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Recombinant Human DNA polymerase eta protein is a Wheat germ Full length protein 1 to 414 aa range and validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE.
Enzymes for everyday PCR, faster than Taq DNA Polymerase, and TA Cloning compatible. Top DNA polymerase is a novel thermostable DNA polymerase that is more processive than Taq DNA polymerase. In fact, the extension rate of Top DNA Polymerase is , 3 x that of Taq DNA Polymerase! Top DNA Polymerase can be used for a variety of PCR applications (including TA cloning) and is a robust enzyme for everyday PCR. It contains no proofreading or 5-3 Exonuclease activity ...
DNA polymerase II (also known as DNA Pol II or Pol II) is a prokaryotic DNA-Dependent DNA polymerase encoded by the PolB gene. DNA Polymerase II is an 89.9-kDa protein and is a member of the B family of DNA polymerases. It was originally isolated by Thomas Kornberg in 1970, and characterized over the next few years. The in vivo functionality of Pol II is under debate, yet consensus shows that Pol II is primarily involved as a backup enzyme in prokaryotic DNA replication. The enzyme has 5 → 3 DNA synthesis capability as well as 3 → 5 exonuclease proofreading activity. DNA Pol II interacts with multiple binding partners common with DNA Pol III in order to enhance its fidelity and processivity. DNA Polymerase I was the first DNA-Directed DNA polymerase to be isolated from E. coli. Several studies involving this isolated enzyme indicated that DNA pol I was most likely involved in repair replication and was not the main replicative polymerase. In order to better understand the in vivo role of ...
T7 DNA polymerase is an enzyme used during the DNA replication of the T7 bacteriophage. During this process, the DNA polymerase "reads" existing DNA strands and creates two new strands that match the existing ones. The T7 DNA polymerase requires a host factor, E. coli thioredoxin, in order to carry out its function. This helps stabilize the binding of the necessary protein to the primer-template to improve processivity by more than 100-fold, which is a feature unique to this enzyme. It is a member of the Family A DNA polymerases, which include E. coli DNA polymerase I and Taq DNA polymerase. This polymerase has various applications in site-directed mutagenesis as well as a high-fidelity enzyme suitable for PCR. It has also served as the precursor to Sequenase, an engineered-enzyme optimized for DNA sequencing. Figure 2. Nucleotidyl transfer by DNA polymerase. T7 DNA polymerase catalyzes the phosphoryl transfer during DNA replication of the T7 phage. As shown in Figure 2, the 3 hydroxyl group of ...
Product Description. Biocredes HiTaq DNA Polymerase is a novel DNA polymerase with strategically engineered mutations resulting in a robust, high-fidelity polymerase. HiTaq DNA polymerase has exceptional 3 to 5 exonuclease activity that endows it with superior accuracy over competitor polymerases. This novel enzyme has intrinsically high processivity and is engineered to have an improved binding affinity for DNA resulting in highly successful PCR.. Biocredes HiTaq 2X PCR MasterMix is a ready-to-use mixture containing all the necessary reagents for highly successful amplification of DNA (high-fidelity DNA Polymerase, deoxynucleotides, reaction buffer and a sophisticated blend of additives in a 2X concentration). The HiTaq 2X PCR MasterMix advanced buffer system not only tolerates A/T- and G/C-rich content, but also many PCR inhibitors commonly found in a typical DNA sample. HiTaq 2X PCR MasterMix is the most robust PCR MasterMix commercially available and will deliver an exceptional product ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replication past a trans-4-hydroxynonenal minor-groove adduct by the sequential action of human DNA polymerases ι and κ. AU - Wolfle, William T.. AU - Johnson, Robert E.. AU - Minko, Irina G.. AU - Lloyd, R. Stephen. AU - Prakash, Satya. AU - Prakash, Louise. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - The X-ray crystal structure of human DNA polymerase ι (Polι) has shown that it differs from all known Pols in its dependence upon Hoogsteen base pairing for synthesizing DNA. Hoogsteen base pairing provides an elegant mechanism for synthesizing DNA opposite minor-groove adducts that present a severe block to synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases. Germane to this problem, a variety of DNA adducts form at the N2 minor-groove position of guanine. Previously, we have shown that proficient and error-free replication through the γ-HOPdG (γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propano- 2′-deoxyguanosine) adduct, which is formed from the reaction of acrolein with the N2 of guanine, is mediated by the sequential ...
