Jadack, R.A., Yuenger, J., Ghanem, K.G., et al. (2006) Polymerase chain reaction detection of Y-chromosome sequences in vaginal fluid of women accessing a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33, 22-25. doi10.1097/01.olq.0000194600.83825.81
Richie, Thomas L., Charoenvit, Yupin, Wang, Ruobing, Epstein, Judith E., Hedstrom, Richard C., Kumar, Sanjai, Luke, Thomas C., Freilich, Daniel A., Aguiar, Joao C., Sacci, Jr., John B., Sedegah, Martha, Nosek, Jr., Ronald A., De La Vega, Patricia, Berzins, Mara P., Majam, Victoria F., Abot, Esteban N., Ganeshan, Harini, Richie, Nancy O., Banania, Jo Glenna, Baraceros, Maria Fe B., Geter, Tanya, Mere, Robin, Bebris, Lolita, Limbach, Keith, Hickey, Bradley W., Lanar, David E., Ng, Jennifer, Shi, Meng, Hobart, Peter M., Norman, Jon A., Soisson, Lorraine A., Hollingdale, Michael R., Rogers, William O., Doolan, Denise L., and Hoffman, Stephen L. (2012) Clinical trial in healthy malaria-naïve adults to evaluate the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and efficacy of MuStDO5, a five-gene, sporozoite/hepatic stage Plasmodium falciparum DNA vaccine combined with escalating dose human GM-CSF DNA. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, ...
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus monkeys were immunized four times with one of three DNA plasmids expressing important Plasmodium falciparum blood stage vaccine candidate proteins or with a mixture containing all three vaccines. The three vaccines encoded sequences from apical merozoite antigen-1 (AMA-1), …
To improve understanding of the aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis, over 8,000 Cryptosporidium isolates were submitted for typing to the species level over a four year period. The majority were either Cryptosporidium parvum (45.9%)
by Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Alejandro G. Schijman, Vincent Veron, Christine Aznar, Francis Steurer, Alexandre J. da Silva Background The laboratory diagnosis of Chagas disease is challenging because the usefulness of different diagnostic tests will depend on the stage of the disease. Serology is the preferred method for patients in the chronic phase, whereas PCR can be successfully used to diagnose acute and congenital cases. Here we present data using a combination of three TaqMan PCR assays to detect T
The purpose of this study was to show that individual malaria rapid diagnosis tests (MRDTs) could also be used to isolate Plasmodium DNA for genetic studies. We extracted and amplified Plasmodium DNA using two commercial MRDT kits. Phenol/chloroform extraction followed by a nested polymerse chain reaction (PCR) can be used to identify Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from MRDTs. The PCR on MRDT-isolated DNA was more sensitive than antigen capture by MRDT. Satisfactory results were also obtained if older MRDT tests were used, even after long periods of storage at ambient temperature, with no special preservation.
Previously, we observed that heterochromatic 4 and Y chromosomes that had experienced breakage in the male germline were frequently transmitted to progeny. Their behavior suggested that they carried functional telomeres. Here we show that efficient healing by de novo telomere addition is not unique to heterochromatic breaks. ...
Education and information about Crypto, Cryptosporidium Infection, Cryptosporidiosis, fact sheets, information for special groups, prevention and control, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the analytical and diagnostic performance of a digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assay to detect Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples. AU - Ramírez, Juan David. AU - Herrera, Giovanny. AU - Hernández, Carolina. AU - Cruz-Saavedra, Lissa. AU - Muñoz, Marina. AU - Flórez, Carolina. AU - Butcher, Robert. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - Background: The recent development of novel Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technologies that confer theoretical advantages over quantitative PCR has considerable potential in the diagnosis of low load infections, such as Trypanosoma cruzi in the chronic phase of Chagas disease. We evaluated the utility of the digital droplet (dd)PCR platform in the detection of T. cruzi infection. Methodology/Principal findings: We imported a validated qPCR assay targeting the T. cruzi satellite tandem repeat (TcSTR) region to the ddPCR platform. Following optimization, we tested and repeated a standard curve of TcI ...
