is stimulated by lysine-type peptidoglycan from many Gram-positive bacteria, β 1,3 glucans from many fungi, as well as by microbial proteases. Toll signaling leads to the activation and nuclear translocation of DIF or Dorsal, two other NF-κB homologs. This review presents our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in microbial recognition and signal transduction in these two innate immune pathways.
Stefano DiTalia, Princeton. "Signal integration and cell cycle switches in Drosophila embryonic development". Stefano Di Talia. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Department of Molecular Biology. Princeton University. Abstract. Embryonic development is characterized by rapid yet precise and reproducible cellular decisions. The molecular mechanisms ensuring that cellular decisions during development are both rapid and accurate remain poorly understood. I will describe our attempts to uncover these mechanisms by studying cell cycle control during early Drosophila embryonic development. In the first part of my talk, I will describe the identification of a novel switch-like mechanism controlling the cell cycle pause at the Mid-Blastula Transition (MBT, when zygotic transcription is initiated and maternal mRNAs are degraded). I will show that, contrary to current models, the decision to arrest the cell cycle at the MBT is not controlled by degradation of maternal mRNA of cdc25, but by a switch-like ...
Los genes homeóticos (Hox) codifican factores de transcripción involucrados en la especificación de la identidad segmental a lo largo del eje anteroposterior en el embrión de los metazoos. Estos genes se presentan habitualmente agrupados y organizados en el mismo orden en el que se expresan a lo largo del eje anteroposterior del cuerpo. La conservación de esta organización genómica a lo largo de la filogenia ha sugerido la existencia de constricciones funcionales actuando sobre ella, pero la desestructuración del complejo en Caenorhabditis elegans y las tres roturas descritas en el género Drosophila ponen en cuestión que esta organización sea realmente necesaria para su correcto funcionamiento en algunos linajes. En este trabajo se han estudiado las consecuencias genómicas y funcionales de las dos reorganizaciones del complejo de genes Hox presentes en Drosophila buzzatii, especie perteneciente al grupo repleta. En la primera parte del trabajo se han clonado y secuenciado las ...
Credit: Team Helfrich-Förster. In 1989, the Würzburg biologists Alois Hofbauer and Erich Buchner reported a surprising finding in the journal "Naturwissenschaften": They had identified a new pair of eyelets in drosophila unknown until then. The fruit fly was considered an important model organism for zoologists and geneticists even back then with scores of scientists showing an interest in the tiny insect. But they had all failed to detect the additional eyes -- no wonder given their microscopic size: Each eyelet consists of just four photoreceptor cells.. In spite of this, the Hofbauer-Buchner eyelets seem to play a major role in the life of drosophila. A study conducted by scientists from the University of Würzburg with colleagues from the University of Michigan and the University of Bristol has come to this conclusion.. Drosophilas activity peaks in the morning and in the late afternoon and they rest during the hottest time of the day. The tiny sensory organs evidently influence when this ...
The Drosophila Turandot A (TotA) gene was recently shown to encode a stress-induced humoral factor which gives increased resistance to the lethal effects of high temperature. Here we show that TotA belongs to a family of eight Tot genes distributed at three different sites in the Drosophila genome. All Tot genes are induced under stressful conditions such as bacterial infection, heat shock, paraquat feeding or exposure to ultraviolet light, suggesting that all members of this family play a role in Drosophila stress tolerance. The induction of the Tot genes differs in important respects from the heat shock response, such as the strong but delayed response to bacterial infection seen for several of the genes.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lozenge is expressed in pluripotent precursor cells and patterns multiple cell types in the Drosophila eye through the control of cell-specific transcription factors. AU - Flores, Gail V.. AU - Daga, Andrea. AU - Kalhor, Hamid R.. AU - Banerjee, Utpal. PY - 1998/9. Y1 - 1998/9. N2 - In the developing Drosophila eye, individual cell fates are specified when general signaling mechanisms are interpreted in the context of cell-specific transcription factors. Lozenge, a Runt/AML1/CBFA1-like transcription factor, determines the fates of a number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells by regulating the expression of multiple fate-determining transcription factors. The Lozenge protein is expressed in the nuclei of the cells that it patterns and also in their undifferentiated precursors. An enhancer element located within the second intron of the lozenge gene is responsible for its eye-specific expression. Lozenge is not itself a cell-specific transcription factor, rather it prepatterns the ...
