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Recent animal data suggest that the endocannabinoid system is a promising target in the prevention of chronic pain. It has been shown that the endocannabinoid system modifies excitatory and inhibitory currents in structures involved in the development of chronic pain such as the amygdala.. CRPS is a neuropathic pain condition, which is known to become chronic in a significant percentage. The study compares the effect of low dose Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (90 days) and placebo in acute CRPS. All patients will receive a standard treatment consisting of drug therapy and physiotherapy. ...
The present study examined the adverse effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (i.p injection in albino mice) on free radical damage of testicular lipids (lipid peroxidation) at low doses and the role of antioxidant enzymes defense system at high dose and particularly at the withdrawal of the drug after applying higher dose (recovery dose). At lower doses (total doses ranging from 6 mg to 28 mg), there was a significant increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular lipid content. But the effects were slightly lowered at high dose (total dose 70 mg) and at the withdrawal of the drug (recovery dose). Similarly, marked decrease of antioxidant enzyme systems (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione content were noticed at low doses. But the effects were slightly higher at high dose and at the withdrawal of the drug. Similarly, low-dose treatments caused significant shrinkage of tubular diameter and detrimental changes in seminiferous epithelium of testis
PubMed journal article Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Study III. A Delta9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio stud were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Purpose: To quantify the concentration of 11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-THC in human urine with GC/MS/MS.11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-THC is the major active metabolite in human urine after cannabis abuse, and thus it can be the evidence for cannabis abuse. GC/MS/MS technique provides very sensitive and reliable results. Methodology: Before the GC/MS/MS analysis, the urine sample should be hydrolyzed with alkalinity (KOH methanol solution) to make 11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-THC in free form, then the pH value is adjusted with HCl and glacial acetic acid to about 3.5, the solution is extracted with n-heptane tree times, the organic phase is evaporated under nitrogen. The residue is derivatization, 1μl of the derivatized solution is injected into GC/MS/MS. Results: Cover IOC cut level.
Tetrahydrocannabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound. Dronabinol is a synthetic form of delta-9-THC.
To further characterize the downstream signaling pathways that trigger apoptosis following activation of cannabinoid receptors, Jurkat cells were pretreated with either CB1 or CB2 antagonists in the absence or presence of THC for 12 hours. As shown in Fig. 1D, THC treatment of Jurkat cells caused reduced phosphorylation of Raf-1, whereas total protein levels remained constant. In addition, exposure of cells to THC diminished the levels of phosphorylation of MEK1/2, with the total MEK1/2 expression remaining unchanged. Similarly, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was largely decreased in THC-treated cells, but total ERK1/2 expression remained unperturbed. In contrast, when cells were pretreated with CB1 or CB2 antagonists, the effects of THC on each of these proteins were largely reduced. None of the THC concentrations tested induced alterations in phospho-p38 or phospho-JNK. In addition, no changes were observed in levels of total p38 or JNK. Consequently, we evaluated the levels of phospho-p90RSK ...
Tetrahydrocannabivarin THCV Definition - Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is one of the most commonly occurring chemicals in the cannabis plant. A...
The Madrid researchers reported in the March issue of "Nature Medicine" that they injected the brains of 45 rats with cancer cells, producing tumors whose presence they confirmed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the 12th day they injected 15 of the rats with THC and 15 with Win-55,212-2 a synthetic compound similar to THC. "All the rats left untreated uniformly died 12-18 days after glioma (brain cancer) cell inoculation ... Cannabinoid (THC)-treated rats survived significantly longer than control rats. THC administration was ineffective in three rats, which died by days 16-18. Nine of the THC-treated rats surpassed the time of death of untreated rats, and survived up to 19-35 days. Moreover, the tumor was completely eradicated in three of the treated rats." The rats treated with Win-55,212-2 showed similar results ...
