ATRPAC43; FUNCTIONS IN: DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, protein dimerization activity, DNA binding; INVOLVED IN: transcription; LOCATED IN: nucleus; EXPRESSED IN: 11 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 4 anthesis, C globular stage, petal differentiation and expansion stage, D bilateral stage, E expanded cotyledon stage; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: DNA-directed RNA polymerase, insert (InterPro:IPR011262), DNA-directed RNA polymerase, dimerisation (InterPro:IPR011261), DNA-directed RNA polymerase, RpoA/D/Rpb3-type (InterPro:IPR011263), DNA-directed RNA polymerase, 30-40 kDa subunit, conserved site (InterPro:IPR001514), DNA-directed RNA polymerase, RBP11-like (InterPro:IPR009025); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: ATRPAC42; DNA binding / DNA-directed RNA polymerase/ protein dimerization (TAIR:AT1G60850.2); Has 1009 Blast hits to 1009 proteins in 248 species: Archae - 155; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 242; Fungi - 224; Plants - 67; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 321 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L) Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from Lifespan Biosciences,Chicken Anti-Human DNA-directed RNA Polymerase II 7.6 Kd Polypeptide (POLR2L Polyclonal AntibodyOther ELISA, Western Blot,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
casSAR Dugability of A3N326 | rpoC | DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta - Also known as RPOC_ACTP2, rpoC. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. The RNAP catalytic core consists of 2 alpha, 1 beta, 1 beta and 1 omega subunit. When a sigma factor is associated with the core the holoenzyme is formed, which can initiate transcription.
Numerous hits in gapped BLAST to DNA-directed RNA polymerase sequences,e.g.residues 1-1390 are 64% similar to DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain from Escherichia coli (gb,AAB18647.1,). Residues 1-1390 are 64% similar to DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 (11348463,). Residues 12-1166 are 45% similar to DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain from Chlamydia trachomatis serotype D, strain UW3/Cx (gb,AAC67908.1,).Residues 20-963 are 45% similar and residues 839-1389 are 38% similar to DNA-directed RNA polymerase, beta subunit from syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum (gb,AAC65229.1 ...
casSAR Dugability of Q6GJC6 | rpoB | DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta - Also known as RPOB_STAAR, rpoB. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. The RNAP catalytic core consists of 2 alpha, 1 beta, 1 beta and 1 omega subunit. When a sigma factor is associated with the core the holoenzyme is formed, which can initiate transcription.
This gene encodes a DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit. The encoded protein contains two potential zinc-binding motifs and may play a role in regulation of cell proliferation. The encoded protein may be involved in cancer and human immunodeficiency virus progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013 ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT gene. This gene encodes a mitochondrial DNA-directed RNA polymerase. The gene product is responsible for mitochondrial gene expression as well as for providing RNA primers for initiation of replication of the mitochondrial genome. Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of bacteriophage and mitochondrial polymerases of lower eukaryotes. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000099821 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020329 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Tiranti V, Savoia A, Forti F, DApolito MF, Centra M, Rocchi M, Zeviani M (Jul 1997). "Identification of the gene encoding the human mitochondrial RNA polymerase (h-mtRPOL) by cyberscreening of the Expressed Sequence Tags database". Hum Mol Genet. 6 (4): 615-25. ...
cansSAR 3D Structure of 5VT0_L | ESCHERICHIA COLI 6S RNA DERIVATIVE IN COMPLEX WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI RNA POLYMERASE SIGMA70-HOLOENZYME | 5VT0
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates.
DNA-dependent RNA polymerases catalyze the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Common component of RNA polymerases I, II and III which synthesize ribosomal RNA precursors, mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs, and small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs, respectively. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Pols are composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. In Pol II, RPB6 is part of the clamp element and together with parts of RPB1 and RPB2 forms a pocket to which the RPB4-RPB7 subcomplex binds (By similarity).