The identification of NIP/DuoxA in both Drosophila and vertebrates suggest an evolutionarily conserved function for this protein [7] (Qin et al). Despite biochemical and cellular studies that link DuoxA to the modulation of dual oxidase activity, a whole animal study is necessary to fully understand the physiological function of NIP/DouxA. By using genetic and biochemical assays, we show here that NIP/DuoxA plays an essential role in the embryonic and larval development of Drosophila. Both zygotic and germinal deletion mutants of nip exhibited 1st instar larval lethality and gross embryonic developmental defects underscored by growth arrest and underdevelopment in the intestinal tract. This latter defect may underlie the severe growth retardation defect observed for the mutant animals as they were unable to intake food. These phenotypes, however, could be fully rescued by ubiquitous expression of a UAS-nip or a UAS-nipNN/AA. Because this mutant NIP was shown in a previous study to be incapable ...
The Atlas of Drosophila Morphology: Wild-type and Classical Mutants is the guide every Drosophila researcher wished they had when first learning genetic markers, and the tool they wish they had now as a handy reference in their lab research. Previously, scientists had only poor-quality images or sketches to work with, and then scattered resources online - but no single visual resource quickly at their fingertips when explaining markers to new members of the lab, or selecting flies to do their genetic crosses, or hybrids.. This alphabetized guide to Drosophila genetic markers lays flat in the lab for easy referencing. It contains high-resolution images of flies and the appropriate marker on the left side of each page and helpful information for the marker on the facing page, such as symbol, gene name, synonyms, chromosome location, brief informative description of the morphology, and comments on marker reliability. A companion website with updated information, useful links, and additional data ...
A case of hybrid sterility in Drosophila paulistorum is due to an incompatibility of the Y chromosome of certain strains with the cytoplasm of other strains. The constitution of the cytoplasm responsible for the sterility is not, however, independent of the chromosomal genes. After seven backcrosses of the hybrid females to males of the same strain, fertile male progenies are finally obtained. ...
The patterning of the imaginal discs in Drosophila melanogaster is a progressive process that, like the patterning of the larval epidermis during embryogenesis, requires the activity of segment polarity genes. One segment polarity gene, wingless, encodes a homolog of the mouse proto-oncogene Wnt-1 and plays a prominent role in the patterning of the larval epidermis and the imaginal discs. However, whereas the function of wingless in the embryo is initially associated with a pattern of stripes along the anteroposterior axis that are part of a Cartesian coordinate system, it is shown here that during imaginal development wingless is associated with a pattern of sectors that provide references for a polar coordinate system homologous to that postulated in a well-known model for the regeneration of insect and vertebrate limbs. ...
Unlike sex determination in the soma, which is an autonomous process, sex determination in the germline of Drosophila has both inductive and autonomous components. In this paper, we examined how sexual identity is selected and maintained in the Drosophila germline. We show that female-specific expression of genes in the germline is dependent on a somatic signaling pathway. This signaling pathway requires the sex-non-specific transformer 2 gene but, surprisingly, does not appear to require the sex-specific genes, transformer and doublesex. Moreover, in contrast to the soma where pathway initiation and maintenance are independent processes, the somatic signaling pathway appears to function continuously from embryogenesis to the larval stages to select and sustain female germline identity. We also show that the primary target for the somatic signaling pathway in germ cells can not be the Sex-lethal gene. ...