Magic mushrooms may soon become a bonafide FDA-approved treatment for depression. Proponents advocating for the use of psilocybin mushrooms as a therapeutic treatment for depression and a variety of other conditions have gotten one step closer to being recognized as a legal and legitimate way of treatment.
You will have an equal chance of being assigned to either group. Neither you nor your doctor can choose the group you will be in. During the study, you and the study staff will not know which group you are in. However, if needed for your safety, the study staff will be able to find out which group you are in.. After the last study participant completes their study therapy, you and the study staff will find out which group you were in.. Study Drug Administration:. On Day 1 (the day that you receive chemotherapy), you will take a dronabinol/placebo pill by mouth every 8 hours (if possible). If you cannot take the pill every 8 hours, you should try to space out the doses evenly. Your first dronabinol/placebo pill on Day 1 will be 30 minutes before chemotherapy.. You will also receive dexamethasone and palonosetron by vein 30 minutes before you receive chemotherapy.. On Days 2-6, you will take dronabinol/placebo 3 times a day. You should take each pill every 8 hours (if possible). If you cannot take ...
Medscape - Chemotherapy-induced nausea & vomiting dosing for Marinol, Syndros (dronabinol), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.
MARINOL (Dronabinol) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
1-O-methyl-11-hydroxy-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol: new metabolite of (-)-11-hydroxy-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in rat brain & liver; structure
Marinol: Dronabinol is a member of the family of medications known as cannabinoids. Dronabinol is also known as THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). This medication was developed after it was discovered that the THC found in marijuana was effective in treating severe nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy.
Det endocannabinoide system er en gruppe neuromodulatoriske lipider og deres receptorer i hjernen, der er involveret i en række fysiologiske processer, herunder appetit, smertefølelse, humør og hukommelse, og det medierer psykoaktive og farmakologiske virkninger af cannabis.[30] Det endocannabinoide system er blevet undersøgt ved hjælp af genetiske og farmakologiske metoder. Disse undersøgelser har påvist, at cannabinoider virker som neuromodulatorer for en række fysiologiske processer, herunder motorisk indlæring, synaptisk plasticitet, appetit, og smertesans. Kvantificering af anandamid- og 2-arachidonoylglycerol-plasmaniveauer er i 2013 blevet undersøgt for potentielle påvirkninger af tetrahydrocannabinols (THCs) nyttevirkning på det endocannabinoide system hos mennesker, med elleve blodprøver, der blev udtaget i løbet af de første 5 timer efter THC administration og to yderligere prøver efter 24 og 48 timer. THC, dets metabolitter THC-OH (biologisk aktivt) og THC-COOH (ikke ...
Excitotoxicity is a paradigm used to explain the biochemical events in both acute neuronal damage and in slowly progressive, neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show in a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the main active compound in marijuana, reduces neuronal injury in neonatal rats injected intracerebrally with the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain to elicit excitotoxicity. In the acute phase Δ9-THC reduced the volume of cytotoxic edema by 22%. After 7 d, 36% less neuronal damage was observed in treated rats compared with control animals. Coadministration of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716 prevented the neuroprotective actions of Δ9-THC, indicating that Δ9-THC afforded protection to neurons via the CB1 receptor. In Δ9-THC-treated rats the volume of astrogliotic tissue was 36% smaller. The CB1 receptor antagonist did not block this effect. These results provide evidence that the cannabinoid system can serve to protect the ...
THCA is the primary metabolite of THC. (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, marijuanas major psychoactive ingredient). This test cannot differentiate between prescribed (e.g. Marinol), medical marijuana, or illicit forms of marijuana. This test cannot distinguish between active or passive marijuana exposure, or if the patient is under the influence of marijuana at the time of the specimen collection ...
