This chapter provides a general description of the types of genetic variation caused by transposable elements in animals and plants, and examines this variation within an evolutionary framework. It focuses on the variation induced by transposable elements in their host organisms. The host variation associated with transposable elements can result from several interconnected aspects of transposable element activity. Estimates of the frequencies of new transposable element-induced mutations have been made under laboratory conditions and varied over an enormous range. The partial or complete sterility associated with several systems of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila provides an interesting aspect of variation associated with transposable element activity. Heterochromatin proteins can recognize and silence transposable elements, some of which target heterochromatin for insertion. Thus, the evolution of heterochromatin could have led to a self-perpetuating expansion of domains rich in transposable elements.
Transposable elements are endogenous DNA sequences able to integrate into and multiply within genomes. They constitute a major source of genetic innovations, as they can not only rearrange genomes but also spread ready-to-use regulatory sequences able to modify host gene expression, and even can give birth to new host genes. As their evolutionary success depends on their vertical transmission, transposable elements are intrinsically linked to reproduction. In organisms with sexual reproduction, this implies that transposable elements have to manifest their transpositional activity in germ cells or their progenitors. The control of sexual development and function can be very versatile, and several studies have demonstrated the implication of transposable elements in the evolution of sex. In this review, we report the functional and evolutionary relationships between transposable elements and sexual reproduction in animals. In particular, we highlight how transposable elements can influence expression of
Transposable elements are mobile genetic elements that are prevalent in plant genomes and are silenced by epigenetic modification. Different epigenetic modification pathways play distinct roles in the control of transposable element transcription, replication and recombination. The Arabidopsis genome contains families of all of the major transposable element classes, which are differentially enriched in particular genomic regions. Whole genome sequencing and DNA methylation profiling of hundreds of natural Arabidopsis accessions has revealed that transposable elements exhibit significant intraspecific genetic and epigenetic variation, and that genetic variation often underlies epigenetic variation. Together, epigenetic modification and the forces of selection define the scope within which transposable elements can contribute to, and control, genome evolution.. ...
Transposons are mobile DNA segments that can disrupt gene function by inserting in or near genes. Here, we show that insertional mutagenesis by the PiggyBac transposon can be used for cancer gene discovery in mice. PiggyBac transposition in genetically engineered transposon-transposase mice induced cancers whose type (hematopoietic versus solid) and latency were dependent on the regulatory elements introduced into transposons. Analysis of 63 hematopoietic tumors revealed that PiggyBac is capable of genome-wide mutagenesis. The Piggybac screen uncovered many cancer genes not identified in previous retroviral or Sleeping Beauty transposon screens, including Spic, which encodes a PU.1-related transcription factor, and Hdac7, a histone deacetylase gene. PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty have different integration preferences. To maximize the utility of the tool, we engineered 20 mouse lines to be compatible with both transposases in constitutive, tissue-, or temporal-specific mutagenesis. Mice with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of Tcl transposable elements in Caenorhabditis elegans.. AU - Emmons, S. W.. AU - Ruan, K. S.. AU - Levitt, A.. AU - Yesner, L.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - C. elegans strains contain variable numbers of a 1.6-kb transposable genetic element. Activity of this element, which is denoted Tcl, shows regulation at at least two levels. At one level, excision of Tcl elements occurs in somatic cells at a frequency several orders of magnitude higher than in germ cells. Evidence is presented suggesting that this results from regulation at the level of trans-acting functions that are required for excision or that repress excision. At the second level, germ line transposition of Tcl occurs at greater frequency in some strains than in others. The hypothesis is proposed that this is because Tcl is one component of a two-element system, the second element of which differs between strains. Evidence for a second putative transposable element family in C. elegans is presented. This ...
... was invented by Researchers at the Johns Hopkins High Throughput Biology Center. Tip-chip can be used to help identify otherwise elusive disease-causing mutations in the 97 percent of the genome long believed to be
With regard to the origin of the human species, when the chimp genome was sequenced, it was found to contain nearly all of the transposable elements that the human genome had. The transposable elements were arranged in the same places on chromosomes that were >95% identical in their sequences. I summarized these findings in a paper for OPBSG in 2006. The presence of many transposable elements in the human genome implied that they originated by transposition, and the presence of the same transposable elements in the chimp genome implied that humans and chimps shared a common ancestor. Why? Because of the staggering similarity ...
Schöffl, F., Arnold, W., Pühler, A., Altenbuchner, J., & Schmitt, R. (1981). The tetracycline resistance transposons Tn1721 and Tn1771 have three 38-base-pair repeats and generate five-base-pair direct repeats. Mol Gen Genet, 181(1), 87-94. doi:10.1007/ ...
DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Transposable elements (TEs) have been highly influential in shaping the structure and evolution of mammalian genomes, as exemplified by TE-derived sequence contributing between 38 and 69% of genomic sequence [1-8]. TE insertions also can influence the transcription, translation or function of genes [1-7]. Functional effects of TE insertions include their regulation of transcription by acting as alternative promoters or as enhancer elements and via the generation of antisense transcripts, or of transcriptional silencers. TEs can alter splice sites or RNA editing, provide alternative poly-adenylation signals or exons, modify chromatin structure or alter translation. Furthermore, TE insertion has been suggested to be a mechanism by which new co-regulatory networks arise [1-7].. TEs are classified on the basis of their transposition mechanism [9]. A class I retrotransposon propagates in the host genome through an intermediate RNA step, requiring a reverse transcriptase to revert it to DNA before ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Color reversion of the albino medaka fish associated with spontaneous somatic excision of the Tol-1 transposable element from the tyrosinase gene. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
THE Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposon family has been extensively characterized since its discovery in maize ,60 years ago (McClintock 1946; Kunze and Weil 2002). Ac/Ds are class II DNA transposons that belong to the hAT superfamily of plant transposable elements (Kunze and Weil 2002). Ac is a 4565-bp autonomous element capable of catalyzing the transposition of itself and nonautonomous Ds elements (McClintock 1949, 1951). Ac encodes a 3.5-kb open reading frame (ORFa) that directs the synthesis of an 807-amino-acid transposase (TPase) essential for both Ac and Ds transposition (Fedoroff et al. 1983; Kunze et al. 1987). The 11 bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats (TIR) and ∼240 bp of subterminal sequences are critical for TPase binding and transposition of both Ac and Ds (Coupland et al. 1988, 1989).. In contrast to the highly conserved structure of Ac elements (Fedoroff et al. 1983; Behrens et al. 1984; Muller-Neumann et al. 1984; Pohlman et al. 1984), Ds elements are structurally ...