Courtesy Permits for non-regulated organisms. Biotechnology Regulatory Services (BRS) issues courtesy permits for non-regulated organisms upon request in order to facilitate their movement, which might otherwise be impeded because of the similarity of the organism to other regulated organisms. A genetically engineered organism is considered a "regulated article" if the donor organism, recipient organism, vector or vector agent used in engineering the organism belongs to one of the taxonomic groups listed in 7 CFR part 340 and is also a plant pest, or if there is a reason to believe it is a plant pest. Since most transgenic Drosophila developed for research purposes do not contain genetic sequences from plant pests and are themselves not considered plant pests, most transgenic Drosophila do not require permits from BRS for their movement. However, shipments manifested as "fruit flies" have recently raised agricultural and environmental concerns because this common name also refers to plant pests ...
The polycistronic and non-canonical gene tarsal-less (tal, known as pri) was reported to be required for embryonic and imaginal development in Drosophila; however, there are few reports of the tal gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we cloned a tal-like (Bmtal) gene, and a sequence analysis showed that the Bmtal cDNA (1661 bp) contains five small open reading frames (smORFs) (A1, A2, A3, A4, and B) that encode short peptides of 11-12 (A1-A4) amino acid residues containing an LDPTG(E)L(Q)(V)Y motif that is conserved in Drosophila Tal, as well as a 32-amino-acid B peptide ...
Eric F. Wieschaus, Squibb Professor in Molecular Biology, presents a talk entitled "From Gene Expression to Tissue Mechanics during Drosophila Embryonic Development." Presented on the occassion of the Many Minds, Many Stripes conference for Princetons graduate alumni ...
DROSOPHILA (ZOOLOGIE); HOMÖOSTASE + OSMOREGULATION + REGULATION DES ELEKTROLYTGLEICHGEWICHTES (BIOLOGIE); ZELLWECHSELWIRKUNGEN (CYTOLOGIE); VERDAUUNG (TIERPHYSIOLOGIE); GENMUTATIONEN + PUNKTMUTATIONEN (GENETIK); ZYKLINE (PROTEINE UND PEPTIDE); DROSOPHILA (ZOOLOGY); HOMEOSTASIS + OSMOREGULATION + ELECTROLYTE BALANCE CONTROL (BIOLOGY); CELL INTERACTIONS (CYTOLOGY); DIGESTION (ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY); GENE MUTATIONS + POINT MUTATIONS (GENETICS); CYCLINS (PROTEINS AND PEPTIDES ...
The common fruit fly, Drosophila, has long been one of the most productive of all laboratory animals. From 1910 to 1940, the center of Drosophila culture in America was the school of Thomas Hunt Morgan and his students Alfred Sturtevant and Calvin Bridges. They first created standard flies through inbreeding and by organizing a network for exchanging stocks of flies that spread their practices around the world. In Lords of the Fly, Robert E. Kohler argues that fly laboratories are a special kind of ecological niche in which the wild fruit fly is transformed into an artificial animal with a distinctive natural history. He shows that the fly was essentially a laboratory tool whose startling productivity opened many new lines of genetic research. Kohler also explores the moral economy of the Drosophilists: the rules for regulating access to research tools, allocating credit for achievements, and transferring authority from one generation of scientists to the next. By closely examining the
Eight lab members attended the Drosophila meeting in Dallas this year. Sarah Mullinax, Jenna Lea, Jo Chapman, Emma Pagella and Mariaelena Nabors presented posters. Tom Hill and Drea Darby gave platform talks and Rob organized a workshop. ...
In this study, we have used an automated image analysis pipeline to screen through images from a high-content, genome-wide RNAi screen for genes whose activity is rate-limiting for the growth of Drosophila cells in culture. In doing so, we identified a number of known and novel genes regulating cell size. Interestingly, this screen identified a novel role for autocrine signaling through Pvfs and the receptor tyrosine kinase Pvr in the control of the autonomous growth of Drosophila cells in culture. Previous studies have suggested roles for Pvf/Pvr signaling in the control of cell migration [23, 27, 30], morphogenesis [25, 26, 31], cell viability [22] and proliferation [28, 29]. However, to our knowledge this is the first clear example of this pathway controlling cell size. This reduction in the size of Pvr RNAi cells was accompanied by a reduction in cell proliferation, as revealed by reduced cell numbers in the absence of significant apoptosis (data not shown), and by a delay in the passage of ...
