Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Acts as DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes damaged bases. Has a preference for oxidized purines, such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). Has AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity and introduces nicks in the DNA strand. Cleaves the DNA backbone by beta-delta elimination to generate a single-strand break at the site of the removed base with both 3- and 5-phosphates.
K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K03648 UNG; uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.27] K03575 mutY; A/G-specific adenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.31] K10773 NTH; endonuclease III [EC:4.2.99.18] K10844 ERCC2; DNA excision repair protein ERCC-2 [EC:3.6.4.12] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K01520 dut; dUTP pyrophosphatase [EC:3.6.1.23] K03649 mug; double-stranded uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.28] K01247 alkA; DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase II [EC:3.2.2.21] K10563 mutM; formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.23 4.2.99.18] K10563 mutM; formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase ...
Compounds of nickel(II) and cadmium(II) are carcinogenic to humans and to experimental animals. One frequently discussed mechanism involved in tumor formation is an increase in reactive oxygen species by both metals with the subsequent generation of oxidative DNA damage. In the present study we used human HeLa cells to investigate the potential of nickel(II) and cadmium(II) to induce DNA lesions typical for oxygen free radicals in intact cells and the effect on their repair. As indicators of oxidative DNA damage, we determined the frequencies of DNA strand breaks and of lesions recognized by the bacterial formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg protein), including 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-hydroxyguanine), a pre-mutagenic DNA base modification. Nickel(II) caused a slight increase in DNA strand breaks at 250 microM and higher, while the frequency of Fpg-sensitive sites was enhanced only at the cytotoxic concentration of 750 microM. The repair of oxidative DNA lesions induced by visible light ...
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References for Abcams Recombinant |em|E. coli |/em| mutM protein (ab124310). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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Reactive oxygen species damage DNA to produce a variety of genotoxic lesions. In particular, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG) is one of the most common pre-mutagenic products of base oxidation in DNA. OxoG is repaired (1) through excision by formamidopyrim
Sample:. Prepare samples as you have done the standards, but replace Cys with your sample.. You must decide how much volume to put into mixture. If you expect you sample to be weak pipette 200μL into the mixture; however, if your sample is very concentrated you may want to put in less than 50μL.. Once standards have been prepared, measure them immediately at 412nm. Remember to measure the blank!. Leave the sample to react for 10-15 minutes before measuring!!! You could even monitor at 5, 10 and 15 minutes until the reaction is complete i.e. no change. Remember to measure the blank!!. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polymorphisms of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine increase susceptibility to arsenic methylation capacity-related urothelial carcinoma. AU - Huang, Chao Yuan. AU - Pu, Yeong Shiau. AU - Shiue, Horng Sheng. AU - Chen, Wei Jen. AU - Lin, Ying-Chin. AU - Hsueh, Yu Mei. PY - 2015/9/10. Y1 - 2015/9/10. N2 - Arsenic causes oxidative stress in cultured animal and human cells, and it is a well-documented human carcinogen. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 167 cases of urothelial carcinoma (UC) and 334 age- and gender-matched healthy controls to evaluate the relationships between urinary arsenic profiles, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) genotypes and UC. The urinary arsenic species were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping for hOGG1 (Ser326Cys) and hOGG1 (−15C,G) was performed using the ...
Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Acts as DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes damaged bases. Has a preference for oxidized purines, such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). Has AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity and introduces nicks in the DNA strand. Cleaves the DNA backbone by beta-delta elimination to generate a single-strand break at the site of the removed base with both 3- and 5-phosphates.
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fapy-DNA glycosylase)(gene fpg) is a bacterial enzyme involved in DNA repair and which excise oxidized purine bases to release 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5N-methylformamido-pyrimidine (Fapy) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-OxoG) residues. In addition to its glycosylase activity, FPG can also nick DNA at apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites). FPG is a monomeric protein of about 32 Kd which binds and require zinc for its activity ...