GO Terms Descrition:, RNA polymerase II activity, DNA binding, DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, protein binding, nucleus, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, core complex, transcription, DNA-templated, gastrulation, embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching, transferase activity, nucleotidyltransferase activity, mRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, metal ion binding, reproduction, mitotic spindle organization, exit from mitosis, asymmetric cell division, developmental process, protein methylation, hatching, nematode larval development, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter ...
DNA-directed RNA interference (ddRNAi) is a gene-silencing technique that utilizes DNA constructs to activate an animal cells endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. DNA constructs are designed to express self-complementary double-stranded RNAs, typically short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), that once processed bring about silencing of a target gene or genes. Any RNA, including endogenous mRNAs or viral RNAs, can be silenced by designing constructs to express double-stranded RNA complementary to the desired mRNA target. This mechanism has great potential as a novel therapeutic to silence disease-causing genes. Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated across a range of disease models, including viral diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B or hepatitis C, or diseases associated with altered expression of endogenous genes such as drug-resistant lung cancer, neuropathic pain, advanced cancer and retinitis pigmentosa. As seen in Figure 1, a ddRNAi construct encoding an shRNA is packaged into a delivery vector ...
The mitochondrial genome is transcribed by a single-subunit T7 phage-like RNA polymerase (mtRNAP), structurally unrelated to cellular RNAPs. In higher eukaryotes, mtRNAP requires two transcription factors for efficient initiation-TFAM, a major nucleoid protein, and TFB2M, a transient component of mt …
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The ada and aidB genes are part of the adaptive response to DNA methylation damage in Escherichia coli. Transcription of the ada and the aidB genes is triggered by binding of the methylated Ada protein (meAda) to a specific sequence located 40-60 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start, which is internal to an A/T-rich region. In this report we demonstrate that the Ada binding site is also a binding site for RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase is able to bind the -40 to -60 region of the ada and the aidB promoters in the absence of meAda, and its binding is mediated by the alpha subunit. This region resembles the UP element of the rrnB P1 promoter in location, sequence and mechanism of interaction with RNA polymerase. We discuss the function of UP-like elements in positively controlled promoters and provide evidence that Ada does not act by enhancing RNA polymerase binding affinity to the promoter region. Instead, Ada stimulates transcription by modifying the nature of the RNA polymerase-promoter
The SCOP classification for the RNA polymerase subunits superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Nascent transcripts in permeabilized HeLa cells were elongated by approximately 30-2,000 nucleotides in Br-UTP or biotin-14-CTP, before incorporation sites were immunolabelled either pre- or post-embedding, and visualized by light or electron microscopy. Analogues were concentrated in approximately 2,100 (range 2,000-2,700) discrete sites attached to a nucleoskeleton and surrounded by chromatin. A typical site contained a cluster (diameter 71 nm) of at least 4, and probably about 20, engaged polymerases, plus associated transcripts that partially overlapped a zone of RNA polymerase II, ribonucleoproteins, and proteins rich in thiols and acidic groups. As each site probably contains many transcription units, these results suggest that active polymerases are confined to these sites, which we call transcription factories. Results are consistent with transcription occurring as templates slide past attached polymerases, as nascent RNA is extruded into the factories.
A gapped BLAST reveals a number of significant hits to proteins described as DNA-directed RNA Polymerase Beta Chain. For example: UU187 residues 1-1413 are 52% similar to residues 1-1387 of RPOB_MYCGA (M.gallisepticum). Other significant hits are against (but not limited to) the RpoB proteins of M.pneumoniae (RPOB_MYCPN), B.subtilis (RPOB_BACSU), S.aureus (RPOB_STAAU) and B.burgdorferi (RPOB_BORBU ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
5uhg_E mol:protein length:110 DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega MSISQSDASLAAVPAVDQFDPSSGASGGYDTPLGITNPPIDELLDRVSSKYALVIYAAK RARQINDYYNQLGEGILEYVGPLVEPGLQEKPLSIALREIHADLLEHTEGE ...
