T01A23 T01A24 T01B19 T01B24 T01C24 T01D14 T01D17 T01G19 T01K11 T01K23 T01L14 T01M08 T02A06 T02A09 T02B04 T02C12 T02C19 T02D13 T02D21 T02G01 T02K03 T02L21 T02M17 T02M19 T02N13 T02N19 T02P07 T03A01 T03A07 T03B06 T03D01 T03D04 T03D14 T03E08 T03E24 T03F15 T03G12 T03I06 T03I10 T03I19 T03K15 T03K24 T03L11 T03M07 T03M08 T03M12 T03N18 T03N20 T03N24 T03P22 T04A20 T04C13 T04E12 T04E18 T04F06 T04F17 T04G01 T04G23 T04G24 T04H24 T04I08 T04J06 T04M09 T04M16 T04N08 T04N11 T04O11 T04O15 T04O20 T04P09 T05A16 T05C18 T05C21 T05D19 T05E07 T05F04 T05F05 T05F08 T05G19 T05G21 T05H08 T05L01 T05L24 T05M02 T05N06 T05N19 T05N24 T05O02 T05O12 T05O19 T05O21 T06D16 T06K02 T06K13 T06K19 T06L04 T06L07 T06L10 T06M20 T06P06 T06P12 T06P22 T07A02 T07A05 T07A22 T07B17 T07B24 T07E20 T07E21 T07F07 T07F19 T07H14 T07H16 T07H21 T07K05 T07L24 T07M06 T07N03 T07N15 T07N17 T07O20 T07P14 T08B02 T08B09 T08B13 T08C01 T08C02 T08C14 T08C16 T08D14 T08E13 T08E15 T08F02 T08F14 T08G01 T08G08 T08H03 T08H05 T08H09 T08I04 T08I05 T08I14 T08J01 T08K01 ...
Previous studies of Veronica and related genera were weakly supported by molecular and paraphyletic taxa. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of V. nakaiana and the related species V. persica and Veronicastrum sibiricum. The chloroplast genome length of V. nakaiana, V. persica and Veronicastrum sibiricum ranged from 150,198 bp to 152,930 bp. A total of 112 genes comprising 79 protein coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes were observed in three chloroplast genomes. The total number of SSRs was 48, 51 and 53 in V. nakaiana, V. persica and Veronicastrum sibiricum, respectively. Two SSRs (10 bp of AT and 12 bp of AATA) were observed in the same regions (rpoC2 and ndhD) in three chloroplast genomes. A comparison of coding genes and non-coding regions between V. nakaiana and V. persica revealed divergent sites, with the greatest variation occurring petD-rpoA region. The complete chloroplast genome sequence information regarding the three Veroniceae will be helpful for elucidating
Networks of the combined cpDNA sequence (A), nDNA SmHP (B), and nDNA RPB1 (C) haplotypes of studied Cycas species. Each circle represents one haplotype. The siz
THE evolutionary significance of natural hybridization has been debated for decades (Mayr 1942; Anderson 1949; Harrison 1993; Arnold 1997). At one extreme, it has been argued that natural hybridization is an evolutionary dead end due to formation of inviable and/or infertile hybrids (Mayr 1942; Barton and Hewitt 1985, 1989). At the other extreme, it has been suggested that natural hybridization may lead to new evolutionary lineages due to formation of relatively fit hybrids that expand into novel habitats (Anderson 1948; Arnold 1997; Ellstrand and Schierenbeck 2000; Bleeker 2003). A third potential evolutionary outcome is expansion of an intermixed form within the resident progenitors habitat, in which case the degree of mixing between hybridizing forms may range from formation of a hybrid swarm to genetic assimilation of one form by the other (Childs et al. 1996; Rhymer and Simberloff 1996; Perry et al. 2001). Natural hybridization and introgression have been reported in a growing number of ...