B cells that mediate normal, T cell-dependent, humoral immune responses must first pass through germinal centers (GCs) within the cortex of antigenically stimulated lymph nodes. As they move through the dark zone and then the light zone in the GC, B cells are subjected to somatic hypermutation and switch recombination within their rearranged immunoglobulin genes and also participate in a number of other processes that control development into memory cells or cells specialized for antibody secretion. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that contribute to B cell development within GCs, we constructed a recombinant DNA library enriched for cDNAs derived from human genes expressed in B cells at this site. This library was found to contain a cDNA structurally and functionally related to genes in bacteria and yeast for the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase. Northern blot analysis indicated that the human gene is expressed as two alternatively spliced messenger RNAs within GC B cells at levels
8-Oxoguanine glycosylase also known as OGG1 is a DNA glycosylase enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the OGG1 gene. It is involved in base excision repair. It is found in bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species. OGG1 is the primary enzyme responsible for the excision of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a mutagenic base byproduct that occurs as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). OGG1 is a bifunctional glycosylase, as it is able to both cleave the glycosidic bond of the mutagenic lesion and cause a strand break in the DNA backbone. Alternative splicing of the C-terminal region of this gene classifies splice variants into two major groups, type 1 and type 2, depending on the last exon of the sequence. Type 1 alternative splice variants end with exon 7 and type 2 end with exon 8. One set of spliced forms are designated 1a, 1b, 2a to 2e. All variants have the N-terminal region in common. Many alternative splice variants for this gene have been described, but the full-length nature for ...
8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is found in many species and catalyzes the excision of 8-oxoguanine from DNA. This modified base byproduct occurs as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen species. Alternative splicing of the C-terminal region of the OGG1 gene in humans results in two major groups of variants: type 1 and type 2. Both groups share a common N-terminal region that contains a mitochondrial targeting sequence required for OGG1 localization in mitochondria. Although knockout mice lacking the OGG1 gene were observed to have a normal lifespan, the precise role of OGG1 in mutagenesis and cancer remains controversial. OGG1 is also known as 8-hydroxyguanine DNA glycosylase, DNA-apurinic or apyrimidinic site lyase, AP lyase, N-glycosylase/DNA lyase, HMMH, MMH, MUTM, OGH1, and HOGG1.. ...
8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is found in many species and catalyzes the excision of 8-oxoguanine from DNA. This modified base byproduct occurs as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen species. Alternative splicing of the C-terminal region of the OGG1 gene in humans results in two major groups of variants: type 1 and type 2. Both groups share a common N-terminal region that contains a mitochondrial targeting sequence required for OGG1 localization in mitochondria. Although knockout mice lacking the OGG1 gene were observed to have a normal lifespan, the precise role of OGG1 in mutagenesis and cancer remains controversial. OGG1 is also known as 8-hydroxyguanine DNA glycosylase, DNA-apurinic or apyrimidinic site lyase, AP lyase, N-glycosylase/DNA lyase, HMMH, MMH, MUTM, OGH1, and HOGG1.. ...
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Homo sapiens 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 2e, mRNA. (H00004968-R08) - Products - Abnova
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. AU - Lin, Ying Chih. AU - Li, Liang. AU - Makarova, Alena V.. AU - Burgers, Peter M.. AU - Stone, Michael P.. AU - Lloyd, Robert (Stephen). PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base ...
To demonstrate the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA glycosylases, we used hOGG1 and hAAG as model enzymes. hOGG1 and hAAG may initiate the first step of base excision repair, and are considered to be functional biomarkers for lung cancer.12-14 The principle of the DNA glycosylase assay is illustrated in Scheme 1. This assay involves two steps: (1) the DNA glycosylase-mediated cleavage of molecular beacons and (2) the subsequent single-molecule detection. We designed two specific substrates for hOGG1 and hAAG, respectively. The substrate for hOGG1 is labeled with a Cy3 fluorophore at the 5′ terminus and a BHQ2 quencher at the 3′ terminus, and is modified with 8-oxoG positioned 6 deoxynucleotides downstream of a 5′-terminus. The substrate for hAAG is labeled with a Cy5 fluorophore at the 5′ terminus and a BHQ3 quencher at the 3′ terminus, and is modified with deoxyinosine positioned 5 deoxynucleotides downstream of a 5′-terminus (Scheme 1). The substrate for hOGG1 and the ...