Uncharacterized protein; KEGG- tva-TVAG_193760 DNA-directed RNA polymerase, omega subunit family protein Pfam- DUF683 TBPIP bZIP_1 Tektin HalX PspA_IM30 Tup_N GBP_C Vicilin_N priB_priC DMPK_coil PLU-1 DUF812 Cortex-I_coil HALZ LMP UVR ATG16 Prefoldin_2 Syntaxin-6_N Myosin_tail_1 Spectrin Tropomyosin DUF904 SpoOE-like Rab5-bind Filament DUF593 HSBP1 TPR_MLP1_2 Nnf1 PROSITE- GLU_RICH LYS_RICH (509 aa ...
Transcription is a crucial step in gene expression, orchestrated by RNA polymerase (RNAP), a molecular machine that transfers genetic information from DNA to RNA . Bacterial transcription provides a tractable model system which provides mechanistic insights on its more complex eukaryotic counterpart. Bacterial transcription is initiated after an RNAP holoenzyme (core RNAP bound to a σ initiation factor) melts the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) around the transcription start to form a transcription bubble in the RNAP-promoter DNA open complex (RPo). Subsequently, RNAP performs cycles of RNA synthesis and dissociation (abortive initiation) and at a certain point, escapes from the promoter and enters elongation. RNAP has been studied extensively using genetic, biochemical and structural methods. Recent X-ray structures 3,4 vastly improved our understanding of transcription, leading to mechanistic proposals, and experiments that tested these proposals and further examined RNAP function. However, crystal
TY - PAT. T1 - Therapeutics for Drug-Resistant Bacterial Infections: Inhibitors of Bacterial RNA Polymerase. AU - Ebright, Richard. AU - Feng, Yu. AU - Zhang, Yu. PY - 2017/1. Y1 - 2017/1. N2 - Invention Summary: Bacterial infectious diseases kill 100,000 persons each year in the US and 11 million persons each year worldwide, representing nearly a fifth of deaths each year worldwide. For six decades, antibiotics have been our bulwark against bacterial infectious diseases. However, now this bulwark is collapsing. For all major bacterial pathogens, strains resistant to at least one current antibiotic have arisen, and, for several bacterial pathogens, strains resistant to all current antibiotics have arisen. There is an urgent national and international need for new classes of antibacterial agents effective against bacterial pathogens resistant to current antibacterial agents. Rutgers researchers have identified five new "drug targets" within the structure of bacterial RNA polymerase, the enzyme ...
ZNRD1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_740753), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit. The encoded protein contains two potential zinc-binding motifs and may play a role in regulation of cell proliferation. The encoded protein may be involved in cancer and human immunodeficiency virus progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes the 58 kilodalton subunit of DNA primase, an enzyme that plays a key role in the replication of DNA. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a 49 kilodalton subunit. This heterodimer functions as a DNA-directed RNA polymerase to synthesize small RNA primers that are used to create Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand of the DNA. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. This gene has a related pseudogene, which is also present on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014 ...
General Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that form transcription initiation complexes on DNA, bind to specific DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES and are required to initiate transcription. Although their binding may be localized to distinct sequence and structural motifs within the DNA they are considered non-specific with regard to the specific gene being transcribed.
FIG. 4. Role of RssB-ClpXP and putative signal input in the σS recognition and degradation pathway. The response regulator RssB is an essential, specific, and direct σS recognition factor. RssB delivers σS to the ClpXP protease, where σS is unfolded and completely degraded whereas RssB is released. σS binding requires RssB phosphorylation, but it is unclear whether the catalytic cycle of RssB involves obligatory dephosphorylation during release and subsequent rephosphorylation. Stress signals may affect (i) the phosphorylation of RssB and therefore RssB-σS complex formation; (ii) the cellular level of RssB (which in growing cells is rate limiting for σS proteolysis); (iii) the synthesis of σS such that RssB becomes titrated on σS overproduction; (iv) σS association with RNA polymerase core enzyme, which protects against binding by RssB; and (v) the function of the ClpXP protease itself (see the text for details). However, the molecular details of the stress signal input pathways ...