Relationships among Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum multilocus sequence subtypes at 5 genetic loci. Parasite population from Jamaica was compared with tha
At the end of this unit, the student is able to:  Classify the Protozoans  Describe the morphology of each protozoa  Explain the pathophysiology, life cycle…
Looking for online definition of Entamoeba moshkovskii in the Medical Dictionary? Entamoeba moshkovskii explanation free. What is Entamoeba moshkovskii? Meaning of Entamoeba moshkovskii medical term. What does Entamoeba moshkovskii mean?
During macronuclear development in hypotrichous ciliated protozoans, several thousand macronuclear DNA molecules are amplified several-hundred fold. We investigated the regulation of this amplification by determining the copy numbers of three different macronuclear DNA molecules in the hypotrichous ciliate Euplotes crassus. Two of the macronuclear DNA molecules were present in approximately 1,000 copies per cell, while the third was present in approximately 6,500 copies per cell. These reiteration levels were achieved either during macronuclear development, or shortly thereafter, and were maintained during vegetative growth. The most abundant macronuclear DNA molecule is present as a single-copy sequence in the micronuclear genome. Thus, its high copy number results from differential amplification. These results indicate that DNA amplification during macronuclear development is regulated individually for each macronuclear DNA molecule.
Molecular genetic studies of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been hampered in part due to difficulties in stably cloning and propagating parasite genomic DNA in bacteria. This is thought to be a result of the unusual A+T bias (|80%) in the parasites DNA. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic separation of P. falciparum chromosomes has shown that large chromosomal polymorphisms, resulting from the deletion of DNA from chromosome ends, frequently occur. Understanding the biological implications of this chromosomal polymorphism will require the analysis of large regions of genomic, and in particular telomeric, DNA. To overcome the limitations of cloning parasite DNA in bacteria, we have cloned genomic DNA from the P. falciparum strain FCR3 in yeast as artificial chromosomes. A pYAC4 library with an average insert size of approximately 100 kb was established and found to have a three to fourfold redundancy for single-copy genes. Unlike bacterial hosts, yeast stably maintain and propagate
Spano, F.; Putignani, L.; McLauchlin, J.; Casemore, D.P.; Crisanti, A., 1997: PCR-RFLP analysis of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene discriminates between C. wrairi and C. parvum, and between C. parvum isolates of human and animal origin
Chagas disease has a high incidence in Mexico and other Latin American countries. Because one of the most important known methods of prevention is vector control, which has been effective only in certain areas of South America, the development of a vaccine to protect people at risk has been proposed. In this study, we assessed the cellular and humoral immune response generated following immunization with pBCSP and pBCSSP4 plasmids containing the genes encoding a trans-sialidase protein (present in all three forms of T. cruzi) and an amastigote specific glycoprotein, respectively, in a canine model. Thirty-five beagle dogs were divided randomly into 5 groups (n = 7) and were immunized twice intramuscularly with 500 μg of pBCSSP4, pBCSP, pBk-CMV (empty plasmid) or saline solution. Fifteen days after the last immunization the 4 groups were infected intraperitoneally with 500 000 metacyclic trypomastigotes. The fifth group was unimmunized/infected. The parasitaemia in the immunized/infected dogs was for a
The fight against Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for 90 % of the lethal forms of human malaria, took a new direction with the publication of its genome in 2002. However, the hopes that the genome should help bringing to the foreground the expected new vaccines candidates or targets of new medicines were disappointed by the low number of genes that could be functionally annotated - less than 40 % upon the genome publication, just over 50 % eight years later. This 10 % gain of knowledge was made possible by the efforts of the entire scientific community in many directions which include: the production of transcriptomic and proteomic profiles at various stages of the parasite development and in response to drug or stress treatments; the proteomic study of subcellular compartments; the sequencing of numerous Plasmodium related species (allowing whole genome comparisons) and the sequencing of numerous P. falciparum strains (allowing investigations of gene polymorphism). In parallel with
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidia.