In the present study, we have assessed the diversity of mtDNA and cpDNA in addition to the phylogenetic relationships between Prunus genotypes that might be helpful for identifying populations and their relationships [34]. Information on polymorphic DNA in organelle genomes is necessary for evolutionary investigations [23,35]. Though, it is demanding to perform high-throughput analysis on mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA polymorphisms [36,37]. Researchers in the past have used numerous non-coding cpDNA regions to obtain adequate characters for phylogenetic resolution [38-40]. At low taxonomic levels, some non-coding cpDNA regions might show sufficient variation for phylogenetic resolution while others did not [41,42]. The genetic diversity explained by SSR markers in the studied genotypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.85 which is quite acceptable. Our results showed that there is a complete association between Cherry and plum genotypes in both mtSSR and cpSSRs, though there is a low similarity index of ...
1. Arabis alpina Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 664. 1753. Arabis alpina var. glabrata A. Blytt. Perennials; (stoloniferous, with vegetative rosettes, loosely cespitose to somewhat pulvi-nate); sparsely to moderately pubescent, trichomes stalked, cruciform, stellate, mixed with simple and forked-stalked ones. Stems usually simple from base, erect to ascending, often branched proximally, (0.6-) 1-2(-2.5) dm. Basal leaves: petiole 0-1 cm; blade spatulate, oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate, (0.4-)1-4(-5) cm × (3-)6-15(-20) mm, margins dentate to denticulate, apex obtuse or acute, surfaces usually pubescent, rarely subglabrate, trichomes stellate with simple rays. Cauline leaves 3-5(-6); blade oblong or ovate, 1-3 cm × 5-15 mm, base subcordate or auriculate, margins usually dentate, rarely subentire, apex acute or obtuse. Racemes simple, (lax). Fruiting pedicels ascending to divaricate, 4-10(-12) mm. Flowers: sepals oblong, 2.5-4(-4.7) × 1-2 mm, lateral pair conspicuously saccate basally; petals white, ...
Plant cells contain an internal clock (the circadian clock), which is able to regulate cellular processes so that they occur at the optimal time of day, causing a big increase in plant productivity. As chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis, their function is highly dependent on the daily changes in light environment.. It is thought that chloroplasts were originally free-living organisms that were incorporated into the cells of plants very early in plant evolutionary history. A result of this is that chloroplasts have retained some of the cellular machinery required to produce proteins from their own chloroplast DNA. An essential part of this machinery are sigma factors, and in present-day plants, they are encoded for by the cells nuclear DNA.. The researchers were able to show that the production of sigma factors is controlled by the plants clock. This enables the nuclear DNA to regulate the activity of chloroplast genes, and ensure that the production of proteins essential for ...
Does anyone have information concerning the possibility of Agrobacterium integrating its DNA into the genomes of plant organelles other that the nucleus (chloroplasts or mitochondria?). Thanks for any information you can give me. Brandt G. Cassidy Assistant Scientist Plant Biology The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation e-mail BGCASSIDY at noble.org ...
Word Scramble - English word CHLOROPLASTS: words that start with chloroplasts, words that end with chloroplasts, anagrams of chloroplasts, how to spell chloroplasts!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
Cypripedium calceolus parviflorum is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower from May to August. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Version 1 of The Plant List has been superseded.. This name is in version 1.1 of The Plant List, record kew-2645309, with some changes.. ...
Jansen, R. K., Raubeson, L. A., Boore, J. L., DePamphilis, C. W., Chumley, T. W., Haberle, R. C., Wyman, S. K., Alverson, A. J., Peery, R., Herman, S. J., Fourcade, H. M., Kuehl, J. V., McNeal, J. R., Leebens-Mack, J., and Cui, L. 2005. Methods for obtaining and analyzing whole chloroplast genome sequences. In Molecular Evolution: Producing the Biochemical Data, Part B, pp. 348-384. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(05)95020-9 doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(05)95020-9 ...