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
This retraction has been requested by the corresponding author Likui Zhang, citing authorship concerns detailed below.. The article (10.1534/g3.117.300097) was submitted and approved for publication without proper acknowledgement of funding, experiment design, data interpretation, and manuscript contributions contributed by Dr. Linda Reha-Krantz of the University of Alberta, Canada and additional research personnel and several students. All work by Dr. Zhang was done under the supervision of Dr. Reha-Krantz in Reha-Krantzs lab, the experiments designed by Reha-Krantz, and the research funded by Reha-Krantzs grants. Dr. Zhang was involved with the research as a Postdoctoral Scholar in Dr. Reha-Krantzs lab and shared in the research with Alina Radziwon and RanRan Zhang who constructed the mutant strains. Dr. Linda Reha-Krantz has declined to be listed as an author due to various concerns, which had been shared with Dr. Zhang. Additionally, the authors listed on the early online version of the ...
DNA polymerase γ is a family A DNA polymerase responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA in eukaryotes. The origins of DNA polymerase γ have remained elusive because it is not present in any known bacterium, though it has been hypothesized that mitochondria may have inherited the enzyme by phage-mediated nonorthologous displacement. Here, we present an analysis of two full-length homologues of this gene which were found in the genomes of two bacteriophages which infect the chlorophyll-d containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina. Phylogenetic analyses of these phage DNA polymerase γ proteins show they branch deeply within the DNA polymerase γ clade and therefore share a common origin with their eukaryotic homologues. We also found homologues of these phage polymerases in the environmental Community Cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis (CAMERA) database, which fell in the same clade. An analysis of the CAMERA assemblies containing the ...
... (1000 Units) For applications requiring highly accurate amplification, choose Accuris High Fidelity DNA Polymerase. Modified for better sensitivity and higher activity for more reproducible performance, this polymerase will amplify a wide range of targets.
Q5® High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase is a high-fidelity (error rate | 100 fold lower than Taq), thermostable DNA polymerase with 3´→ 5´ exonuclease activity, fused to a processivity-enhancing Sso7d domain to support robust DNA amplification.
Translesion polymerase kappa promotes replication fork restart to maintain genome stability during conditions of nucleotide deprivation.
Read "Activity of error-prone DNA polymerase iota in different periods of house mouse Mus musculus ontogeny, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Each cell division, the nuclear DNA must be replicated efficiently and with high accuracy to avoid mutations which can have an effect on cell function. There are three replicative DNA polymerases essential for the synthesis of DNA during replication in eukaryotic cells. DNA polymerase α (Pol α) synthesize short primers required for DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) and DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) to carry out the bulk synthesis. The role of Pol δ and Pol ε at the replication fork has been unclear. The aim of this thesis was to examine what role Pol ε has at the replication fork, compare the biochemical properties of Pol δ and Pol ε, and to study the function of the second largest and essential subunit of Pol ε, Dpb2.. To identify where Pol ε replicates DNA in vivo, a strategy was taken where the active site of Pol ε was altered to create a mutator polymerase leaving a unique error-signature. A series of mutant pol ε proteins were purified and analyzed for enzyme activity and fidelity of DNA ...
TLS employs specialized low‐fidelity DNA polymerases to replicate across DNA lesions that cannot be copied by replicative DNA polymerases. Each vertebrate TLS polymerase is thought to bypass a particular class of lesion (Prakash et al, 2005), and lesion bypass often requires the sequential action of two different TLS polymerases. The first polymerase inserts a nucleotide across from the damaged base, often generating a mismatched and/or distorted primer terminus (Fig 1C). This structure is extended by a second TLS polymerase, usually pol ζ, a B‐family polymerase composed of a catalytic subunit, Rev3, and a regulatory subunit, Rev7. Pol ζ is remarkably efficient at extending abnormal primer termini (Johnson et al, 2000; Prakash & Prakash, 2002; Gan et al, 2008). We showed previously that immunodepletion of pol ζ from Xenopus egg extracts inhibits the extension step during ICL repair (Räschle et al, 2008).. Pol ζ interacts physically and genetically with Rev1, a Y‐family DNA polymerase. ...