Acanthamoeba sp. ATCC ® PRA-219™ Designation: UWC1/UV-7 Isolation: Acanthamoeba sp. UWC1 coincubated with activated sludge. Plattling, Bavaria, Germany.
Cryptosporidium parvum ATCC ® PRA-67D™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Cryptosporidium parvum Strain Iowa [ATCC ® PRA-67™] Isolation: Feces, animal, 2002
Among 1521 microscopically positive P. falciparum samples screened, 50 were negative by HRP2 based RDT test. Molecular testing was carried out using these 50 RDT negative samples by assuming that 1471 RDT positive samples carried pfhrp2 gene. It was found that 2.4% (36/1521) and 1.8% (27/1521) of samples were negative for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes, respectively. However, the frequency of pfhrp2 deletions varied between the sites ranging from 0-25% (2.4, 95% CI; 1.6-3.3). The frequency of both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion varied from 0-8% (1.6, 95% CI; 1.0-2.4 ...
Biology Assignment Help, Heliozoans - protozoan, Heliozoans - Protozoan Heliozoans are spherical protozoan that occur in the sea or in still bodies of fresh water. They are mainly located in the bottom debris. Fine needle like pseudopodia radiate from the surface of the body. These are known a
Rapid identification of the two major species of Cryptosporidium associated with human infections, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, is important for investigating outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. This study reports the development and validation of a real-time PCR TaqMan procedure for detection of Cryptosporidium species and identification of C. hominis and C. parvum in stool specimens. This procedure comprised a generic TaqMan assay targeting the 18S rRNA for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium species, as well as two other TaqMan assays for identification of C. hominis and C. parvum. The generic Cryptosporidium species assay can be duplexed with the C. parvum-specific assay. The generic Cryptosporidium species assay was able to detect ten Cryptosporidium species and did not cross-react with a panel of ten other protozoan parasites. The generic Cryptosporidium species assay could detect 1-10 oocysts in a 300 μl stool specimen, whilst each of the species-specific TaqMan assays had
The aim of this study was to develop a simple, field-practical, and effective in vitro method for determining the sensitivity of fresh erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax isolates to a range of antimalarials. The method used is a modification of the standard World Health Organization (WHO) microtest for determination of P. falciparum drug sensitivity. The WHO method was modified by removing leukocytes and using a growth medium supplemented with AB(+) serum. We successfully carried out 34 in vitro drug assays on 39 P. vivax isolates collected from the Mae Sod malaria clinic, Tak Province, Thailand. The mean percentage of parasites maturing to schizonts (six or more merozoites) in control wells was 66.5% +/- 5.9% (standard deviation). This level of growth in the control wells enabled rapid microscopic determination (5 min per isolate per drug) of the MICs of chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, WR238605 (tafenoquine), and sulfadoxine. P. vivax was relatively sensitive to chloroquine (MIC = 160 ng/ml, 50% inhibitory
Ciliated protozoan (Tetrahymena vorax), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Tetrahymena vorax is a fresh water, holotrichous, oligohymenophoran, ciliate. Shown here are 3 cells with nice ciliated pellicle surfaces. Tetrahymena are free-living ciliated protozoa that can switch from commensalistic to pathogenic modes of survival. They are common in freshwater ponds. Tetrahymena species are used as model organisms. Magnification: x260 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0976
Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), and elongation factor 1-alpha (ef1-alpha) genes are useful genetic markers for genotypic analysis of the intestinal protozoan, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis), the cause of enteric disease in humans. To quantitatively compare the discriminatory power of these loci, 43 fecal samples were collected from central, northern and eastern Thailand and G. duodenalis specimens were analyzed using PCR-based genotyping and subcloning methods. Approximately equal prevalence of assemblage A (21) and B (22) were present among these populations. Analysis of Simpsons index and Wallace coefficient values from assemblage B isolates together with the data obtained from Gen Bank showed that the combination of two loci provides a higher discrimination power for subgenotyping G. duodenalis than using any single locus.. ...