9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuanas principal psychoactive component, is known to suppress resistance to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections. However, the effect of THC on resistance to fungal infections is unclear. Recently, we found that chronic THC treatment decreased resistance to the yeast Candida albicans (C. albicans) in immune competent mice. However, nothing is known about how THC affects resistance to a fungal infection in an immunocompromised mouse. Our objective was to assess how chronic THC affects an immunocompromised mouses ability to ward off systemic candidiasis in an acute and secondary model of infection. 5-fluorouracil (5-F) is a commonly prescribed anti-cancer drug and is also a potent immunosuppressor, increasing susceptibility to C. albicans infection. We found that 5-F treatment severely decreased survival, white blood cell count, splenic IL-12p40 production and increased kidney fungal load. To investigate the effect of THC on resistance to C. albicans in ...
Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ9-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ9-THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle during postnatal days 28-50. As adults, females were mated with drug-naïve males. We then assessed potential alterations of the Δ9-THCs (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1mg/kg, ip) and d-amphetamines (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1mg/kg, ip) reward-modifying effects using the curve-shift variant of the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure in their adult male F1 offspring. The reward-facilitating effect of the 0.1mg dose of Δ9-THC was abolished in the F1 offspring of females that were
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes one of two cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoids, principally delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic analogs, are psychoactive ingredients of marijuana. The cannabinoid receptors are members of the guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) coupled receptor family, which inhibit adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent, stereoselective and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The two receptors have been found to be involved in the cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana. Multiple transcript variants encoding two different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009 ...
Although marijuana and hemp are members of the same species, Cannabis sativa, they are in effect completely different plants. About a dozen varieties of hemp plants are cultivated for food, and they contain about 0.001 percent the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana known as THC or Tetrahydrocannabinol. Because of its botanical relationship to drug/medicinal varieties… ...
UPDATE 3/20 - NORML has put out a statement saying, in part, "Further, because COVID-19 is a respiratory illness, some of you may wish to limit or avoid their exposure to combustive smoke - as this can put undue stress and strain on the lungs. Alternative delivery devices, such as vaporizer heating devices can significantly mitigate combustive smoke exposure, and of course, the use of edibles or tinctures can eliminate smoke exposure entirely.". Cal NORML Releases White Paper on Vaping 1/27/2020. Study: Vaporizers Deliver Safe, Reliable Doses Of Cannabinoids 1/25/16. Vaporization is a technique for avoiding irritating respiratory toxins in marijuana smoke by heating cannabis to a temperature where the psychoactive ingredients evaporate without causing combustion.. Laboratory studies by California NORML and MAPS have found that vaporizers can efficiently deliver cannabinoids while eliminating or drastically reducing other smoke toxins.. Like tobacco, marijuana smoke contains toxins that are known ...
Side effects of dronabinol include a sudden feeling of warmth, memory loss, hallucination and lack of balance, states Everyday Health. Doctors prescribe dronabinol on the basis that its benefits...
Mechanisms that may underlie age and sex differences in the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids are relatively unexplored. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sex differences in metabolism of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), similar to those observed previously in adult rats, also occurred in adolescent rats and might contribute to age and sex differences in its in vivo pharmacology. Male and female adolescent rats were exposed to THC acutely or repeatedly for 10 days.
2.1 Messages pass along the nerve fibres as electrical impulses and cross the gaps between nerve cells as chemicals (neurotransmitters). These are the brains natural drugs, each having a particular shape to fit the receptor site on the membrane of the next cell, rather like a key fitting a lock. Unfortunately, the brain cannot distinguish between these neurotransmitters and the mind altering drugs that people take. Cannabis mimics the neurotransmitter anandamide (ananda: Sanskrit for bliss) to give the high. It also occupies the same receptors sites as the opiates possibly explaining its pain control properties. The psychoactive ingredient THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) dissolves in the far rich cell membranes and remains there. 50 per cent will still be there a week later and ten per cent after a month. Traces in the hair and urine will be detectable for weeks ...