Mutator-like transposable elements (MULEs) are widespread across fungi, plants and animals. Most of the research of MULEs has focused on plant where they are discovered and have significant impact on genome structure. Despite being widespread, only a few active MULEs have been identified, meanwhile, the transposition mechanism of the MULEs is previously unknown. Pack-MULEs are able to capture and amplify genes or gene fragments on a large scale, and a subset of plant Pack-MULEs have been shown to be likely playing functional roles in regulating gene expression and providing novel coding capacities. However, the presence of Pack-MULEs in non-plant species has not been reported.. In this study we report that Muta1 identified from the mosquito Aedes aegypti is capable of excision and reinsertion in a yeast transposition assay, element reinsertion generated either 8 bp or 9 bp target site duplications (TSDs) with no apparent sequence preference. Mutagenesis analysis revealed the importance of ...
PiggyBac Transposable Element Derived 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PGBD5 gene.[1] PGBD5 is a DNA transposase related to the ancient PiggyBac transposase first identified in the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni.[2] The gene is believed to have been domesticated over 500 million years ago in the common ancestor of cephalochordates and vertebrates.[3] The putative catalytic triad of the protein composed of three aspartic acid residues is conserved among PGBD5-like genes through evolution,[4], and is distinct from other PiggyBac-like genes.[3] PGBD5 has been shown to be able to transpose DNA in a sequence-specific, cut-and-paste fashion.[4] PGBD5 has also been proposed to mediate site-specific DNA rearrangements in human tumors.[5] ...
The PiggyBac (PB) transposon has emerged as a novel mutagenesis tool for understanding gene function and for phenotypic screening in eukaryotes
A 3.3-kb DNA transposable element of Arabidopsis thaliana, Tag1, was discovered as an insertion in the nitrate transporter gene NRT1 (CHL1) (Tsayet al. 1993). Tag1 is the only known mobile element native to the Arabidopsis genome to date although sequences or elements with similarity to a large variety of retrotransposon and transposons including Ac, En/Spm, MuDR, MITES, foldbacks and copia have been identified (Voytas and Ausubel 1988; Voytaset al. 1990; Casacubertaet al. 1998; Wright and Voytas 1998; Ade and Belzile 1999; Copenhaveret al. 1999; Henket al. 1999; Linet al. 1999; Mayeret al. 1999). Tag1 is an autonomous element (Franket al. 1997) and has the interesting feature that its transposition is controlled during shoot development (Liu and Crawford 1998a). Using 35S-Tag1-GUS constructs, it was found that Tag1 excision is restricted with a few exceptions to late events as manifested by tiny sectors in leaves, flowers, and siliques (Liu and Crawford 1998a), reminiscent of the late excision ...
misc{7861784, abstract = {DNA transposons are a class of mobile genetic elements that can autonomously move from one genomic location to another. They are powerful drivers of genetic change and have played a significant role in the evolution of many genomes. One such transposable element, IS608 from Helicobacter pylori employs a unique mechanism of transposition as it transposes in a single-stranded DNA form and inserts specifically 3 of a specific tetranucleotide sequence (Kersulyte et al., 2002; Guynet et al., 2008). Previous structural (Ronning et al., 2005; Barabas et al, 2008) and biochemical studies (Ton-Hoang et al., 2005) of IS608, revealed that the element chooses its integration site specifically via base-pairing between the transposon and the target DNA. This unique feature allowed re-directing transposon integration to various four-nucleotide sequences by simply modifying the transposon DNA sequence. A key feature of the retargeting strategy was that, unlike the previous attempts to ...
Described is a mechanism for dependably synchronizing data element activities on web pages among a group of browsers. The web browsers retrieve web pages from an HTTP server. Each of the web pages contains at least one data element and embeds a Master Applet and at least one DTS Applet (DTS stands for data tracking and synchronization). In response the data element activities (such as entering data into a data field) performed at a browser, the DTS Applet passes the activities to the Master Applet, which in turn reports the activities (together with the URL of the web page on which the data element activities have occurred) to a tracking server. The tracking server sends the activity report (together with the URL of the web page on which the data element activities have occurred) to the Master Applets at all participant browsers. The participant Master Applets then instruct their respective DTS Applets to display the data element activities on the web page identified by the URL.