This report aims to propose a new species of Cryptosporidium isolated from reptiles. Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan parasites of a wide range of animals. Due to their biology, ecology and epidemiology these protozoa are globally distributed. The vertebrate hosts become infected through host-to-host contact or through ingestion of contaminated food or water [1, 2]. The taxonomy of Cryptosporidium has been debated and several doubts and uncertainties still exist. For a long time the only recognized species have been Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris. However, numerous other isolates were present in animals but described only in the last decades [3]. The difficulties in addressing Cryptosporidium taxonomy and in delineating new species mainly rely on the inability to morphologically discriminate the biological stages and on the difficulties in establishing monospecific experimental infections [3]. With the advent of nucleic acid-based techniques and sequencing, important ...
Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.
Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.
Ntoumi F, Bakoua D Fesser A, Kombo M, Vouvoungui J.C., Koukouikila-Koussounda F. 2016. Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection in pregnant women from the Republic of Congo. Acta Tropica 153 (2016) 111-115. Alimuddin Zumla, Jeremiah Chakaya, Michael Hoelscher, Francine Ntoumi, et al. 2015. Towards host-directed therapies for tuberculosis. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. Jul 17. doi: 10.1038/nrd4696.. Koukouikila-Koussounda Felix, Bakoua Damien, Fesser Anna, Nkombo Michael, Vouvoungui Christevy, Ntoumi Francine. 2015. High prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from pregnant women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. S1567-1348(15)00132.. Mathieu Ndounga, Pembe Mayengue Issamou, Prisca Nadine Casimiro, Félix Koukouikila-Koussounda, Michel Bitemo, Brunelle Diassivy Matondo, Lee Aymar Ndounga Diakou, Leonardo K Basco, Francine Ntoumi. 2015. Amodiaquine-artesunate versus ...
This disclosure describes, in one aspect, a method of transfecting a Cryptosporidium organism. Generally, the method includes introducing into a Cryptosporidium organism a heterologous polynucleotide comprising at least one coding region, and incubating the Cryptosporidium organism under conditions effective for the Cryptosporidium organism to express the coding region.
Researchers at the University of East Anglia have discovered unexpectedly large genetic differences between two similar species of the pathogenic Cryptosporidium parasite.
From a minimal and simplified viewpoint, life is a succession of events leading to transmission of genes from parents to offspring. For certain organisms, like protozoan parasites, these events must include a meeting with someone else: another eukaryote to act as an invertebrate or vertebrate host and occasionally a human host. To get a successful gene transmission, parasites must have a positive outcome of the infection event (or series of events, as the infection for some parasites means a complex cycle between two or more hosts). But infection does not represent a one way event: it is a disruptive phenomenon, by which the metabolic balance of one organism is perturbed in favour of the survival and gene dissemination of another one, the intruder. It is thus a two sided event that implies several biochemical and immunological defense mechanisms being mounted by the host, and molecular barriers which need to be past by the parasite. If left without human intervention, this interaction would ...
許多古蟲界的物種缺乏典型的粒線體,被稱作「無粒線體原生生物」(amitochondriate),雖然大多數可能包含了功能上類似於粒線體、形態有很大變化的細胞器。其它的古蟲界的生物有粒線體,粒線體嵴呈管狀、盤狀、薄片狀。大多數古蟲界物種有兩個、四個甚至更多的鞭毛[3],很多物種有顯著的腹部攝食溝(feeding groove)超微結構,內部由微管支撐。[4]如果有系統發生的基因證據,其它缺乏這一特徵的物種也可以歸屬於古蟲界。. ...