Jansen, R. K., Raubeson, L. A., Boore, J. L., DePamphilis, C. W., Chumley, T. W., Haberle, R. C., Wyman, S. K., ,strong,Alverson, A. J.,/strong,, Peery, R., Herman, S. J., Fourcade, H. M., Kuehl, J. V., McNeal, J. R., Leebens-Mack, J., and Cui, L. 2005. Methods for obtaining and analyzing whole chloroplast genome sequences. In Molecular Evolution: Producing the Biochemical Data, Part B, pp. 348-384. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(05)95020-9 doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(05)95020-9 ...
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... Definition Chloroplast is an organelle unique to plant cells that contains chlorophyll, which is what makes plants green and is responsible for enabling photosynthesis to occur, so that plants can convert sunlight into chemical energy. It is a type of organelle known as a plastid, characterized by
Import of chloroplast Omp85 homologs in vitro. (A) Chloroplasts isolated from pea seedlings were incubated with radiolabeled proteins indicated at left in the i
A garden picture of Arabis alpina (Alpine Rock-cress), In between is a deep red Aubrieta which is still keeping its eyes closed....:o(
Chloroplast - Cellular components are the complex biomolecules and structures of which cells, and thus living organisms, are composed.
The specific name is without the a I.e. cespitosa not caespitosa . It applies to the other photo of C. cespitosa as well. (Sent: [email protected]) ...
Chloroplast DNA variation was studied in three evergreen Quercus species (Q. suber L., Q. ilex L. and Q. coccifera L.) from the Western Mediterranean Basin using PCR-RFLP. We studied five primer pair/enzyme combinations, four of them previously used in other European Quercus, obtaining a large number of haplotypes (81) grouped in three main types (suber type, ilex-coccifera I type and ilex-coccife ...
Mapped cpDNA restriction site characters were analyzed cladistically and the resulting phylogenetic hypotheses were used to test monophyly and relationships of the infrageneric classification of Lathyrus (Fabaceae) proposed by Kupicha (1983, Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 41: 209-244). The validity of previously proposed classification systems and questions presented by these classification schemes were explored. Two cpDNA regions, rpoC (rpoC1, its intron, part of rpoC2, and their intergenic spacer) and IR- (psbA, trnH-GUG, part of ndhF, and their intergenic spacers), were analyzed for 42 Lathyrus and two Vicia species. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplified rpoC and IR- products digested with 31 and 27 restriction endonucleases, respectively, resulted in 109 potentially informative characters. The strict consensus tree suggests that several of Kupichas sections may be combined in order to constitute clades. The widespread section Orobus and the South American section ...
CONIFER CHLOROPLAST GENOMES (NEARLY) SEQUENCED ????? To date a number of chloroplast genomes have been sequenced. A few years ago there were plans to sequence the entire chloroplast genome from a conifer. Has anybody got any news about what has been done to date in this regard? Id appreciate any information. peter sibbald at EMBL-Heidelberg.DE ...
Albach, D. C., P. S. Soltis, D. E. Soltis, and R. G. Olmstead. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of asterids based on sequences of four genes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88:163-212.. Backlund, A. and B. Bremer. 1997. Phylogeny of Asteridae s. str. based on rbcL sequences, with particular reference to Dipsacales. Plant Systematics and Evolution 207:225-254.. Bremer, K., A. Backlund, B. Sennblad, U. Swenson, K. Andreasen, M. Hjertson, J. Lundberg, M. Backlund, and B. Bremer. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of 100+ genera and 50+ families of euasterids based on morphological and molecular data with notes on possible higher level morphological synapomorphies. Plant Systematics and Evolution 229:137-169.. Bremer, B., K. Bremer, N. Heidari, P. Erixon, R. G. Olmstead, A. A. Anderberg, M. K llersj , and E. Barkhordarian. 2002. Phylogenetics of asterids based on 3 coding and 3 non-coding chloroplast DNA markers and the utility of non-coding DNA at higher taxonomic levels. Molecular Phylogenetics and ...