The 8-oxo-guanine (8-oxo-G) lesion is the most abundant and mutagenic oxidative DNA damage existing in the genome. Due to its dual coding nature, 8-oxo-G causes most DNA polymerases to misincorporate adenine. Human Y-family DNA polymerase iota (poliota) preferentially incorporates the correct cytosine nucleotide opposite 8-oxo-G. This unique specificity may contribute to poliotas biological role in cellular protection against oxidative stress. However, the structural basis of this preferential cytosine incorporation is currently unknown. Here we present four crystal structures of poliota in complex with DNA containing an 8-oxo-G lesion, paired with correct dCTP or incorrect dATP, dGTP, and dTTP nucleotides. An exceptionally narrow poliota active site restricts the purine bases in a syn conformation, which prevents the dual coding properties of 8-oxo-G by inhibiting syn/anti conformational equilibrium. More importantly, the 8-oxo-G base in a syn conformation is not mutagenic in poliota because ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutator alleles of yeast DNA polymerase ζ. AU - Sakamoto, Ayako N.. AU - Stone, Jana E.. AU - Kissling, Grace E.. AU - McCulloch, Scott D.. AU - Pavlov, Youri I. AU - Kunkel, Thomas A.. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - The yeast REV3 gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta (pol ζ), a B family polymerase that performs mutagenic DNA synthesis in cells. To probe pol ζ mutagenic functions, we generated six mutator alleles of REV3 with amino acid replacements for Leu979, a highly conserved residue inferred to be at the pol ζ active site. Replacing Leu979 with Gly, Val, Asn, Lys, Met or Phe resulted in yeast strains with elevated UV-induced mutant frequencies. While four of these strains had reduced survival following UV irradiation, the rev3-L979F and rev3-L979M strains had normal survival, suggesting retention of pol ζ catalytic activity. UV mutagenesis in the rev3-L979F background was increased when photoproduct bypass by pol η was eliminated by deletion ...
Buy Speedy NZYProof DNA polymerase online at NZYTech. Description: Speedy NZYProof DNA polymerase is a recombinant thermostable DNA polymerase purified from Escherichia coli that combines high fidelity and...
An endogenously-templated DNA polymerase activity from rat thymus and liver has been partially purified and characterized, and the product of the reaction analyzed. The enzyme from both sources was shown to be sensitive to pretreatment with RNases [hence it is referred to as a RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase (RS-DP)]. The molecular weight of the RS-DP complex, estimated from Sepharose 6B gel filtration, is 280,000 daltons. -- The RNA associated with the RS-DP is probably single-stranded (and therefore functions as a template) since the activity remained sensitive to RNase-treatment under conditions in which only single-stranded RNA is digested. The putative RNA template is heteropolymeric in nature, since all four nucleotides were incorporated into the DNA product to a similar extent (also indicating that the enzyme is not simply a terminal transferase). The enzyme is probably not of viral origin, as the activity was not stimulated by non-ionic detergents and also had a buoyant density (1.05 ...
Background Microsporidia, parasitic fungi-related eukaryotes infecting many cell types in an array of pets (including human beings), represent a significant health risk in immunocompromised sufferers. of 29 regular proteins kinase sequences within the Electronic. cuniculi genome, aswell as 3 genes encoding atypical proteins kinases. The microsporidian kinome presents stunning distinctions from those of various other eukaryotes, which Rabbit Polyclonal to DNA Polymerase zeta minimal kinome underscores the need for conserved proteins kinases involved with essential mobile procedures. ~30% of its kinases are expected to regulate cellular cycle development while another ~28% havent any identifiable homologues in model eukaryotes and so are likely to reveal parasitic adaptations. Electronic. cuniculi does not have MAP kinase cascades and virtually all proteins kinases that get excited about stress reactions, ion homeostasis and nutritional signalling within the model fungi S. cerevisiae and S. ...