Our screen has identified a new set of lines for the study of oogenesis and stem cell biology in the Drosophila ovary. Previous screens identified LacZ and Gal4 enhancer trap lines with expression in the ovary (Grossniklaus et al. 1989; Manseau et al. 1997; Fasano and Kerridge 1988), and several of these lines have become standard, versatile tools for a wide range of studies. LacZ enhancer traps have helped to identify distinct ovarian cell types, whereas Gal4 enhancer trap lines have made it possible to both label and manipulate gene expression in distinct subsets of cells.. Clones induced by FRT recombination can also be used to identify cell types, such as stem cells, as well as to manipulate gene expression. Because the ET-Flp2x lines combine the features of an enhancer trap with Flp expression, they can be used much like Gal4/UAS-Flp combinations have been used previously. However, compared to existing tools, the ET-Flp2x lines have a distinct set of drawbacks and advantages. For example, ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
From the abstract: "Individuals carrying the same pathogenic mutation can present with a broad range of disease outcomes. While some of this variation arises from environmental factors, it is increasingly recognized that the background genetic variation of each individual can have a profound effect on the expressivity of a pathogenic mutation. In order to understand this background effect on disease-causing mutations, studies need to be performed across a wide range of backgrounds. Recent advancements in model organism biology allow us to test mutations across genetically diverse backgrounds ... we used the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, a collection of ∼200 wild-derived strains, to test the variability of the retinal phenotype of the Rh1G69D Drosophila model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We found that the Rh1G69D retinal phenotype is quite a variable quantitative phenotype. To identify the genes driving this extensive phenotypic variation, we performed a genome-wide association study. We ...
Recent advances in sensory neuroscience using Drosophila olfaction as a model system have revealed brain maps representing the external world. Once we understand how the brains built-in capability generates the internal olfactory maps, we can then elaborate how the brain computes and makes decision to elicit complex behaviors. Here, we review current progress in mapping Drosophila olfactory circuits and discuss their relationships with innate olfactory behaviors.. ...
A-F Number of anti‐repo‐positive glia in adult brains at 7 days. Glia counts in the experimental samples are represented as a percentage of the average number of glia in central brains of the indicated controls. Data were analysed using one‐way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey analysis (A, C, D, F) or with an unpaired Students t‐test (B, E). Error bars represent SEM. (A) The UAS‐CG16947 RNAi transgene without a Gal4 driver was used as a control. miR‐31a KO/KO indicates the homozygous deletion mutant. A UAS‐GFP transgene was used as a control for expression of the RNAi transgene with Insc‐Gal4 in the mutant background. ns: not significant. See also Appendix Fig S1 and Table EV1. (B) Expression of UAS‐GFP or UAS‐CG16947 RNAi using Insc‐Gal4 cells in an otherwise normal background. (C) The UAS‐CG16947 transgene without a Gal4 driver was used as a control. UAS‐GFP was used as a control for expression of the UAS‐CG16947 transgene with Insc‐Gal4 in an otherwise normal ...
One of the most intensively studied processes in animal development is the division of the embryonic Drosophila epidermis (ectoderm) into visible segments, a process that lays the foundations for the segmented structure of the adult insect. Segmentation is governed by a program of sequential gene expression that is one of the best-defined genetic cascades in animal development [1]. It is put into motion by three maternal gene regulatory proteins - Bicoid, Hunchback and Caudal - which specify an initial pre-segmentation pattern along the anterior-posterior axis, while the anterior and posterior ends of the body are specified independently by the localized activation of the maternal receptor tyrosine kinase Torso. The principal target genes of these maternal factors in the embryos genome are known as gap genes, as their lack leads to gaps in the body pattern. The gap genes, such as Krüppel, Knirps and Giant, encode sequence-specific transcriptional repressors. The interplay of the maternal ...