Apoptosis is programed cell death characterized by certain cellular changes and regulated by various gene products including Bcl-2 and caspase-1. The marijuana cannabinoid, Delta9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been reported to suppress in culture th
Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects American Review of
Results: Maternal THC exposure resulted in myocardial hypertrophy, semilunar valve stenosis, and coronary artery malformations. Fetuses from dams exposed to THC exhibited 1.75-fold increase (p=0.012) in aortic valve to lumen volume and 1.57-fold increase (p=0.007) in pulmonary valve to lumen volume, 0.41-fold (p=0.023) and 0.38-fold (p=0.007) change in right and left ventricle chamber volume, respectively, and 0.37-fold change p=0.021) in coronary artery volume compared to the control. In cultured E12.5 ventricles, THC treatment resulted in 0.68-fold change ( ...
Rapidly decreasing blood THC concentrations after inhalation do not imply rapidly decreasing impairment. THC effects are directly related to brain concentrations; peak effects do not coincide with maximum blood concentrations (27). THCs equilibration time between blood and brain produces a delay between blood Cmax and maximal effects (28). Acute psychomotor impairment was documented for ≤6 h in recreational [mean 3.4 (SD 3.0) ×/month] smokers after smoking 250 and 500 μg/kg (approximately 17.5 and 35 mg) THC cigarettes (29). Despite marked differences in THCs pharmacodynamic vs blood pharmacokinetic profiles, it is not possible to assess brain concentrations in living drivers, and blood remains the most representative available sample.. We previously documented impaired driving performance by these participants at specific blood THC concentrations during driving (20). However, concentrations present after driving in the same sessions-when blood would be collected after the incident-were ...
Was ist Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) und wie entsteht es? Wie der Name vermuten lässt, ist Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) sehr ähnlich zu dem berühmtesten Cannabinoid, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Die chemische Struktur von THC und THCV ist nahezu identisch, aber ihre Entstehung läuft unterschiedlich ab. Anders als THC , Cannabidiol (CBD) , und Cannabichromen (CBC) , beginnt THCV nicht als Continue reading » ...
The study, published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research , was conducted using rats. Scientists injected one group of rats with CBD and another group with a combination of CBD and THC - the major psychoactive component in marijuana. Gabet and the rest of his team determined that CBD alone could produce significant results.. This research indicating the marijuana can help with broken bones may lead to inquiries about osteoporosis and other bone-related diseases.. "We found that CBD alone makes bones stronger during healing, enhancing the maturation of the collagenous matrix, which provides the basis for new mineralization of bone disuse," Dr. Gabet continued. "After being treated with CBD, the healed bone will be harder to break in future." ...
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Sea urchin and human sperm contain receptors for neurotransmitters and psychoactive drugs, including cannabinoid receptors (CNRs). Anandamide, arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), is a lipid-signal molecule that is an endogenous agonist for CNRs. AEA is enyzmatically released from membrane phospholipids when neurons are stimulated. Retrograde AEA signals from depolarized postsynaptic neurons inhibit neurotransmitter release at synapses in mammalian brain. Analogous processes regulate sperm functions during fertilization in sea urchins. AEA and (-)delta9tetrahydrocannabinol [(-)delta9THC], the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana, inhibit fertilization by blocking acrosomal exocytosis/acrosome reactions (AR) stimulated by egg jelly. The acrosome is a Golgi-derived secretory granule in sperm analogous to synaptic vesicles in neurons. AEA and (-)delta9THC do not block ionophore-induced AR, suggesting that they inhibit AR by modulating signal transduction event(s) before opening of ion channels. ...
The principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC administered intravenously is characterized by the appearance of psychopharmocological effects within 5 minutes, which continue for at least 90 minutes, providing an excellent experimental window.[12] In within-subjects tests with nonclinical volunteers, DSouza, in particular, has shown that intravenous administration of THC causes schizophrenia-like symptoms, perceptual disturbances, anxiety, and impaired working memory (eg, Morrison et al[13] and DSouza et al[14,15]). Similar but more pronounced results were found in patients with schizophrenia.[15]. ...