Viral DNA polymerase in complex with DNA. Computer model showing the active site of a phi29 DNA polymerase molecule (grey ribbons) in complex with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, yellow). Phi29 DNA polymerase is an enzyme from the phi29 bacteriophage virus that catalyses DNA replication. It is increasingly being used in DNA amplification procedures. - Stock Image C010/4979
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
δ-DNA polymerase can only add to an existing chain, it cannot initiate transcription. Initiation is accomplished using a strand of RNA known as RNA primer. This is attached to the parental strand at the initiation point. Two enzymes are involved - primase and α-DNA polymerase. Primase attaches a primer of about 7-8 nucleic acids, and α-DNA polymerase then begins the process of attaching nucleic acids. α-DNA polymerase is not nearly as processive as δ-DNA polymerase, so once the initiation has been made δ-DNA polymerase takes over and simply adds nucleic acids to the exposed 3 hydroxyl group of transcribed chain.. The leading parental strand, that which goes from 3 to 5, can be transcribed continuously from the initiation point until it meets the next bubble along the chain - marked by the existence of a strand of primer. Once the RNA primer has been applied it is just a matter of adding nucleic acids to the exposed 3 hydroxyl group of the transcribed chain. The δ-DNA polymerase does ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
AmpliTaq DNA Polymerase is a 94 kDa, thermostable, recombinant DNA polymerase obtained by expression of a modified form of the Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase gene in E. coli. It is the most thoroughly characterized enzyme available for the PCR process and its recombinant nature and purificat
Two DNA polymerases may be required for synthesis of the lagging DNA strand of simian virus 40.: Agents discriminating between DNA polymerase alpha and DNA poly
Yeast DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) is a highly accurate and processive enzyme that participates in nuclear DNA replication of the leading strand template. In addition to a large subunit (Pol2) harboring the polymerase and proofreading exonuclease active sites, Pol ε also has one essential subunit (Dpb2) and two smaller, non-essential subunits (Dpb3 and Dpb4) whose functions are not fully understood. To probe the functions of Dpb3 and Dpb4, here we investigate the consequences of their absence on the biochemical properties of Pol ε in vitro and on genome stability in vivo. The fidelity of DNA synthesis in vitro by purified Pol2/Dpb2, i.e. lacking Dpb3 and Dpb4, is comparable to the four-subunit Pol ε holoenzyme. Nonetheless, deletion of DPB3 and DPB4 elevates spontaneous frameshift and base substitution rates in vivo, to the same extent as the loss of Pol ε proofreading activity in a pol2-4 strain. In contrast to pol2-4, however, the dpb3Δdpb4Δ does not lead to a synergistic increase of ...
GC-rich regions of the DNA are of special interest, as they generally occur within transcribed or control regions of the genome. However, the high GC-content makes these sequences prone to the formation of hairpin structures, which may persist even at th
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
9°N m ™ DNA Polymerase is a thermophilic DNA polymerase that has been genetically engineered to have a decreased 3→ 5 proofreading exonuclease activity (1-5% of the wildtype). 9°N m DNA Polymerase features a half-life of 6
Lamani, Devappa S (2009) Studies on synthesis DNA binding and antioxidant activity of quinolines and their metal complexes. Doctoral thesis, Kuvempu University. ...
The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible ...
Employing a novel strategy, we have virtually screened a large library of compounds to identify novel inhibitors of the reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Fifty-six top scored compounds were tested in vitro, and two of them inhibited efficiently the DNA polymerase activity of RT. The most effective compound, N-{2
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab57070 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,ICC/IF,sELISA…DNA Polymerase Kappa/POLK抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a novel protein, PDIP38, that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase δ and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. AU - Liu, Li. AU - Rodriguez-Belmonte, Esther M.. AU - Mazloum, Nayef. AU - Xie, Bin. AU - Lee, Marietta Y.W.T.. PY - 2003/3/21. Y1 - 2003/3/21. N2 - The yeast two-hybrid screening method was used to identify novel proteins that associate with human DNA polymerase δ (pol δ). Two baits were used in this study. These were the large (p125) and small (p50) subunits of the core pol δ heterodimer. p50 was the only positive isolated with p125 as the bait. Two novel protein partners, named PDIP38 and PDIP46, were identified from the p50 screen. In this study, the interaction of PDIP38 with pol δ was further characterized. PDIP38 encodes a protein of 368 amino acids whose C terminus is conserved with the bacterial APAG protein and with the F box A protein. It was found that PDIP38 also interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The ...