Kentas new paper on tumor induction and diagnosis methods in Drosophila came out in the Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE) with its video article!. Induction and Diagnosis of Tumors in Drosophila Imaginal Disc Epithelia. J. Vis. Exp. 125, e55901. ...
The genetic tools available in Drosophila have facilitated our understanding of how apoptosis is regulated and executed in the context of the developing organism. All embryonic apoptosis is initiated by the activity of three genes, rpr, grim and hid. Each of these genes is independently regulated, allowing developmental apoptosis to be finely controlled. These initiators in turn activate the core apoptotic machinery, including the caspases. Drosophila counterparts to other conserved components of the apoptotic machinery have been recently identified, and we discuss how these may be integrated into the process of normal developmentally regulated cell death. We also outline the role that phagocytosis plays in the final stages of apoptosis and consider the molecular mechanisms guiding the elimination of apoptotic corpses ...
This book is aimed at generating an updated reservoir of scientific endeavors undertaken to unravel the complicated yet intriguing topic of neurodegeneration. Scientists from Europe, USA and India who are experts in the field of neurodegenerative diseases have contributed to this book. This book will help readers gain insight into the recent knowledge obtained from Drosophila model, in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and also unravel novel scopes for therapeutic interventions. Different methodologies available to create humanized fly models that faithfully reflects the pathogenicities associated with particular disorders have been described here. It also includes information on the exciting area of neural stem cells. A brief discussion on neurofibrillary tangles, precedes the elaborate description of lessons learnt from Drosophila about Alzheimer`s, Parkinsons, Spinomuscular Atrophy, Huntingtons diseases, RNA expansion disorders and Hereditary ...
The Hem/Kette/Nap1 protein is involved in many biological processes. We have recently reported that Hem is required for the normal migration of neurons in the Drosophila embryo. In this paper, we report that Hem regulates the asymmetric division of neural precursor cells. We find that a well-studied Hem/Kette mutant allele produces at least two main, but possibly more, phenotypic classes of mutant embryos, and these phenotypes correlate with variable levels of maternal wild type Hem protein in the developing embryo. While the weaker class exhibits weak axon guidance defect and the mis-migration of neurons, the stronger class causes severe axon guidance defects, mis-migration of neurons and symmetric division of ganglion mother cells (GMC) of the RP2/sib lineage. We also show that the basis for the loss of asymmetric division is due to non-localization of Inscuteable and Numb in GMC-1. A non-asymmetric Numb segregates to both daughter cells of GMC-1, which then prevents Notch signaling from specifying a
Portal to information on the insect order Diptera (flies and midges) and a forum for researchers on the insect group. The site enables, for example, link submission and identification queries. Registration required for submissions.
Targeted gene expression has become a standard technique for the study of biological questions in Drosophila. Until recently, transgene expression could be targeted in the dimension of either time or space, but not both. Several new systems have recently been developed to direct transgene expression simultaneously in both time and space. We describe here two such systems that we developed in our laboratory. The first system provides a general method for temporal and regional gene expression targeting (TARGET) with the conventional GAL4-upstream activator sequence (UAS) system and a temperature-sensitive GAL80 molecule, which represses GAL4 transcriptional activity at permissive temperatures. The second system, termed Gene-Switch, is based on a GAL4-progesterone receptor chimera that is hormone-inducible. We have used both systems for simultaneous spatial and temporal rescue of memory dysfunction in the rutabaga (rut) memory mutant of Drosophila. In this protocol, we provide guidelines for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The variable transmembrane domain of Drosophila N-cadherin regulates adhesive activity. AU - Yonekura, Shinichi. AU - Ting, Chun Yuan. AU - Neves, Guilherme. AU - Hung, Kimberly. AU - Hsu, Shu Ning. AU - Chiba, Akira. AU - Chess, Andrew. AU - Lee, Chi Hon. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - Drosophila N-cadherin (CadN) is an evolutionarily conserved classic cadherin which has a large, complex extracellular domain and a catenin-binding cytoplasmic domain. The CadN locus contains three modules of alternative exons (7a/b, 13a/b, and 18a/b) and undergoes alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms. Using quantitative transcript analyses and green fluorescent protein-based cell sorting, we found that during development CadN alternative splicing is regulated in a temporal but not cell-type-specific fashion. In particular, exon 18b is predominantly expressed during early developmental stages, while exon 18a is prevalent at the late developmental and adult stages. All CadN ...