The first chapter of this thesis encompasses progress towards the X-ray structure determination and drug design for the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) enzyme from the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii, along with another mutant construct of this protein. Solving the structure of the mutant construct, along with wildtype Tg DHFR-TS, will help elucidate both the nature of pyrimethamine resistance and inhibitor selectivity. In addition to being an excellent model for malarial resistance, T. gondii is a pathogen infecting 50% of the worlds population. T. gondii is an HIV opportunistic infection. In protozoa, DHFR-TS is a bifunctional enzyme, but in humans, DHFR and TS are separate monofunctional enzymes. The difference in connectivity makes DHFR-TS an excellent target for pathogen-specific drugs. Another important factor making DHFR-TS a good drug target is that the enzyme catalyzes reactions that are essential to all life, two sequential reactions in DNA nucleotide synthesis. ...
Hemorrhagic septicemia is an acute, deadly disease of cattle and buffaloes associated with colossal economic loss in the livestock industry in the Asian regions particularly Malaysia. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate on the Polymerase chain reaction detection of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 in mice inoculated through different routes with river water contaminated with infected mice carcasses. Sixty five mice were used for the study; five mice were placed in each tank containing river water for 24, 48 and 72 h. The groups comprise of five mice each made up of the control, intraperitoneal, oral and the aerosol routes. A dose of 1 mL 109 CFU of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 obtained from the infected river water were inoculated into each group intraperitoneally and the aerosol route while, 0.4 mL of 109 CFU of Pasteurella multocida type B: 2 was inoculated orally into the group. The control group was inoculated with 1 mL buffer saline pH 7. The PCR results in the present ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Clinical Acanthamoeba Isolates. AU - Iovieno, Alfonso. AU - Ledee, Dolena R.. AU - Miller, Darlene. AU - Alfonso, Eduardo C. PY - 2010/3/1. Y1 - 2010/3/1. N2 - Purpose: To determine the presence of 4 clinically relevant bacterial endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba isolates obtained from patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and the possible contribution of endosymbionts to the pathogenesis of AK. Design: Experimental study. Participants: Acanthamoeba isolates (N = 37) recovered from the cornea and contact lens paraphernalia of 23 patients with culture-proven AK and 1 environmental isolate. Methods: Acanthamoeba isolates were evaluated for the presence of microbial endosymbionts belonging to the bacterial genera Legionella, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Chlamydia using molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization) and transmission electron microscopy. Corneal toxicity and ...
Bifunctional enzyme. Involved in de novo dTMP biosynthesis. Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, DNA precursor synthesis, and for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP (By similarity).
Sequences of small-subunit rRNA genes have been obtained for four new isolates of Entamoeba. Phylogenetic analyses give new insights into the evolution of these organisms. A novel Entamoeba from pigs in Vietnam that produces uninucleate cysts proved to be unrelated to other uninucleated cyst-producing species. Revival of the name Entamoeba suis for this organism is proposed. Instead of being related to Entamoeba polecki, it shares a recent common ancestor with the non-encysting Entamoeba gingivalis in a lineage that is basal to the tetranucleate cyst-producing clade. This suggests that species producing cysts with four nuclei are descended from an ancestor that produced cysts with a single nucleus. An Entamoeba from a horse was isolated in culture. No cysts were observed in the original stool sample but the sequence is placed unequivocally within the clade of tetranucleate cyst-producing species with no other sequences being specifically related. Revival of the name Entamoeba equi for this organism is
ABSTRACT. Xenophyophorea are giant deep-sea rhizopodial protists of enigmatic origins. Although species were described as Foraminifera or sponges in the early literature, the xenophyophoreans are currently classified either as a class of Rhizopoda or an independent phylum. To establish the phylogenetic position of Xenophyophorea, we analysed the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of Syringammina corbicula Richardson, a newly described xenophyophorean species from the Cape Verde Plateau. The SSUrDNA analyses showed that S. corbicula is closely related to Rhizammina algaeformis, a tubular deep-sea foraminiferan. Both species branch within a group of monothalamous (single-chambered) Foraminifera, which include also such agglutinated genera as Toxisarcon, Rhabdammina, and Saccammina, and the organic-walled genera Gloiogullmia and Cylindrogullmia. Our results are congruent with observations of similar cytoplasmic organisation in Rhizammina and Syringammina. Thus, the Xenophyophorea appear to be a ...