Toc34 is an integral protein in the outer chloroplast membrane thats anchored into it by its hydrophobic[48] C-terminal tail.[38][46] Most of the protein, however, including its large guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding domain projects out into the stroma.[46]. Toc34s job is to catch some chloroplast preproteins in the cytosol and hand them off to the rest of the TOC complex.[38] When GTP, an energy molecule similar to ATP attaches to Toc34, the protein becomes much more able to bind to many chloroplast preproteins in the cytosol.[38] The chloroplast preproteins presence causes Toc34 to break GTP into guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate. This loss of GTP makes the Toc34 protein release the chloroplast preprotein, handing it off to the next TOC protein.[38] Toc34 then releases the depleted GDP molecule, probably with the help of an unknown GDP exchange factor. A domain of Toc159 might be the exchange factor that carry out the GDP removal. The Toc34 protein can then take up ...
Friedl, T (1995). "Inferring taxonomic positions and testing genus level assignments in coccoid green lichen algae: a phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from Dictyochloropsis reticulata and from members of the genus Myrmecia (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae cl. nov.)". Journal of Phycology. 31 (4): 632-639. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1995.tb02559.x ...
The subspecies of Physaria kingii (S. Watson) OKane and Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae) have historically been a difficult group to delimit taxonomically based on morphology, geography, and ecology. The taxa have been moved between genera as well among varieties, subspecies, and full species many times over. This study addressed the systematics relationships of the subspecies of P. kingii using a combination of molecular (both nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences), morphological, geographical, and ecological data. Three non-coding DNA regions were chosen: the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the chloroplast rps intron and the chloroplast ndhC-trnV intergenic spacer. Eighty-seven aligned sequences in total were selected and networks were constructed using SplitsTree for exploratory data analyses to identify any genealogical discordance for each of the regions in addition to a combined chloroplast region. With the prior knowledge of possible hybridization among P. k. subsp
Postglacial migration is a major factor responsible for the patterns of genetic variation we see in natural populations. Fossil pollen data indicate that early postglacial colonists such as oak, were able to take both western and eastern migration routes into Britain. Analysis at a finer level is now permitted by the use of modern molecular techniques. A 13-bp duplication in the chloroplast tRNALeul intron occurs in natural populations of East Anglian oaks, but is not found in other parts of Britain or from mainland Europe. The distribution of this marker suggests that the mutation occurred either in southern England, or during migration from the mainland, and became fixed in a source population from which East Anglia was colonized. Planting of non-native trees for roadside boundaries and in the grounds of old houses and estates, explains the absence of the marker from some East Anglian oaks.. ...
a . This natural process is driven by the continual thermal vibrations of atoms in DNA. Just as marbles in a vibrating container always try to find lower positions, vibrating atoms tend to reorganize into arrangements with lower energies. Thus, DNA tends to form less-energetic compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide.. b . Bryan Sykes, "The Past Comes Alive," Nature, Vol. 352, 1 August 1991, pp. 381-382.. u "Many scientists still consider this idea [that DNA could last longer than 10,000 years] far fetched, but Poinar points out that not long ago few people believed any ancient DNA could be sequenced. When we started, we were told that we were crazy, he says." Kathryn Hoppe, "Brushing the Dust off Ancient DNA," Science News, Vol. 142, 24 October 1992, p. 281.. c . Ewen Callaway, "Hominin DNA Baffles Experts," Nature, Vol. 504, 5 December 2013. pp. 16-17.. d . Edward M. Golenberg et al., "Chloroplast DNA Sequence from a Miocene Magnolia Species," Nature, Vol. 344, 12 April 1990, pp. ...