replication in the face of DNA damage The replication machinery inside the cell s nucleus is made up of a collection of enzymes including DNA polymerases sliding clamps and clamp loaders Bacteria have five known DNA polymerases higher organisms such as humans have more As the ring shaped beta sliding clamp works its way along the DNA double helix a network of proteins work together to unwind the two strands Polymerases then add in assembly line fashion nucleotide bases the building blocks that make up DNA to convert the now single stranded templates into two new duplex DNA molecules The new research shows that two different DNA polymerases the high fidelity Pol III replicase and the low fidelity Pol IV coordinate their action to cross obstacles encountered in the replication process They attach themselves at the same time to one beta sliding clamp Pol III copies the original DNA and acts as a proofreader to catch any misspellings and cuts any base that is wrong But Pol III is a perfectionist and ...
component of complex A-1, DNA polymerase accessory protein "clamp loader", ATP dependent,required to assemble PCNA and polymerase delta on the DNA ...
DNA damage accumulates in cells over time as a result of exposure to exogenous chemicals and physical agents (i.e., benzo[a]pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin, cigarette smoke, asbestos, ultraviolet light, radon), as well as endogenous reactive metabolites including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and NOS). Another source of DNA damage is errors that occur during normal DNA metabolism or aberrant DNA processing reactions, including DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Nucleotide misincorporation generates DNA base-base mismatches during DNA synthesis at variable rates, depending on many factors, including the specific DNA polymerases. In general, the replicative DNA polymerases have relatively high replication fidelity (see McCulloch and Kunkel, this issue), while translesion DNA polymerases, which specifically bypass sites of DNA damage, have lower replication fidelity (see Andersen et al. and Gan et al. in this issue). DNA damage, if unrepaired, has the potential to ...
The mitochondrial p55 accessory subunit of human DNA polymerase gamma enhances DNA binding, promotes processive DNA synthesis, and confers N-ethylmaleimide resistance.
BIOLASE is a highly purified thermostable DNA polymerase that offers high yield with minimal background. BIOLASE possesses 5-3 exonuclease activity and leaves an A overhang that produces PCR product suitable for effective integration into TA cloning.
The replicating polymerase scans the template, ahead of the replication fork, for the presence of uracil and halts polymerisation on detecting this base.
Have the DNA polymerase can complete leading-strand synthesis in the ends of DNA, or no, leaving 5-overhangs? I am interesting in the problem of DNA end replication, and in some literature I have find a data, describing two mechanisms for this problem - first, that polymerase before the catalytic centre also have an anchor centre, and when it comes close to the extremal end of the template, the enzyme will dissociate from the DNA molecule, leaving the last nucleotides uncopied (as the catalytic centre cannot approach to the end); second - removal of the RNA primers. Is the first mechanism really existing ...
DNA polymerase. Computer model of a molecule of DNA polymerase replicating a strand of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, across centre).
does anyone have experience with pwo DNA polymerase for long PCR fragments ? - posted in Molecular Biology: Im trying to amplify 4.5Kb from cDNA with pwo DNA polymerase - and without results (with gradient of Temp. ) ... Do I need to change my enzyme ? thanks.
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Product Description Biocredes HiTaq DNA Polymerase is a novel DNA polymerase with strategically engineered mutations resulting in a robust, high-fidelity polym
Thermo Scientific Phusion High-Fidelity DNA Polymerases set a gold standard for high performance PCR. Featuring an error rate 50-fold lower than that of Taq, and 6-fold lower than that of Pfu, Phusion High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase is excellent choice for cloning and other applications requiring high
PrimeSTAR GXL SP DNA Polymerase is a registered GPR for high-fidelity PCR with superior accuracy, and specificity even on long or GC-rich templates.