PNEC Water (freshwater, marine water, intermittent) The proposed approach to derive PNEC values is the assessment factor method where a toxicity value is divided by an assessment factor. The size of the assessment factor accounts for a number of uncertainties: -intra- and inter-laboratory variation of toxicity data -intra- and inter-species variations (biological variance) -short-term to long-term toxicity extrapolation -laboratory data to field impact extrapolation. When acute data are available for three trophic levels, the standard approach to PNEC determination is to apply an assessment factor of 1000 to the lowest lethal or effect concentration (E(L)C50). However, the assessment factor presented in Table R.10 -4 from ECHA Guidance R.10 should be considered as general factors that under certain circumstances may be changed according to justification including one or more of the following: -evidence from structurally similar compounds (evidence established by read across from closely related ...
The common bacterial base modification N6-methyladenine (m6A) is involved in many pathways related to an organisms ability to survive and interact with its environment.
The ACD EZ-Batch™ Slide Processing System facilitates processing multiple sample slides simultaneously. We designed this product for higher efficiency in running the manual RNAscope® assay protocol. The system comprises RNAscope® EZ-Batch™ Slide Holder and EZBatch™ Wash Tray.
The antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties of melatonin have been well described in the literature. In this study, our objective was to determine the protective effect of the pineal gland hormone against the DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), an anti-tumor agent that is widely applied in clinical practice. DNA damage was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of CP (20 or 50 mg/kg). Animals received melatonin during the dark period for 15 days (1 mg/kg in the drinking water). Rat bone marrow cells were used for the determination of chromosomal aberrations and of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzyme (Fpg)-sensitive sites by the comet technique and of Xpf mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. The number (mean ± SE) of chromosomal aberrations in pinealectomized (PINX) animals treated with melatonin and CP (2.50 ± 0.50/100 cells) was lower than that obtained for PINX animals injected with CP (12 ± 1.8/100 cells), thus showing a reduction of 85.8% in the number of
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
On the basis of the three‐dimensional structures, including the docking models of dsDNA and its reaction intermediate, we propose the following catalytic mechanism for the MutM N‐glycosylase/AP lyase reaction. This mechanism also takes into account biochemical studies on the reaction mechanism (Bhagwat and Gerlt, 1996; Castaing et al., 1999) (Figure 7). (i) Initial binding of MutM to GO‐flipped DNA with a gripping motion at the hinge region. The ammonium cation of Lys52 acts as proton donor for scission of the glycosidic bond in the damaged nucleotide to release the GO base. (ii) The resulting carbonium ion at C1′ of deoxyribose is attacked by the N‐terminal amino group of Pro1 on C1′ as the nucleophile, and the cation is stabilized by a hydrogen‐bonding network, including the bound water and the carboxylate of Glu5. (iii) Protonation of Glu5 and concerted electron rearrangement breaks the pentose ring of the deoxyribose and forms a Schiff base between the C1′ atom of the ...
The inter-laboratory validation study on 5 cytotoxicity assays conducted by JSAAE has been described in the preceding articles. Presented here are precise data and the protocols for the crystal violet staining (CV) assay with two cell lines, namely, HeLa S3 (SC) which is common to the other 4 assays, and CHL which has been utilized widely in this assay. Hand-plotted dose-response curves revealed information that enables us to easily detect abnormal data files. Characteristics of data files from 14 laboratories were visualized in a Figure together with all the log(ED50) values. Very low OD590 values were found in negative controls of submitted data, suggesting the need to carefully examine whether the results of the assay fell within the linear dose-response range or not. High interlaboratory reproducibility, therefore low inter-laboratory variation, was observed with both cell lines in the CV assay. Any influence of cell lines was not apparent in the tested chemicals except for cetylpyridinium ...