1) a small deletion occurs in the transposase gene of an IS element and plasmid is integrated , 2) a small deletion occurs in the transposase gene of an IS element , 3) two IS elements integrate into a chromosome with only a small distance separating them , 4) an IS element integrates with another IS element with the help of a plasmid
Both classes of transposable elements (DNA and RNA) are tightly regulated at the transcriptional level leading to the inactivation of transposition via epigenetic mechanisms. Due to the high copies number of these elements, the hypothesis has emerged that their regulation can coordinate a regulatory network of genes. Herein, we investigated whether transposition regulation of HsMar1, a human DNA transposon, differs in presence or absence of endogenous HsMar1 copies. In the case where HsMar1 transposition is regulated, the number of repetitive DNA sequences issued by HsMar1 and distributed in the human genome makes HsMar1 a good candidate to regulate neighboring gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. A recombinant active HsMar1 copy was inserted in HeLa (human) and CHO (hamster) cells and its genomic excision monitored. We show that HsMar1 excision is blocked in HeLa cells, whereas CHO cells are competent to promote HsMar1 excision. We demonstrate that de novo HsMar1 insertions in HeLa cells (human)
Sequencing technology and assembly algorithms have matured to the point that high-quality de novo assembly is possible for large, repetitive genomes. Current assemblies traverse transposable elements (TEs) and provide an opportunity for comprehensive annotation of TEs. Numerous methods exist for annotation of each class of TEs, but their relative performances have not been systematically compared. Moreover, a comprehensive pipeline is needed to produce a non-redundant library of TEs for species lacking this resource to generate whole-genome TE annotations. We benchmark existing programs based on a carefully curated library of rice TEs. We evaluate the performance of methods annotating long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, terminal inverted repeat (TIR) transposons, short TIR transposons known as miniature inverted transposable elements (MITEs), and Helitrons. Performance metrics include sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, FDR, and F1. Using the most robust programs, we create a
Transposable elements may acquire unrelated gene fragments into their sequences in a process called transduplication. Transduplication of protein-coding genes is common in plants, but is unknown of in animals. Here, we report that the Turmoil-1 transposable element in C. elegans has incorporated two protein-coding sequences into its inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences. The ITRs of Turmoil-1 contain a conserved RNA recognition motif (RRM) that originated from the rsp-2 gene and a fragment from the protein-coding region of the cpg-3 gene. We further report that an open reading frame specific to C. elegans may have been created as a result of a Turmoil-1 insertion. Mutations at the 5 splice site of this open reading frame may have reactivated the transduplicated RRM motif. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur and William Martin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers Reports section.
Transposons or Transposable elements (TEs) are "mobile genes" capable of mobilization from one genomic location to another through non-homologous recombination. As this movement is mediated by its own proteins and does not contribute to the survival of the host that it inhabits, they are known as selfish genomic parasites. Despite their capacity for transposition inside genomes, they can frequently transpose the species boundaries and consequently migrate from one species to another. Such phenomenon is called Horizontal Transposons Transfer. HTT was first discovered by Daniels et al. (1984) when analysing a P element that was transferred from Drosophila willistoni to D. melanogaster. Since then, many more cases have been documented in the literature. Moreover, in the last years, such discoveries have been boosted by the unprecedented amount of new genomes available. Despite the recognition of HTT as a common phenomenon in recent years, it is still difficult to draw major conclusions about HTT ...
The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs) is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT) based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT) program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes ...
A family of novel mobile DNA elements is described, examples of which are found at several independent locations and encode a variety of antibiotic resistance genes. The complete elements consist of two conserved segments separated by a segment of variable length and sequence which includes inserted antibiotic resistance genes. The conserved segment located 3′ to the inserted resistance genes was sequenced from Tn21 and R46, and the sequences are identical over a region of 2026 bases, which includes the sulphonamide resistance gene sull, and two further open reading frames of unknown function. The complete sequences of both the 3′ and 5′ conserved regions of the DNA element have been determined. A 59-base sequence element, found at the junctions of inserted DNA sequences and the conserved 3′ segment, is also present at this location in the R46 sequence. A copy of one half of this 59-base element is found at the end of the sull gene, suggesting that sull, though part of the conserved ...
Dysregulation of transposable elements in Gasz testes.(A-B) Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of transposable elements in testes from embryonic, newborn, 7- and 1
A Genetic Screen Using the PiggyBac Transposon in Haploid Cells Identifies Parp1 as a Mediator of Olaparib Toxicity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background The revolutionary concept of "jumping genes" was conceived by McClintock in the late 1940s while studying the Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) system in maize. Transposable elements (TEs) represent the most abundant component of many eukaryotic genomes. Mobile elements are a driving force of eukaryotic genome evolution. McClintocks Ac, the autonomous element of the Ac/Ds system, together with hobo from Drosophila and Tam3 from snapdragon define an ancient and diverse DNA transposon superfamily named hAT. Other members of the hAT superfamily include the insect element Hermes and Tol2 from medaka. In recent years, genetic tools derived from the cut and paste Tol2 DNA transposon have been widely used for genomic manipulation in zebrafish, mammals and in cells in vitro ...
Multiple methods have been introduced over the past 30 years to identify the genomic insertion sites of transposable elements and other DNA elements that integrate into genomes. However, each of these methods suffer from limitations that can frustrate attempts to map multiple insertions in a single genome and to map insertions in genomes of high complexity that contain extensive repetitive DNA. I introduce a new method for transposon mapping that is simple to perform, can accurately map multiple insertions per genome, and generates long sequence reads that facilitate mapping to complex genomes. The method, called TagMap, for Tagmentation-based Mapping, relies on a modified Tn5 tagmentation protocol with a single tagmentation adaptor followed by PCR using primers specific to the tranposable element and the adaptor sequence. Several minor modifications to normal tagmentation reagents and protocols allow easy and rapid preparation of TagMap libraries. Short read sequencing starting from the adaptor ...
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements. They are a significant component of many eukaryotic genomes. They are involved in chromosomal rearrangement by serving as substrates for homologous recombination, in creating new genes through a process of TE "domestication", and in modifying and shuffling existing genes by transducing neighboring sequences (Lander et al., 2001). Therefore, both active and inactive TEs are potentially potent agents for genomic change (Kidwell and Lisch, 2001, 2002; Rizzon et al., 2002; Petrov et al., 2003). In the meantime, active TEs are being explored as useful tools for genetic transformation and possible gene drive mechanisms to deliver genes in natural populations (Ashburner et al.,1998; Alphey et al.,2002; Handler and OBrochta, 2004). My thesis project focuses on AGH1, a novel DNA-mediated TE in Anopheles gambiae and related mosquitoes. I have studied its genomic structure, insertion polymorphism, evolution, and transposition activity. As part of ...
Genomes of higher plants vary significantly in their size and complexity. Repetitive DNA sequences have been shown to be the major determinant of genome sizes in higher plants [13]. The prevalence of transposable elements and retroelements can promote unequal crossing-over leading to transposon-mediated rearrangements and gene duplications [40]. It has been hypothesized that transposable elements play a major role in the expansion and diversification of transmembrane receptor kinase-type disease resistance Xa21 gene family [9]. The abundance of retroelements has been observed in several genomic regions containing R genes or RGA loci, such as barley powdery mildew resistance gene, Mla, and Citrus virus resistance gene, Ctv [7, 8]. The variability among 14 rice Xa21 gene members has been considered to be generated mainly from the rearrangements mediated by transposon-like elements [9]. Rps1-k genes are arranged closely. About 38 copies of Rps1-k-like sequences were predicted to exist in the ...