Chloroplasts are organelles that take light energy and convert it into chemical energy. A chloroplast has a double membrane, the inner and outer membranes. The inner thylakoid membrane traps the light energy. Inside the inner membrane are stacks of grana, and surrounding the grana is a fluid known as stroma. Chloroplasts, which are contained in chlorophyll, contain the green pigment chlorophyll, which traps light energy and make leaves and stems green. The chemical energy that is captured by the chloroplasts is stored in sugar molecules until they are broke down. ...
Gattingers Agalinis (Agalinis gattingeri) is listed as Endangered on Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). It is a slender plant that is typically less than 15 cm tall with an olive-green stem. It flowers for only one day before the pale pink flowers fall off of the plant, making it difficult to otherwise identify. It is an annual plant that must go through an entire life cycle from germination and seedling establishment to seed-set and dispersal all in one season. As a result, this species may be present and abundant in some years, but sparse or undetectable in other years.
Scientists found DNA in two undersea sediment drill cores from the Bering Sea.1 The researchers thought the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) must have come from near-surface light-gathering organisms like diatoms, and not mud-dwelling organisms like bacteria. Discovering cpDNA from dead diatoms near the top of the seafloor presents no challenge, but these researchers found it hundreds of meters down. Long-age believers insist that hundreds of meters of sediment require at least hundreds of thousands of years to deposit. Given that DNA degrades relatively quickly, the team faced the significant challenge of explaining how DNA could persist long enough to get buried beneath that much sediment.. In the journal Geology, the three scientists described the DNA samples that came from various depths. Other researchers gave each an assigned age of over a million years.1 DNA is not supposed to last that long. Not even close.. The trio referenced a 2012 report led by Morten Allentoft, now with the Natural History ...
The Presto™ 96 Well Plant Genomic DNA Extraction Kit is designed for high-throughput purification of total DNA (including genomic DNA, mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA) from various plant species. Homogenized samples are treated with RNase A then centrifuged to remove cell debris and salt precipitates.
Hassler, M. 2018. Anchusa. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World (2019). In: Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., Nieukerken E. van, Zarucchi, J., Penev L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 1. circumscribes Anchusa s.s ...
Send resumes to **[email protected] ,[email protected],/[email protected] ,[email protected],* Position: QTP Tester. Location: Houston, TX. Duration: Long-term. *Need QTP Tester with 5-6 Years Experience, Should have working experience on loadrunner also. * *Thanks,* *Sai* -- You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups REQSRESUMES group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to [email protected] To post to this group, send email to [email protected] Visit this group at https://groups.google.com/group/reqsresumes. For more options, visit https://groups.google.com/d/optout ...
Evolution of Chloroplast J Proteins. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Chris Taylor at Catalogue of Organisms has an absolutely stunning review of the origin of chloroplasts in eukaryotes. Its so good I thought it was from Elio Schaechters blog Small Things Considered when it first popped up in my reader - higher praise there is not.
Our group had to perform the experiment twice because of inaccurate data. The first time we ran the experiment, the percent transmittance jumped well past 100% for several cuvettes at the 0 minute mark, which is clearly inaccurate. After having the chloroplast added to the rest of the solution for less than a minute, there shouldnt be that strong of the ratio of intensity of the light that has passed through the sample to the intensity of the light when it entered the sample. This led us to believe that our data was not correct. We believe that the solutions were using up the chloroplast too fast, causing the unreliable data. However, after performing the experiment a second time, we received more accurate data, especially since we deluded the chloroplast with one drop of water per one drop of chloroplast. In cuvette one there was no DPIP added. The data stayed at zero the whole time. Photosynthesis was not able to take place then because there was nothing to act as an electron acceptor, ...
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Ortiz, S., Carbajal, R., Serrano, M., Rodríguez-Oubiña, J. & Iglesias, I. 2013. Phylogeny of the African Mutisieae sl (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequences (cpDNA). Taxon 62(3): 525-536. doi: 10.12705/623.11 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page ...