The inter-laboratory validation study on 5 cytotoxicity assays conducted by JSAAE has been described in the preceding articles. Presented here are precise data and the protocols for the crystal violet staining (CV) assay with two cell lines, namely, HeLa S3 (SC) which is common to the other 4 assays, and CHL which has been utilized widely in this assay. Hand-plotted dose-response curves revealed information that enables us to easily detect abnormal data files. Characteristics of data files from 14 laboratories were visualized in a Figure together with all the log(ED50) values. Very low OD590 values were found in negative controls of submitted data, suggesting the need to carefully examine whether the results of the assay fell within the linear dose-response range or not. High interlaboratory reproducibility, therefore low inter-laboratory variation, was observed with both cell lines in the CV assay. Any influence of cell lines was not apparent in the tested chemicals except for cetylpyridinium ...
In an ongoing effort to fulfill the second objective of the Biomarkers Sub-Group, an inter-laboratory comparison study was performed to determine the comparability of results reported from participating laboratories when analyzing total NNAL in human urine clinical samples.
Add Micrococcal Nuclease to each sample to digest the DNA. Mix by inverting the tube several times and incubate at 37°C for 20 minutes. Mix by inversion every 3-5 minutes. The amount and incubation time of Micrococcal Nuclease required to digest the genomic DNA to an optimal 150 900 bp length may need to be determined empirically for individual cell types ...
mmh mmh. any advice on how to stop them from getting rowdy THE MINUTE I enter the house from work. Theyre both sleeping, I come in, take my shoes off, gove them some love (is that my mistake?) and then as soon as I go on to my business they start playing roughly. I guess I get them excited? But Im not consciously encouraging them to get it roughing up, except that maybe theyre seeking attention cause they know Ill stop them eventually ...
Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen-consuming tissue. Muscle biopsies from seven healthy humans were obtained at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks of hypoxia at 4100 m.a.s.l. We found increased levels of strand breaks and endonuclease III-sensitive sites after 2 weeks of hypoxia, whereas oxidative DNA damage detected by formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) protein was unaltered. The expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), determined by quantitative RT-PCR of mRNA levels did not significantly change during high-altitude hypoxia, although the data could not exclude a minor upregulation. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was unaltered by prolonged hypoxia, in accordance with the notion that HO-1 is an acute stress ...
Combustion of biomass and wood for residential heating and/or cooking contributes substantially to both ambient air and indoor levels of particulate matter (PM). Toxicological characterization of ambient air PM, especially related to traffic, is well advanced, whereas the toxicology of wood smoke PM (WSPM) is poorly assessed. We assessed a wide spectrum of toxicity end points in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines comparingWSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in a village with many operating wood stoves and from a rural background area. In both cell types, all extensively characterized PM samples (1.25-100 μg/mL) induced dose-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sites assessed by the comet assay with WSPM being most potent. The WSPM contained more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), less soluble metals, and expectedly also had a smaller particle size ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Defense mechanism to oxidative DNA damage in glial cells. AU - Iida, Takashi. AU - Furuta, Akiko. AU - Nakabeppu, Yusaku. AU - Iwaki, Toru. PY - 2004/6/1. Y1 - 2004/6/1. N2 - Astrocytosis is a sequential morphological change of astrocytic reaction to tissue damage, and is associated with regulation of antioxidant defense mechanisms to reduce oxidative damage. The repair enzymes to oxidative DNA damage, oxidized purine-nucleoside triphosphatase (hMTH1) and a mitochondrial type of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1-2a) in brain tumors and neurons of Alzheimers disease, were previously reported. In the present study, glial expression of these repair enzymes under such pathological conditions as cerebrovascular diseases and metastatic brain tumors, were investigated. Furthermore, an in-vitro experiment using a glioma cell-line under oxidative stress was performed to verify the immunohistochemical results of post-mortem materials. As a result, hOGG1-2a immunoreactivities in reactive ...