Malaria - Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans. It is one of several species of Plasmodium parasit
In 1993, almost 25% of the residents of Milwaukee, Wisconsin came down with severe stomach cramps, fever, and diarrhea. Over 100, mostly elderly or immunocompromised residents, died. The cause? The most common water-borne disease in the developed world: Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of many species of this group of apicomplexan parasites, distant relatives to those that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis. Water supplies may be tainted with the oocysts of these parasites, which are then consumed by people. In the small intestine, the parasites attach to the villi and begin to asexually divide. Eventually they will produce gametocytes - macrogametocytes are female, microgametocytes are male. These stages fuse and then produce two types of zygotes. Some have thin walls only - these serve to keep the infection going in the same host. Others, though, develop thicker walls and are released into the environment to infect new hosts. There isnt a very good treatment for those that become ...
Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites that infect humans and a wide variety of animals. This study was aimed at identifying Cryptosporidium species and genotypes isolated from avian hosts. A total of 90 samples from 37 different species of birds were collected throughout a 3-month period from April 2008 to June 2008 in the National Zoo of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Prior to molecular characterization, all samples were screened for Cryptosporidium using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Subsequently samples were analysed with nested-PCR targeting the partial SSU rRNA gene. Amplicons were sequenced in both directions and used for phylogenetic analysis using Neighbour-Joining and Maximum Parsimony methods. Although 9 (10) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium via microscopy, 8 (8.9) produced amplicons using nested PCR. Phylogenetic trees identified all the isolates as Cryptosporidium parvum. Although C. parvum has not been reported to cause infection in birds, and the role of ...
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Background Plasmodium vivax continues to be the most widely distributed malarial parasite species in tropical and sub-tropical areas, causing high morbidity indices around the world. Better understanding of the proteins used by the parasite during the invasion of red blood cells is required to obtain an effective vaccine against this disease. This study describes characterizing the P. vivax asparagine-rich protein (PvARP) and examines its antigenicity in natural infection. Methods The target gene in the study was selected according to a previous in silico analysis using profile hidden Markov models which identified P. vivax proteins that play a possible role in invasion. Transcription of the arp gene in the P. vivax VCG-1 strain was here evaluated by RT-PCR. Specific human antibodies against PvARP were used to confirm protein expression by Western blot as well as its subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. Recognition of recombinant PvARP by sera from P. vivax-infected individuals was ...
Tlr elements are a novel family of ~30 putative mobile genetic elements that are confined to the germ line micronuclear genome in Tetrahymena thermophila. Thousands of diverse germ line-limited sequences, including the Tlr elements, are specifically eliminated from the differentiating somatic macronucleus. Macronucleusretained sequences flanking deleted regions are known to contain cis-acting signals that delineate elimination boundaries. It is unclear whether sequences within deleted DNA also play a regulatory role in the elimination process. In the current study, an in vivo DNA rearrangement assay was used to identify internal sequences required in cis for the elimination of Tlr elements. Multiple, nonoverlapping regions from the ~23-kb Tlr elements were independently sufficient to stimulate developmentally regulated DNA elimination when placed within the context of flanking sequences from the most thoroughly characterized family member, Tlr1. Replacement of element DNA with macronuclear or
Due to its central role in both evolutionary change and human disease, mutation has been the focus of intensive research. The probability that a spontaneous mut...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Cryptosporidium infection is caused by small parasites that infect the intestines, causing diarrhea that can become life-threatening if you have a weak immune system.