Induction of apoptosis by Drosophila reaper, hid and grim through inhibition of IAP function.: Induction of apoptosis in Drosophila requires the activity of thr
We describe a fluorescence in situ hybridization method that permits detection of the localization and abundance of single mRNAs (smFISH) in cleared whole-mount adult Drosophila brains. The approach is rapid and multiplexable and does not require molecular amplification; it allows facile quantification of mRNA expression with subcellular resolution on a standard confocal microscope. We further demonstrate single-mRNA detection across the entire brain using a custom Bessel beam structured illumination microscope (BB-SIM). ...
Drosophila Klp3A protein: a midbody component required for central spindle assembly & initiation of cytokinesis in Drosophila; GenBank L19117
Definition of drosophila - a small fruit fly, used extensively in genetic research because of its large chromosomes, numerous varieties, and rapid rate of re
Drosophila Drop protein: may be involved in muscle differentiation and/or patterning in Drosophila; MW 48 kDa; has 437 amino acid residues; GenBank X85331
Dissection of Drosophila CNSs Protocol Protocol for the dissection of Drosophila CNSs. Includes: Tools; Dissection of the CNS; Dissecting larval CNSs; Dissecting early pupae; Dissecting mid pupae; Dissecting late pupae; Dissecting the whole CNS; Dissecting only the brain proper; Taking the pupa out of the puparium. ...
Drosophila ambochila courtship, Central Kaluaa Gulch. Note that the dance of the male is significantly different from that of the very similar-looking and sympatric D. montgomeryi, where the male bends his abdomen completely under his body. - Drosophila ambochila Kaluaa 5259.jpg
Physiology and behavior have historically been treated as separate subjects in the study of Drosophila. The latter is mentioned mainly in the context of neurobiology, while the former has been considered to take in studies of metabolism, cell biology and anatomy, among others. Of late, the line distinguishing physiology and behavior has become thinner, and this is exceptionally apparent in recent studies of nutrient signaling and of the regulation of feeding. This review represents a brief examination of the nexus between these intersecting fields of research in Drosophila. Other recently published reviews serve as complements to this one.
This page was generated on 2019-10-15 16:08:52 -0400 (Tue, 15 Oct 2019). pd.drosophila.2 home page: release version, devel version.. Number of downloads for annotation package pd.drosophila.2, year by year, from 2019 back to 2009 (years with no downloads are omitted):. ...
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Drosophila montgomeryi, Puu Hapapa. They are often able to detect the sound of a shutter button and take off as the picture is taken. - Drosophila montgomeryi Hapapa 5225.jpg
Like all animals, Drosophila shows robust fat (triglyceride) turnover, i.e., they synthesize, store and utilize triglyceride for their daily metabolic needs. The protocol describes a simple assay to measure this turnover of triglycerides in Drosophila.
Pada Setlist awal, 3 Official Video Clip Drosophila menjadi persembahan apik, setelah ngeliat Video clipnya, ada part Behind the scene Footage yang sengaja ditampilkan untuk kita melihat setiap proses pengerjaannya. Konsepnya sederhana yang dijabani oleh Band dan beberapa Crew, seperti lagu " This Is My Life ", Spot scene-nya diambil di Gumuk Pasir Jogja, cukup menggunakan ga banyak kamera, Drosophila coba menampilkan cukup detil performance act-nya lewat simple angle, mendengar deskripsi yang disampaikan oleh masing-masing member, cukup bikin senyum-senyum kecil, komunikasinya ga pake skrip mungkin, jadi rada belepotan kalimatnya hehehe ... meski sederhana sekali pengemasannya, ini cukup menarik gaya becanda mereka, Video editornya cukup mewakili konsep yang diinginkan band. Terus Clip " Agitation " mengambil setting di Danau Sermo Jogja, dengan visual effect yang lebih pas menurut Gw sesuai Konsep lagunya sendiri, penampilan Female Intan cukup maksimal action Figure-nya dan Clip Ke-3 " Anxiety ...