DNA glycosylases are involved in the base excision repair pathway, and all mammals express multiple DNA glycosylases to maintain genome stability. However, the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA glycosylase still remains a great challenge. Here, we develop a single-molecule detection method for the simul
Anticancer therapy with cisplatin and oxaliplatin is limited by toxicity and onset of tumor resistance. Both drugs form platinum-DNA cross-linked adducts, and cisplatin causes oxidative DNA damage including the 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) lesion. To assess oxidative DNA damage as a mechanism of cisplatin and oxaliplatin cytotoxicity, 8-oxodG-directed base excision repair was stably enhanced in human embryonic kidney cells by FLAG-tagged expression of human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (α-OGG1) or its functional homologue, Escherichia coli formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (fpg). Both drugs increased reactive oxygen species and 8-oxodG levels, and cytotoxicity was decreased by antioxidant pretreatment. Ectopic expression of α-OGG1 or fpg in cell clones increased nuclear and mitochondrial 8-oxodG repair, and reduced death by reactive oxygen species initiators (H2O2, menadione) and both platinum drugs. Exposure to oxaliplatin caused a more marked and sustained block of cell ...
DNA base damage was assayed using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) in renal and hepatic chromatin of male F344 rats up to 14 days after a single i.p. injection of 90 micromol Ni(II) acetate/kg body wt. Ten different damaged bases were quantified. No damage was found in either organ 12 h after Ni(II) treatment. The damage became significant only from day 1, with magnitude and persistence depending on the organ and base. In livers, levels of five DNA base products were significantly elevated over those in control rats. They were: 8-oxoguanine (by 46% at day 1 postinjection); 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (by 107% at day 1); 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (by 94% at day 1); 5,6-dihydroxyuracil (by 128% at day 1); and 5-hydroxyhydantoin (by 39% in terms of the overall adjusted means for days 1-14 post-injection). The elevation was highest at day 1 post-injection followed by a decrease at later days, except for 5-hydroxyhydantoin. In kidneys, the ...
Fig. 4 shows the amino acid sequences of the predicted proteins of AtFpg-1, -1a, -2, -3, and -4. Exons 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 were entirely conserved in all the Arabidopsis cDNA clones. The polypeptide chains encoded by exons 1, 5, 6,and 7 represent the major conserved regions between Arabidopsis and bacterial FPGs , showing between 29 and 54% identity between Arabidopsis and E. coli amino acid sequences. The N-terminal sequence of exon 1 and the lysine of exon 5 (K155) of E. coli FPG have been associated with the active site. The predicted amino acid sequence coded by exon 1 shows a surprising relationship to a sequence from DNA photolyase, another DNA repair enzyme but one quite unrelated to FPG (Fig. 5). If this relates to DNA binding, it might explain how AtFPG-2, which lacks the C-terminal DNA-binding region present in AtFPG-1 (or the zinc-finger of E. coli FPG) might have the DNA cleavage activities measured by Gao and Murphy (Photochem. Photobiol., in press). The optional exons are exon 4 ...
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out on the DNA oligonucleotide GGGAACAACTAG:CTAGTTGTTCCC in its native form and with guanine in the central G19:C6 base pair replaced by 8-oxoguanine (8oxoG). A box of explicit water molecules was used for solvation and Na+ counterions were added to neutralize the system. The direction and magnitude of global bending were assessed by a technique used previously to analyze simulations of DNA containing a thymine dimer. The presence of 8oxoG did not greatly affect the magnitude of DNA bending; however, bending into the major groove was significantly more probable when 8oxoG replaced G19. Crystal structures of glycosylases bound to damaged-DNA substrates consistently show a sharp bend into the major groove at the damage site. We conclude that changes in bending dynamics that assist the formation of this kink are a part of the mechanism by which glycosylases of the base excision repair pathway recognize the presence of 8oxoG in DNA.