Our lab studies transcription, the first step in gene expression, whereby the genetic information coded in the DNA is utilized for the synthesis of RNA. Most regulation of gene expression occurs at the level of transcription. Transcription in all cells is carried out by multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) that are conserved in sequence
DNA transcription follows a chain of events: initiation, elongation and termination, in which initiation usually the slowest. This is mainly due to the process of RNA-polymerase (RNAP) proper binding to the promoter region on DNA and formation of the open transcription bubble, but also due to many failed attempts of the initially-transcribing complex (ITC) to escape the promoter region and transition to elongation. The latter involves multiple polymerization rounds of short transcript that are depleted from the complex after RNAP aborts a transcription trial to try again (abortive initiation). Traditionally, each round of abortive initiation was thought to be rapid. Using single-molecule FRET as well as magnetic tweezers nanomanipulation tools we have recently discovered an abortive initiation intermediate in which a short transcript on its way to be depleted, stabilizes the complex in a unique conformation with blockage of the nucleotide entry channel (the secondary channel). Even more ...
This gene encodes one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases ...
Using molecular modeling approach, potential antibacterial agents with triazole core were proposed. A moderate to weak level of antibacterial activity in most of the compounds have been observed, with best minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.003 mg/mL, as shown by the 15 against S. epidermidis. Studied compounds were also submitted to the antifungal assay. The best antifungal activity was detected for 16 with MIC at 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, respectively.
More specifically: The bacteria cells of strain HTll5(DE3) contain the T7 RNA polymerase gene (contained within a stable insertion of a modified lambda prophage λ DE3) under the control of lac operon regulatory elements. This allows expression of T7 polymerase to be controlled by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), a lactose analogue that induces expression of genes under the control of the lac operon o gene. When IPTG is added, the cells will begin to synthesize lots of T7 RNA polymerase. This T7 RNA polymerase can then bind to the T7 promoter sites on the plasmid and begin to synthesize RNA from both T7 RNA polymerase sites. Because the two single strands of RNA are complementary to each other they will form double stranded RNA within the bacterial cell. The IPTG induction allows us to "turn on" and express the plasmid gene of interest only when we want to and it allow us to make much higher levels of RNA for RNA interference than would be made without this induction. Another useful ...
More specifically: The bacterial cells of strain HTll5(DE3) contain the T7 RNA polymerase gene (contained within a stable insertion of a modified lambda prophage λ DE3) under the control of lac operon regulatory elements. This allows expression of T7 polymerase to be controlled by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), a lactose analogue that induces expression of genes under the control of the lac operon o gene. When IPTG is added, the cells will begin to synthesize lots of T7 RNA polymerase. This T7 RNA polymerase can then bind to the T7 promoter sites on the plasmid and begin to synthesize RNA from both T7 RNA polymerase sites. Because the two single strands of RNA are complementary to each other they will form double stranded RNA within the bacterial cell. The IPTG induction allows us to "turn on" and express the plasmid gene of interest only when we want to and it allow us to make much higher levels of RNA for RNA interference than would be made without this induction. Another useful ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant |em|E. coli |/em| RNA polymerase NusA protein (ab117669). Please download our general protocols booklet
I am currently a first year molecular biology student at university. I just have a question and I hope that its okay to ask here. I currently have a simple expression system setup within E.Coli K12 strains, using a phagemid with Tet-R/Amp-R genes, and my gene of interest inserted downstream of the T7 promoter. I plan to introduce a heat-inducible plasmid containing the gene for the T7 RNA polymerase under the control of an E.Coli promoter into the cells, and induce it in the presence of labelled amino acids, and Rifampicin to inhibit endogenous RNA polymerases in the hope of translating the gene of interest, labelled, and easily purified. My question is - knowing that the T7 RNA polymerase can be highly processive, is it likely to also transcribe the Amp/Tet genes and thus make it somewhat harder to purify the gene of interest? Thanks ...
Here we review recent findings and offer a perspective on how the major variant RNA polymerase of bacteria, which contains the sigma54 factor, functions for regulated gene expression. We consider what gaps exist in our understanding of its genetic, biochemical and biophysical functioning and how they might be addressed.