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository DUGiDocs: Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that have the ability to jump from one location of the genome to another and create copies of them during the process. Although their activity can create mostly harmful mutation, it also represent an important source of genetic variation that have been shown to rewire and fine-tune regulatory networks. Stress response mechanisms are highly conserved across organisms and a major target of natural selection. Despite the latest advances in evolutionary biology, adaptation process remains poorly understood. Therefore, studying stress pathways provide a great opportunity to study how adaptive processes occur. In this study we aim to identify genome-wide putatively adaptive TEs that are candidates to modulate stress response by the addition of stress response elements (SREs) in the promoter of Drosophila melanogaster genes. We combine bioinformatics and population genetics approaches to discard SREs found by
Thanks to their ability to move around and replicate within genomes, transposable elements (TEs) are perhaps the most important contributors to genome plasticity and evolution. Their detection and annotation are considered essential in any genome sequencing project. The number of fully sequenced genomes is rapidly increasing with improvements in high-throughput sequencing technologies. A fully automated de novo annotation process for TEs is therefore required to cope with the deluge of sequence data. However, all automated procedures are error-prone, and an automated procedure for TE identification and classification would be no exception. It is therefore crucial to provide not only the TE reference sequences, but also evidence justifying their classification, at the scale of the whole genome. A few TE databases already exist, but none provides evidence to justify TE classification. Moreover, biological information about the sequences remains globally poor. We present here the RepetDB database developed
Author Summary The potential of geographic studies of genetic variation for the understanding of adaptation has been recognized for some time. In Drosophila, most of the available studies are based on a priori candidates giving a biased picture of the genes and traits under spatially varying selection. In this work, we performed a genome-wide scan of adaptations to temperate climates associated with Transposable Element (TE) insertions. We integrated the available information of the identified TEs and their nearby genes to provide plausible hypotheses about the phenotypic consequences of these insertions. Considering the diversity of these TEs and the variety of genes into which they are inserted, it is surprising that their adaptive effects are consistently related to temperate climate-related factors. The TEs identified in this work add substantially to the markers available to monitor the impact of climate change on populations.
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Dominant transposition-deficient mutants of maize Activator (Ac) transposase.: The maize transposable element Activator (Ac) encodes a transposase (TPase) prote
Transposon mutants of the prototrophic V. fischeri strain ESR1 (19) were obtained by conjugative transposon mutagenesis with Escherichia coli strain S17-1 λpir (pUT mini-Tn5 Cm) (21), and selection for transconjugants was performed on a Luria broth and NaCl (LBS) agar medium (22) containing (per liter) 100 mg rifampicin, and 5 mg chloramphenicol. This procedure has been shown to cause single transposon insertions that are stable in V. fischeri (23). Amino acid auxotrophs were isolated from this pool of transposon mutants by using a streptozotocin enrichment method (24). Strains that could be complemented by the addition of a single amino acid were identified (25), and nine mutants that were auxotrophic for different amino acids were analyzed further. The growth rate and luminescence of these mutants were indistinguishable from that of strain ESR1 in SWT broth, a complex tryptone-based seawater medium (13); however, each mutant was unable to grow in the minimal-salts medium MSR, a derivative of ...
Cointegrate formation between pRMH762 and R388. The R388 backbone is drawn to scale from GenBank accession no. BR000038 with key resistance genes, genes involve
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Researchers uncover a group of mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea encoding a Cas enzyme. Transposons are stretches of DNA that can hop to different sites in the genome and are commonly found in many types of organisms. In a study published in BMC Biology, researchers described a new type of transposon-like element in bacteria and archaea that encodes a Cas enzyme-well appreciated for its role in the CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system in prokaryotes-which it in turn requires for integrating into a new genomic home ...
Transposon mutagenesis is one of the most widely used strategies to generate a large number of random mutations within a bacterial genome and then to precisely ...
The mini-Tn5 are mobile elements able to transpose to the chromosome from a delivery plasmid, by means of the transposase activity encoded by the tnp* gene, which is present in cis in the plasmid but external to the mini-Tn5 element. pUT mini-Tn5 vectors can be used to insert any DNA fragment in the bacterial chromosome, by cloning it within the mini-Tn5 region. Due to the loss of the tnp* gene after insertion, minitransposons are stably integrated into the chromosome and inherited. The different pUTmini-Tn5 vectors can then be used for repeated insertion events and therefore multiple insertions in the same strain are only limited by the availability of distinct selection markers.. Advantages:. ...
Yeast genomes show extensive loss of introns and a reduced role of transposable elements, and so probably have a more limited potential to form novel genes and functions than multicellular organisms, possibly explaining their conserved biological and morphological properties despite their considerable evolutionary range ...
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Plant transposable elements have long been known to cause changes in gene expression as a result of insertion or deletion in coding regions and gene promoters and their effect on RNA processing [14]. However, more than 20 years of research on tracking the movements of individual transposable elements at the molecular level has revealed only a few examples that these elements were capable of transposing non-element associated coding regions from the host genome. A part of a host gene was carried by a Mutator (Mu) related element [15] and another by the Bs1 retroviral element [16]. More recently, with the availability of entire genome sequences for rice and Arabidopsis, many Mu-like elements associated with fragments of host cellular genes have been found in those two plant species [17, 18, 4]. Bioinformatics analysis of the rice genome uncovered 898 intact retrogenes of which 380 were predicted to have chimeral protein coding sequences and several of these were confirmed by expression data [7]. A ...