Author Summary The spatial-temporal expression pattern of a gene, which is crucial to its function, is controlled by cis-regulatory DNA sequences. Forming the basic units of regulatory sequences are transcription factor binding sites, often organized into larger modules that determine gene expression in response to combinatorial environmental signals. Understanding the conservation and change of regulatory sequences is critical to our knowledge of the unity as well as diversity of animal development and phenotypes. In this paper, we study the evolution of sequences involved in the regulation of body patterning in the Drosophila embryo. We find that mutations of nucleotides within a binding site are constrained by evolutionary forces to preserve the sites binding affinity to the cognate transcription factor. Functional binding sites are frequently destroyed during evolution and the rate of loss across evolutionary spans is roughly constant. We also find that the evolutionary fate of a site strongly
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Drosophila willistoni Sturtevant, 1916, è un insetto del genere Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), sottogene Sophophora. Si trova nel continente americano dalla Florida allArgentina. ^ (EN) A. H. Sturtevant, Notes on North American Drosophilidae with descriptions of twenty-three new species, in Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 9, nº 4, 1916, pp. 323-343. PDF (EN) L. P. Regner, M. S. O. Pereira, C. E. V. Alonso, E. Abdelhay e V. L. S. Valente, Genomic distribution of P elements in Drosophila willistoni and a search for their relationship with chromosomal inversions (PDF), in Journal of Heredity, vol. 87, nº 3, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 191-198 ...
Rhodopsins are the major photopigments in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila express six well-characterized Rhodopsins (Rh1-Rh6) with distinct absorption maxima and expression pattern. In 2000, when the Drosophila genome was published, a novel Rhodopsin gene was discovered: Rhodopsin 7 (Rh7). Rh7 is highly conserved among the Drosophila genus and is also found in other arthropods. Phylogenetic trees based on protein sequences suggest that the seven Drosophila Rhodopsins cluster in three different groups. While Rh1, Rh2 and Rh6 form a
A sophisticated evolutionary conserved innate immune system has evolved in insects to fight pathogens and to restrict damage in harmful (danger) situations including cancer. A significant amount of knowledge about different infection models in Drosophila has been generated in past decades, which revealed functional resemblances and implications for vertebrate systems. However, how Drosophila responds towards multicellular parasitic nematodes and in danger situations is still little understood. Therefore, the aim of the thesis was to characterize multiple aspects of the host defense in the two important contexts mentioned above.. We analyzed the transcriptome profiles of nematode-infected Drosophila larvae with uninfected samples. For this we employed the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora with its symbiont Photorhabdus luminescence to infect Drosophila larvae. We found 642 genes were differentially regulated upon infection. Among them a significant portion belonged to immune ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The progenitor state is maintained by lysine-specific demethylase 1-mediated epigenetic plasticity during drosophila follicle cell development. AU - Lee, Ming Chia. AU - Spradling, Allan C.. PY - 2014/12/15. Y1 - 2014/12/15. N2 - Progenitors are early lineage cells that proliferate before the onset of terminal differentiation. Although widespread, the epigenetic mechanisms that control the progenitor state and the onset of differentiation remain elusive. By studying Drosophila ovarian follicle cell progenitors, we identified lysine-specific demethylase 1 (lsd1) and CoRest as differentiation regulators using a GAL4∷GFP variegation assay. The follicle cell progenitors in lsd1 or CoRest heterozygotes prematurely lose epigenetic plasticity, undergo the Notch-dependent mitotic-endocycle transition, and stop dividing before a normal number of follicle cells can be produced. Simultaneously reducing the dosage of the histone H3K4 methyltransferase Trithorax reverses these effects, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification of a regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Drosophila heads. AU - Inoue, Hiroko. AU - Yoshioka, Tohru. PY - 1997/6/9. Y1 - 1997/6/9. N2 - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using anion-exchange column chromatography. Two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), type I and type II, were detected, and type II PKA was found to be a major isozyme. The regulatory subunit of type II PKA (RII) was purified, and only one isoform was observed. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa on SDS gel electrophoresis. Partial amino acid sequences of the protein were almost identical with the RIIα subunit of human. Since PKA has been implicated to be especially important for learning and memory in Drosophila, the RII subunit may play an essential role in the regulation of neuronal activity in the brain of Drosophila, and possibly in human.. AB - The cytosolic extract from Drosophila heads was separated using ...