The crystal structure of Thermus transcription activation complexes containing the transcriptional activator CarD reveals a new mechanism for the activation of transcription.
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Magnesium atom in PDB 1t9z: Three-Dimensional Structure of A Rna-Polymerase II Binding Protein.
In all organisms, RNA synthesis is carried out by proteins - known as RNA polymerases (RNAPs) - that transcribe the genetic information from DNA in a highly-regulated, multi-stage process. RNAP is the key enzyme involved ...
View Notes - ENGR 213_Quiz1_key from ENGR 213 at Cal Poly. 4) Proteins are made of _ amino-acid _. 5) _ RNA _ -polymerase reads a DNA template and produces a complementary strand of RNA. 6) _ DNA _
Please see the attached file for full problem description. --- 1. Heparin is a polyanion that inhibits RNA transcription in vitro by binding directly to bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). If heparin interferes with the ability of.
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Regulation the PahdIMS activity in vitro and in vivo. (A) A single-round transcription in vitro by E.coli RNAP σ70 holoenzyme (100 nM) from regulatory region D
This layered fruit and gelatin salad recipe makes 12 servings. Serve it on lettuce leaf covered salad plates. - Layered Fruit & Gelatin Salad Recipe - Home Cooking at BellaOnline
casSAR Dugability of P25441 | RPC53 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC4 - Also known as RPC4_YEAST, RPC53, RPC4. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. Essential for tRNA synthesis. The RPC53/RPC4-RPC37/RPC5 subcomplex is required for terminator recognition and reinitiation. Component of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complex consisting of 17 subunits. Interacts with RPC37/RPC5. RPC53/RPC4, RPC37/RPC5 and RPC11/RPC10 probably form a Pol III subcomplex.
SCDNAALG2 X87947 3123bp DNA PLN 16-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae ALG2 gene. ALG2 gene; glycosyltransferase; ALG2. SCJ1PROM Z49780 573bp DNA PLN 13-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae promoter DNA (573 bp). SCVRP1GEN X87806 3423bp DNA PLN 13-JUN-1995 S.cerevisiae VRP1 gene. verprolin; vrp1 gene; vrp1. YSCF4121 D44598 18837bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI phage 4121. DNA-directed RNA polymerase mitochondrial; GTP-binding protein YPT1; actin; tubulin beta chain; ACT1; ACTIN; YPT1; GTP-BINDING PROTEIN YPT1(YP2); TUB2; TUBULIN BETA CHAIN; RPO41; DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE MITOCHONDRIAL. YSCF9965 D44597 36230bp DNA PLN 28-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9965. hexokinase A; mitochondrial ribosomal protein; nuclearintegrity protein 1; proteosome component PRE4; YMR31; PRE4; NIN1; nuclearintegrity protein 1; HXK1; HEXOKINASE A. YSCF9993 D44603 35881bp DNA PLN 24-JUN-1995 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VI cosmid 9993. To obtain any of the yeast GenBank sequences you can ...
Figure 2.Ascoviridae: Phylogenetic tree obtained with nine core proteins shared by the members of Ascoviridae, Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. The tree was calculated using Mafft or Muscle alignments curated with Gblock (parameters were: -t=p -e=-gb1 -b2=N -b3=40 -b4=2 -b5=a -v=120), except for the RNase III orthologues, for which the complete sequence alignment was used. Alignments of the homologues of HvAV-3g ORF1 (DNA polymerase), 11 (DNA-directed RNA polymerase), 15 (DEAD-like helicase), 70 (DNA-directed RNA polymerase II), 74 (hypothetical protein), 81 (hypothetical protein), 85 (serine/threonine protein kinase), 122 (ATPase), 160 (hypothetical protein) were concatenated and trees based on maximum likelihood were calculated with PhyML. Parameters used were WAG (substitution matrix), 0 (proportion of invariable sites), 7 in a, and 5 in f (number of relative substitution rate categories), and F (substitution model). The protein substitution model, the proportion of invariable sites, the ...
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