Alu transposons are found only in primate genomes and have accumulated in large numbers since primates diverged from other mammals. Human chromosomes contain more than one million Alu copies, equaling about 10% of the genome by mass. This accumulation was made possible by a transposition mechanism that reverse transcribes Alu mRNAs into mobile DNA copies. Another transposon, the long interspersed element (LINE) L1, supplies a specialized reverse transcriptase enzyme needed for Alu to jump. Hence, Alu and L1 exist in a sort of molecular symbiosis. ...
This paper discusses the operation of active elements with various types of supplementary end heat sinks in a laser based on neodymium-containing crystals with end diode pumping. A comparison is made of heat sinks coupled with the active element and fabricated from an undoped crystal with the same matrix as the active element, as well as crystals with gradient variation of the dopant concentration from zero to a maximum. The types of laser devices in which such elements are suitable are determined.. © 2012 OSA. PDF Article ...
Erin Kelleher and Dan Barbash found that Drosophila hybrids have increased transposon activity due to the rapid evolution of proteins in the piRNA pathway. piRNAs act to repress transposons, and while piRNA transcripts are still made in the interspecific hybrids, they are not processed to their mature, functional forms. More details can be found in their PLOS Biology paper here. ...
When a female germ cell divides during meiosis, it does so unevenly. As the cellular material is pulled apart from opposite ends, a set of chromosomes on the larger side produces the egg. Elements on the other side are expelled into a tiny cell called a polar body. Though each chromosome should have the same chance of entering the egg, previous research has identified a selfish (or parasitic) DNA element that has more than a random, fifty-fifty chance of being found in the egg. A new study has uncovered how such selfish DNA is able to increase its odds.. During female meiosis, the cells spindle machinery binds to the chromosomes at their centromere (a non-coding region of DNA) and tugs the chromosomes towards opposite ends of the dividing cell. A team led by Takashi Akera and Michael Lampson at the University of Pennsylvania showed that this spindle is asymmetric, with greater levels of the amino acid tyrosine at key points on the spindle on the future polar body side.. The researchers showed ...
Therefore, Tcl insertion between T and A would result in a flush cleavage of the target site. This strategy is unusual but not without precedent for an element with an insertion sequence-like structure (Halling and Klecker, 1982). Although Tc1 exhibits a preference for particular target sequences, the primary sequence alone does not determine the frequency of integration. Insertion of Tc 1 is also strongly genespecific. , 1987). , 1988a). Therefore, Tel clearly prefers some DNA sequences, but factors in addition to primary DNA sequence must influence Tel target site specificity. Deficiency homozygotes (arrested embryos) were stained with antibodies, and two deficiencies were found that failed to express these proteins, suggesting that genes required for proper muscle development are present in the region covered by these deficiencies. Lastly, combinations of deficiencies that overlap for small regions provide a means of assaying the information content of the overlap region. For example, if a ...
pUT mini-Tn5 System. The mini-Tn5 are mobile elements able to transpose to the chromosome from a delivery plasmid, by means of the transposase activity encoded by the tnp* gene, which is present in cis in the plasmid but external to the mini-Tn5 element. pUT mini-Tn5 vectors can be used to insert any DNA fragment in the bacterial chromosome, by cloning it within the mini-Tn5 region. Due to the loss of the tnp* gene after insertion, minitransposons are stably integrated into the chromosome and inherited. The different pUTmini-Tn5 vectors can then be used for repeated insertion events and therefore multiple insertions in the same strain are only limited by the availability of distinct selection markers.. Advantages:. ...
The "175" family is distinct from MULE families described so far in Arabidopsis (Yu et al., 2000), supporting the claim that short RNA sequences can draw attention to previously unidentified TE families. The longest copy, which contains the coding region of MudrA transposase, is possibly an autonomous element that has degenerated rapidly to produce a heterogeneous group of internally deleted, nonautonomous derivatives (Fig. 2). The short RNA could originate from either the left (F14F8, T4B21) or right (F14J22, F25O24) half of the TIR of an internally deleted copy (Fig. 2). The existence of short RNAs derived from the TIR region suggests transcription through the entire element and intramolecular pairing to form a dsRNA, which would probably be produced most readily with transcripts issuing from one of the more extensively deleted copies (Fig. 2).. The "175" short RNAs are less abundant than the "40" family of short RNAs, as indicated by the recovery of fewer independent clones and a fainter ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ontogeny and regulation of the immune system. AU - Sharp, John G. AU - Crouse, D. A.. AU - Purtilo, D. T.. PY - 1987/12/1. Y1 - 1987/12/1. N2 - Classic studies in embryology and contemporary research in immunology and molecular biology have disclosed the carefully orchestrated events leading to development of the immune system and immunoregulation that ultimately provide immunohomeostasis. During ontogeny, the pluripotential stem cell emerges and differentiates into all hematopoietic lineages, including three major immunologically relevant components: T-cell differentiation occurs withing the thymus; B cells appear within fetal liver, adult bone marrow, and possibly other abdominal sites; and concurrently, the monocyte-macrophage system develops. Under the influence of an array of cytokines and cellular interactions, immune regulation is established. T and B lymphocytes elaborate genetically encoded messages that acquire specificity via transposable genetic elements. Receptors ...
A DNA transposon, or jumping gene, controls its amplification within a genome through a competition between the enzyme multimers that are responsible for its mobility.
Principal Investigator:IIDA Shigeru, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2002, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas
In his message dated 05/23/1996 Mark wrote: ,Does anyone know of a CAPs marker for DMC1 on chromosome 3. ,Appreciate it. Mark Dear Mark, Comparison of DMC1 homologues from Ler and ColO ecotypes revealed the presence of 1874 bp transposon-like element within the promoter region of DMC1 homologue from ColO. The primers ATM1 (TTG ATT AGT GGA TCC GCA AAC AA) and ATM2 (GCA ACT GAA TTT GTT TTC GTT TG) reflect this difference and produce 342 bp PCR product for Ler and 2.2 kb for Col0. ATM2 primer in combination with AR2 (TAG ATG AAA CGA GTT TGA CAC ATG) will produce 446 bp PCR band for Col0, but nothing for Ler. I hope You will find this information useful for genetic mapping in this region of chromosome 3. It described in details in the paper submitted to Plant J ( Klimyuk, VI and Jones, JDG AtDMC1, the Arabidopsis homologue of the yeast DMC1 gene: characterisation, transposon-induced allelic variation and meiosis-specific expression of a pAtDMC1:GUS fusion). Sincerely, Victor ...