Circadian rhythms are endogenous, entrainable oscillations of physical, mental and behavioural processes in response to local environmental cues such as daylight, which are present in the living beings, including humans. Circadian rhythms have been related to cardiovascular function and pathology. However, the role that circadian clock genes play in heart development and function in a whole animal in vivo are poorly understood. The Drosophila cryptochrome (dCry) is a circadian clock gene that encodes a major component of the circadian clock negative feedback loop. Compared to the embryonic stage, the relative expression levels of dCry showed a significant increase (|100-fold) in Drosophila during the pupa and adult stages. In this study, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system to perform non-invasive and longitudinal analysis of functional and morphological changes in the Drosophila heart throughout its post-embryonic lifecycle for the first time. The Drosophila
The ability of cells to assemble into tissues, organs, and animals depends on cell-cell adhesion (for reviews see Yap et al., 1997; Tepass et al., 2001). The central mediators of cell adhesion are proteins of the cadherin-catenin complex, which localize to adherens junctions (AJs),* adhesive junctions near the apical end of the lateral cell interface of epithelial cells. Transmembrane cadherins mediate homophilic adhesion, whereas catenins anchor cadherins to actin at adhesion sites. β-catenin (β-cat) and its Drosophila ortholog Armadillo (Arm) bind directly to both the distal region of the cadherin cytoplasmic tail and to α-catenin (α-cat). α-Cat interacts with actin both directly and indirectly. Cadherins, β-cat, and α-cat play essential roles in adhesion-genetic experiments in animals and in cell culture reveal that adhesion is abolished in their absence. Consistent with this, the cadherin tail is important for strong cell-cell adhesion, at least in some cells.. However, ...
Attractiveness is a major component of sexual selection that is dependent on sexual characteristics, such as pheromone production, which often reflect an individuals fitness and reproductive potential. Aging is a process that results in a steady decline in survival and reproductive output, yet little is known about its effect on specific aspects of attractiveness. In this report we asked how aging impacts pheromone production and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster. Evidence suggests that key pheromones in Drosophila are produced as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC), whose functions in attracting mates and influencing behavior have been widely studied. We employed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to show that the composition of D. melanogaster CHC is significantly affected by aging in both sexes and that these changes are robust to different genetic backgrounds. Aging affected the relative levels of many individual CHC, and it ...
The ant Cataglyphis lives in the Sahara desert and is one of the most thermotolerant land animals known. It forages at body temperatures above 50 degrees C, and the critical thermal maxima are at 53.6 +/- 0.8 degrees C for Cataglyphis bombycina and 55.1 +/- 1.1 degrees C for Cataglyphis bicolor. The synthesis and accumulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) were analyzed in Cataglyphis and compared to Formica, an ant living in more moderate climates, and to two Drosophila species. In Cataglyphis, protein synthesis continues at temperatures up to 45 degrees C as compared to 39 degrees C for Formica and Drosophila. The two Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila ambigua, differ with respect to their maximal induction of HSP synthesis and accumulation by 3-4 degrees C. In contrast, the two ant species accumulate HSPs prior to their exposure to heat, and in Cataglyphis the temperature of maximal HSP induction by de novo protein synthesis is only 2 degrees C higher than in Formica. ...