Because of historical negative perceptions and ongoing legal concerns, only a few cannabis-based pharmaceuticals are currently licensed for clinical use. In the United States and Europe the synthetic Δ-9-THC drugs nabilone (Cesmet®) and dronabinol (Marinol®) and dronabinol (Marinol®) are approved for treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV; 1). Another synthetic Δ-9-THC product,…
A study found THC, the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, stimulates the removal of toxic plaque in the brain and blocks inflammation, which damages neurons.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been investigating a rash of cases of vaping-related lung illnesses. As of November 5, 2019, 2,051 confirmed and probable lung injury cases an 39 deaths all associated with the use of e-cigarette or vaping products have been reported to the CDC.. As of November 8, 2019, the CDC says it has identified a probable culprit: vitamin e acetate, an oil found in vitamin e, in the lungs of some lung injury patients.. Vitamin e acetate is a nutritional supplement and is used in topical skin products. When inhaled, it can be damaging. CDC officials said that most of the sickened patients used vape products that contained THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, as well as vitamin e acetate.. Symptoms of EVALI begin with a gradual onset of difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, fatigue or chest pain. Some patients have mild to moderate gastrointestinal illness including vomiting and diarrhea. Doctors could not find an infection causing these ...
One of its many uses, CBD oil for sleep is increasingly popular among those familiar with this item. Its estimated that anywhere from 10 to 20 percent of people who are using CBD oil use it in order to help them sleep. More than two-thirds of all Americans report that they encounter problems sleeping after weekly or longer. Other products that are offered as sleep aids are considered to be ineffective or have understood risks associated with their usage. Due in part because of its growing popularity together with scientific research which are beginning to find reasons that CBD oil is an effective sleep aid, its inducing more people to begin using it on other products.. CBD oil has no psychoactive ingredients that could result in addiction. Its not yet completely understood whether this is a product that would be totally safe for a pregnant woman or to get young kids but is otherwise regarded as very safe. Its regarded as non-habit-forming and a fantastic natural product as a sleeping aid. In ...
[ATTACH]A quarter-century after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first prescription drugs based on the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, additional medicines derived...
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Turns out that smoking a bowl before going to town on some meth could keep your brains from scrambling themselves. Newly published research out of the University of Cagliari suggests that THC, the same cannabinoid compound that gets your stoned, could protect your brain from the inflammatory effects of methamphetamine...
Pharmacologists have synthesized new drugs designed to take advantage of the potentially beneficial effects of the active substance in marijuana. Smoking marijuana is known to alleviate anxiety through the action of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is a so-called cannabinoid. Danielle Piomelli...
Marinol official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more.
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The chemotactic response of murine peritoneal macrophages to RANTES/CCL5 was inhibited significantly following pretreatment with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component in marijuana. peritoneal macrophages from human beings, rats or mice pursuing or contact with weed or THC likewise have been reported. These modifications have included reduces in cell motility, Telavancin capability to pass on and (Huber et al., 1975; Chari-Briton, 1976; McCarthy et al., 1976; Drath et al., 1979; Huber et al., 1978; Lopez-Cepero et al., 1986; Specter et al., 1991; Tang et al., 1992). Furthermore, THC continues to be reported to influence macrophage digesting of soluble proteins antigens (McCoy et al., 1995; 1999). A crucial activity of macrophages thats exerted early in the inflammatory procedure is the capability to migrate in response to stimuli. This migratory activity can be exclusive from that of stimulus-independent arbitrary mobile movement (Lauffenburger and Horwitz, 1996; ...
THC Sativa Cara-Melts. Each packet has eight individually-wrapped 10mg THC caramel-flavored edibles. This product should be taken with meals. Effects typically kick in an hour after taking a dose.
The FDA is strengthening its warning to consumers to stop using vaping products containing THC and any vaping product obtained off the street amid more than 1,000 reports of lung injuries-including some resulting in deaths-following the use of vaping products.
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Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive compound of cannabis. Read on to learn about THC research, uses & side effects.