Shop Insertion element IS1 7 protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Insertion element IS1 7 protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Possible rearrangement at the 3 end; sequence adjacent to 3 end matches internal transposon sequence, G.D.P. May be segregating TM3, Sb[1] Ser[1]. K.C ...
Transposable elements (TEs) form a major community in eukaryotic genome ecosystems, where they often account for at least half of total content. The discovery of transposons has forced biologists to view genomes as much more dynamic systems than previously imagined. In addition, TE derived DNA tools are widely used in mutagenesis (gene discovery), genetic mapping (markers) and transgenesis. The most intriguing issues surrounding TEs are their interaction with host genome and their persistent proliferation during evolution despite being mutagens. Our research aims to understand how transposable elements shape genome function and evolution.. ...
F. Schöffl, W. Arnold, A. Pühler, J. Altenbuchner, and R. Schmitt, "The tetracycline resistance transposons Tn1721 and Tn1771 have three 38-base-pair repeats and generate five-base-pair direct repeats", Mol Gen Genet, 1981, 181, 87-94 ...
This posting serves three functions: 1) to remind flyfolk to send abstracts for the 1996 San Diego Drosophila Meeting to arrive at GSA by December 11. 2) to remind workshop organizers to contact us soon. 3) to clarify confusion brought on by our reorganization of the Areas of Research Interest. Some have indicated that we left their area of interest out. Our motivation was to reorganize the areas according to more modern divisions of biological problems. The areas cover all previous areas, even if it may not be obvious. The bottom line is, use your own judgement, and focus on the area you think you are studying! Here are some examples: Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis were combined into 6.Gametogenesis Hormones and Receptors can be submitted to 15.Transcriptional and Post-transcriptional Regulation Genomics is now part of 4.Chromosome Structure and Function, or 14.Techniques Transposable elements are in 4.Chromosome Structure and Function, or 18.Populations and Evolution Visual System to ...
Recently articles have been published disputing the main finding of the ENCODE project that the majority of the human genome exhibits biochemical indices of function, based primarily on low sequence conservation and the existence of larger genomes in some ostensibly simpler organisms (the C-value enigma), indicating the likely presence of significant amounts of junk. Here we challenge these arguments, showing that conservation is a relative measure based on circular assumptions of the non-functionality of transposon-derived sequences and uncertain comparison sets, and that regulatory sequence evolution is subject to different and much more plastic structure-function constraints than protein-coding sequences, as well as positive selection for adaptive radiation. We also show that polyploidy accounts for the higher than expected genome sizes in some eukaryotes, compounded by variable levels of repetitive sequences of unknown significance. We argue that the extent of precise dynamic and ...
Most genes are lined up on chromosomes like pearls on a string. However, a certain class of genes differ by being highly mobile; and the mecha- they are termed transposons. Their properties of transpo
Also in great numbers are transposons. About a third of the genome are Gypsy-type retrotransposons. Several other classes of transposons are present also. In the end, just over a quarter (26%) of the genome is non-repetitive. While these transposons do not themselves appear to contain phytopathological genes, their presence appears to be driving expansion of some key families of such genes. Comparison of genomic scaffolds with the other two sequenced Phytophora show striking overall conservation of conserved genes, but with local rearrangements and expansion of the zones between conserved genes (Figure 1 plus S18 and S19). Continuing evolutionary activity in this space is shown by the fact that some of these genes are apparently inactivated but have only small numbers of mutations, suggesting very recent conversion to pseudogenes. A transposon polymorphism was also found -- an insertion in one haplotype which is absent in another (figure S9 ...
Downloadable! This paper provides a theoretical fractional cointegration analysis in a nonparametric framework. We solve a generalized eigenvalues problem. To this end, a couple of random matrices are constructed taking into account the stationarity properties of the differencesof a fractional p-variate integrated process. These difference orders are assumed to vary in a continuous and discrete range. The random matrices are defined by some weight functions. Asymptotic behaviors of these random matrices are obtained by stating some conditions on the weight functions, and by using Bierens (1997) and Andersen et al.(1983) results. In this way, a nonparametric analysis is provided. Moving from the solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem, a fractional nonparametric VAR model for cointegration is also presented.
Nonstationary Time Series Analysis and Cointegration - 1994, Page 307 by David F. Hendry, Peter C. B. Phillips, Colin Hargreaves, David Harris, Brett Inder, Svend Hylleberg, Neil R. Ericsson, Hong-anh Tran, Fabio Canova, Mary Finn, Adrian R. Pagan, Steven N. Durlauf, Mark A. Hooker, Francis Diebold X, Joon-haeng Lee, Gretchen C. Weinbach. Read Nonstationary Time Series Analysis and Cointegration now at Questia.
Transposon and Mechanisms of Transposition * Non protein encoded regions, related to tRNA (except Alu-7SL RNA) Nonautonomous- does not encode own machinery, instead relies on cell machinery (Pol III) and LINES RT/EN complex Found in CpG regions * 5head region...
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genomic DNA sequences found in most organisms. They so densely populate the genomes of many eukaryotic species that they are often the major constituents. With the rapid generation ...
에탄올, 고온, 저해제 스트레스 상황에서 내성을 가지는 사카로마이세스 세레비지아에 균주는 에탄올 생산 산업을 위해 중요한 부분을 차지한다. 본 연구에서는 에탄올 15 % 까지 내성을 가지는 5개의 균주를 트랜스포존에 의해 돌연변이가 일어난 집단에서 테스트를 통해 분리했다. 5개중에 2개는 고온 (42 °C)에도 내성을 가지는 것을 조사되었고, 그 중에서 1개는 푸르푸랄 50 mM까지 내성을 가지는 것을 확인했다. 트랜스포존이 끼워 들어간 위치를 통해 7개의 추정 유전자 (CMP2, IMD4, SSK2, PPG1, DLD3, PAM1, MSN2)를 확인하고, 노던 블럿 분석법을 통해 CMP2와 IMD4, SSK2와 PPG1유전자가 동시에 하향조절 되었고, DLD3 유전자또한 하향조절, PAM1과 MSN2의 전사 해독 틀이 깨져있는 것을 확인 할 수 있었다. 이 7 유전자가 독립적으로 망가진 돌연변이는 에탄올 내성이 있었고, 그들 ...