DNA glycosylases help maintain the genome by excising chemically modified bases from DNA. In bacteria, DNA glycosylases that remove alkylated nucleobases have varying substrate specificities despite their structural similarity. Escherichia coli 3
2) Start reactions with enzyme and stopped after set times (0, 4, 8, 12 minutes) by placing the tubes in boiling water for 2 min. 3) Add 0.9 ml 40 mM-HEPES/ KOH (pH 6-8) containing 10 mM-MgCl2, 2.5 mM-phosphoenolpyruvate and 0.24 mM-NADH 4) Centrifuge to remove precipitated protein, 5) Measure spectrophotometrically at 340 nm the disappearance of NADH on addition of pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. When substrate concentrations were varied in TPS assays, rates at each concentration were measured over two different time intervals. They generally agreed within l0%, and the mean was used. However, when a significant amount of substrate was consumed ( ,15% at initial concentrations below Km), the rate from each time interval was handled separately and plotted against the average substrate concentration in the time interval, as recommended by Glick et al. (1979). ...
Most bacterial infections produce a biofilm. By virtue of their environment, biofilm associated bacteria are often phenotypically drug...
Name: libogg Version: @[email protected] Release: 0.xiph.1 Summary: Ogg Bitstream Library. Group: System Environment/Libraries License: BSD URL: http://www.xiph.org/ Vendor: Xiph.org Foundation ,[email protected], Source: http://www.vorbis.com/files/1.0.1/unix/%{name}-%{version}.tar.gz BuildRoot: %{_tmppath}/%{name}-%{version}-root # Were forced to use an epoch since both Red Hat and Ximian use it in their # rc packages Epoch: 2 # Dirty trick to tell rpm that this package actually provides what the # last rc and beta was offering Provides: %{name} = %{epoch}:1.0rc3-%{release} Provides: %{name} = %{epoch}:1.0beta4-%{release} %description Libogg is a library for manipulating ogg bitstreams. It handles both making ogg bitstreams and getting packets from ogg bitstreams. %package devel Summary: Ogg Bitstream Library Development Group: Development/Libraries Requires: libogg = %{version} # Dirty trick to tell rpm that this package actually provides what the # last rc and beta was offering Provides: %{name}-devel = ...
EMA and FDA regulatory testing service for Cytochrome P450 Induction using human hepatocytes - assay protocol, data and your questions answered
Mitochondrial glycosylase/lyase that specifically excises 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine residues located opposite cytosine or thymine residues in DNA, repairs oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA, contributes to UVA ...
Nei - Name Meaning. The influence of Nei makes you positive, self-assertive, and independent. ... Is the name of Nei helping you? Discover your core purpose and make it a reality through a Balanced Name. Free Name Report.
(Under license for resale from Spocus Records) 2011 - SR 1104 Born in Belgium in 1919, Eduard Bamboula Ferret was a gypsy from mixed Gitan-Manouche origin. As
(Under license for resale from Spocus Records) 2011 - SR 1104 Born in Belgium in 1919, Eduard Bamboula Ferret was a gypsy from mixed Gitan-Manouche origin. As
Dieci finalisti montrano gli avanzamenti innovatori che misurano attraverso tutte le aree di scienza del laboratorio Pittcon, la conferenza principale del mondo e lesposizione per scienza del
Since the discovery in 1974 of uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG), the first member of the family of enzymes involved in base excision repair (BER), considerable progress has been made in the understanding of DNA glycosylases, the polypeptides that remove damaged or mispaired DNA bases from DNA. We also know the enzymes that act downstream of the glycosylases, in the processing of abasic sites, in gap filling and in DNA ligation. This article covers the most recent developments in our understanding of BER, with particular emphasis on the mechanistic aspects of this process, which have been made possible by the elucidation of the crystal structures of several glycosylases in complex with their respective substrates, substrate analogues and products. The biological importance of individual BER pathways is also being appreciated through the inactivation of key BER genes in knockout mouse models. ...