Most econometric methods for testing the proposition of long-run monetary neutrality rely on the assumption that money and real output do not cointegrate, a result that is usually supported by the data. This paper argues that these results can be attributed in part to the low power of univariate tests, and that a violation of the noncointegration assumption is likely to result in a nonrejection of the neutrality proposition. To alleviate this problem, two new and more powerful panel cointegration tests are proposed that can be used under very general conditions. The tests are then applied to a panel covering 10 countries between 1870 and 1986. The results suggest money and real output are cointegrated, and that the neutrality proposition therefore must be rejected.
2000 10 02.344800 23 48 36.00 -01 09 14.3 22.0V 05TN74 645 C~2JxD 2000 10 02.345630 23 48 36.00 -01 09 14.3 21.9V 05TN74 645 C~2JxD 2000 10 02.348117 23 48 36.00 -01 09 14.3 05TN74 645 C~2JxD 2002 10 30.205211 00 01 30.63 +00 04 19.7 22.5V 05TN74 645 C~2JxD 2002 10 30.206040 00 01 30.63 +00 04 19.7 22.1V 05TN74 645 C~2JxD 2002 10 30.208528 00 01 30.64 +00 04 19.7 23.6V 05TN74 645 C~2JxD 2003 09 26.288359 00 11 56.54 +01 07 29.2 22.7V 05TN74 645 C~2JxD 2003 09 26.289188 00 11 56.53 +01 07 29.2 21.9V 05TN74 645 C~2JxD 2003 09 26.291676 00 11 56.54 +01 07 29.2 23.5V 05TN74 645 C~2JxD 2003 10 23.223727 00 09 38.56 +00 52 12.9 05TN74 645 C~1tfA 2003 10 23.224664 00 09 38.55 +00 52 12.9 05TN74 645 C~1tfA 2003 10 23.226690 00 09 38.53 +00 52 12.8 05TN74 645 C~1tfA 2003 11 19.139144 00 07 58.89 +00 41 09.7 22.6V 05TN74 645 C~1tfA 2003 11 19.139977 00 07 58.89 +00 41 09.7 05TN74 645 C~1tfA 2003 11 19.142465 00 07 58.88 +00 41 09.7 05TN74 645 C~1tfA 2005 10 08.04350 00 26 22.33 +02 30 28.3 22.1R 05TN74 ...
In MuPAD Notebook only, htranspose(A) returns the Hermitian transpose AH of the matrix A (the complex conjugate of the transpose of A).
Each copy of the human genome consists of about 3,200,000,000 base pairs, and includes about 500,000 repeats of the LINE-1 transposable element (a LINE) and twice as many copies of Alu (a SINE), as compared to around 20,000 protein-coding genes.
Transposable DNA elements occur naturally in the genomes of nearly all species of prokaryotes. A proposal for a uniform transposable element nomenclature was published prominently in the 1970s but is not, at present ...
Conserved Fragments of Transposable Elements In Intergenic Regions: Evidence for Widespread Recruitment of MIR- and L2-derived Sequences Within the Mouse and Human ...
The DataSource element must have at least one child Property element whose Name parameter is set to "Service". If some middle tier service, other than Microsofts Business Data Connectivity (BDC) service, is being used to bring external data to a SharePoint external list, then the documentation of that other service must provide you with the name of the service (the value of the Value parameter of the Property element) and information on what other Property elements may be allowed or required as children of the DataSource element. If BDC is being used, then use "Business Data Catalog" as the value of the Value parameter.. Also, if BDC is being used, you must have four other Property element children of the DataSource element whose Name attributes have the values shown in the following example.. ...
The HTML 5 spec lists some obsolete elements and attributes, some of which the advice given is "Use CSS instead.". This page is intended to give advice about specific CSS features that can be used instead of each such element or attribute. You should think about whether there is a semantic element that matches the intent of your use of a presentational element. If there is such an element, you should use it, and if it doesnt already have a default styling that you like, then you can use CSS from the tables below to make it look like you want. You may also have to reset any other properties that some elements have by default. If there is no appropriate semantic element for the purpose, then you should probably use div or span instead. For example, if you have a page such as: ...
The xmlToEdit element is an optional element of the editing element.. xmlToEdit elements are used to define the editing components that can be used in a form. The xmlToEdit elements can contain multiple editWith elements that specify the editing components that will be used to edit various types of XML DOM nodes.. ...
5prime and 3prime flanking sequence map 5483 bp apart, consistent with 2 insertions or 1 insertion associated with a rearrangement. The terminal 7 bp of the 5prime end of the P element are missing, GDP ...
op_liveeditor_elements] ,div class=row element-container cf ,[op_liveeditor_element data-style=][text_block style=undefined align=left],h3 style=text-align: center;,Mom & Baby Aquafit Instructor Course,/h3,[/text_block][/op_liveeditor_element],/div,,div class=row element-container cf ,[op_liveeditor_element data-style=][vertical_spacing height=20][/op_liveeditor_element],/div,,div class=row element-container cf ,[op_liveeditor_element data-style=][pricing_element font_size=34]$197 CAD[/pricing_element][/op_liveeditor_element],/div,,div class=row element-container cf ,[op_liveeditor_element data-style=][vertical_spacing height=20][/op_liveeditor_element],/div,,div class=row element-container cf ,[op_liveeditor_element data-style=][button_5 bg=orange text_color=dark text=get-instant-access.png align=center href=https://members.mommymoves.com/checkout/ new_window=Y/][/op_liveeditor_element],/div,[/op_liveeditor_elements ...
void insert(int a[], int& n, int maxsize, int index, int key) { // function: // Inserts key at a[index], shifting other values up as necessary. // Updates number of elements in a. // parameters: // a inout array of values. // n inout number of values in a, a[0]..a[n-1] // maxsize in maximum number of elements that can fit in a // index in position to insert at // key in value to insert. // returns: nothing if (index < 0 ,, index , maxsize-1) { ; // ERROR - return special value, halt, throw exception, or expand array. } // Move all elements up one position. i is destination. for (int i=n; i,index; i--) { a[i] = a[i-1]; } a[index] = key; // put value in vacated position n++; // update count of items in a return ...
A circuit, system, and method are provided for imparting improved randomness into the selection of components or elements of a data converter, such as a D/A converter. The elements are intended to be of equal value, however, regardless of whether they are or not. A circuit is used to randomly select subsets of elements according to a bi-directional selection technique in order to effectively rending the elements or components of equal value. Associated with each component is a switch, and a subset of the plurality of components are correspondingly switched in successive order progressing in a first direction and, subsequently, in successive order progressing in a second direction opposite the first direction. Connecting components in a first direction from left-to-right follows by selecting components in a second direction from right-to-left, and then again selecting components in the first direction from left-to-right, and so forth. A pointer will note the starting element of odd values and another
Used to declare a template for rule-based construction of elements. Elements are constructed from a datasource. For more information see the rule element.. Attributes:. Attributes inherited from XUL Element. Properties and Methods:. Properties and Methods inherited from XUL Element. ...
Hello all, In the following you see visibility predictions for the ISS generated with element sets 11 and 4 days old (from Ray Hoad) and new ones (from space-track). Differences of about one and a half minutes do occur. Even the orbit number changes ! Either you use the newest data or you should be patient ;) Vy 73, Viktor OE1VKW -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Element Set Number: 105 (Orbit 70873) Element Set Epoch : 31Mar11 21:27:39.138 UTC Date (UTC) Time (UTC) of Duration Azimuth at Peak Vis Orbit AOS MEL LOS of Pass AOS MEL LOS Elev Mon 11Apr11 20:58:54 21:02:49 21:06:47 00:07:53 188 135 81 9.8 NNN 71046 22:32:41 22:37:34 22:42:27 00:09:46 235 150 69 56.6* NNN 71047 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Element Set Number: 150 (Orbit 70981) Element Set Epoch : 07Apr11 18:09:13.138 UTC Date (UTC) Time (UTC) of Duration Azimuth at Peak Vis Orbit AOS MEL LOS of Pass AOS MEL LOS Elev Mon 11Apr11 20:59:48 ...
A system of U.S. and euro area short- and long-term interest rates is analyzed. According to the expectations hypothesis of the term structure the interest rate spreads should be stationary and according to the uncovered interest rate parity the difference between the U.S. and euro area longterm interest rates should also be stationary. If all four interest rates are integrated of order one, one would expect to find three linearly independent cointegration relations in the system of four interest rate series. Combining German and European Monetary Union data to obtain the euro area interest rate series we find indeed the theoretically expected three cointegration relations, in contrast to previous studies based on different data sets ...
Deprecated) An element that takes up space but does not display anything. It is usually used to place spacing within a container. This element has been replaced by the spacer element.. Attributes:. Attributes inherited from XUL Element. Properties and Methods:. Properties and Methods inherited from XUL Element. ...
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Can anyone help with this issue. We have received a drawing from an architect which has 3D elements drawn as lines. In similar situations the 3D elements are usually AEC elements which allows me to use AECTOACAD and resolve the problem. Ive also tried flatten but it doesnt change anything. In plan the drawing looks as I need it however the 3D elements are causing issues when snapping and exporting to DWF.
populates an array with the children of an element. This allows you to iterate over all the children of an element and traverse down the element hierarchy. This array is ordered the same as it would be if the element were written to a COLLADA instance document. This array is the same as the ...
Similar to the Custom ColdFusion Script Element, the scheduled Element is often misunderstood. For the purpose of generating static content, setting any Scheduled Element options other than Page Categories, Subsites, Render Options, or Subsite Levels makes the Element dynamic and causes CommonSpot to automatically detect the page as dynamic.. ...
No contained elements are accessed by the call, but the iterator returned can be used to access them. Concurrently accessing or modifying different elements is safe ...
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Hi guys, Ive been trying to find out which exact heals are buffed when using my Unleash Elements spell. Especially now with the Unleashed Fury level 90 talent we get 2 buffed heals in a row when using Unleash Elements. The tooltip reads it affects your next single-target heal. So in my mind that would mean Healing Wave, Greater Healing Wave and Healing Surge. Does it also buff Riptide and Chain heal? And if yes, do these stack if I cast a Unleash Elements buffed Chain Heal on a target
http://i39.tinypic.com/n5reb9.png Please be sure to read the Battle Arena Rules before making a submission. ±±Custom Element Techniques±± Once you have an approved Custom Element (which is submitted and checked in this thread), you can make techniques for that element and submit them here to be checked. ±± How to submit a Custom Technique? ±±
http://i39.tinypic.com/n5reb9.png Please be sure to read the Battle Arena Rules before making a submission. ±±Custom Element Techniques±± Once you have an approved Custom Element (which is submitted and checked in this thread), you can make techniques for that element and submit them here to be checked. ±± How to submit a Custom Technique? ±±
This elements parent has a title attribute. You should be able to access it through this element since this element has no title.. ...
Literary elements are characteristics common to both oral and written stories. The elements are intrinsic parts of literature, not something an author simply decides to utilize....
The mouseenter event is fired at an Element when a pointing device (usually a mouse) is initially moved so that its hotspot is within the element at which the event was fired.
Are not automatically included in full-text indexes. You must explicitly enable indexing for Global Elements in the Viewing PageSearch Properties dialog, and assign them to a search collection. CommonSpot indexes Global Custom Elements independently of pages ...