Quercus is considered as one of the most important genera in the Northern Hemisphere as its economic and ecological importance. Oaks are taxonomically perplexing due to interspecific shared morphological traits and intraspecific morphological variation, which mainly attributed to hybridization. Universal plastid markers could not provide sufficient variable sites to explore the phylogeny of this genus and chloroplast genome-scale data proved to be useful to resolve intractable phylogenetic relationships. In this study, four complete chloroplast genomes of Quercus species were sequenced and one published chloroplast genomes of Q. baronii was retrieved for comparative analyses. The sizes of these five chloroplast genomes ranged from 161,072 bp (Q. baronii) to 161,237 bp (Q. dolicholepis), which has been identified the gene organization, gene order and GC content are similar to other published Fagaceae species. We analyzed the nucleotide substitution, indels and repeats in chloroplast genomes. The
The chloroplast genome (cp genome) encodes a set of proteins for photosynthesis and other house-keeping functions that are essential to plant development [1]. Cp genomes are often used for research on plant evolution. Furthermore, cp genomes are predominantly uniparentally inherited [2], have highly conserved gene content and quadripartite organisation, and consist of a large single copy (LSC), a small single copy (SSC) and two inverted copies (IRs). Therefore, cp genome is widely used to trace species history [3]-[6]. In the past several years, there has been a dramatic increase in the numbers of complete chloroplast genomes from higher plants [7]-[12]. To date, there have been 437 complete chloroplast genomes of plants deposited in the NCBI database, along with the emergence of next-generation sequencers. These database resources provide information to better understand cp genome evolution in land plants. The `living fossil Nelumbo Adans is a small genus of angiosperms with long evolutionary ...
The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of Pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum[L.] R. Br.), an important grain and forage crop in the family Poaceae, is reported in this study. The complete cp...
The genetic variable of seven Phaseolus taxa has been evaluated on the basis of molecular data and the results have used to clarify the phyletic relationships between several taxa of the P. coccineus L. complex. Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 33 populations was digested with six restriction endonucleases, revealing some polymorphisms that made it possible to divide most of the taxa into two main groups: the subspecies of P. coccineus on the one hand and P. vulgaris L., P. polyanthus Greenman and P. costaricensis (Freytag and Debouck) on the other hand. P. polyanthus is closer to P. vulgaris than the other taxa of the second group and should be considered as a separate species. The position of the wild species P. costaricensis is intermediate between P. coccineus and P. polyanthus. P. glabellus shows sufficient polymorphisms at the cpDNA level to be recognized as a separate species, as previously suggested from total seed-protein electrophoretic studies. These results favour the hypothesis of a ...
Pinus, the Pines, is a genus of approximately 111 extant tree and shrub species. The genus is currently split into two subgenera: subgenus Pinus (hard pines), and subgenus Strobus (soft pines). Each of the subgenera have several sections within based on chloroplast DNA sequencing. Older classifications split the genus into three subgenera - subgenus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, and subgenus Ducampopinus (Pinyon, Bristlecone and Lacebark pines) - based on cone, seed and leaf characteristics. DNA phylogeny has shown that species formerly in subgenus Ducampopinus are members of subgenus Strobus, so Ducampopinus is no longer used. The species of subgenus Ducampopinus were regarded as intermediate between the other two subgenera. In the modern classification, they are placed into subgenus Strobus, yet they did not fit entirely well in either so they were classified in a third subgenus. In 1888 the Californian botanist John Gill Lemmon placed them in subgenus Pinus. In general, this classification ...
Physical and gene map of the green alga Nephroselmis chloroplast genome, showing the typical structural arrangement found in land plants. Genes located on the inside of the map are transcribed counterclockwise, and genes on the outside are transcribed clockwise. The inner circle shows where the Small Single-Copy region (SSC), Large Single Copy region (LSC) and Inverted Repeats (IR), are located. The thick lines on the actual map are the IRs. Figure from Turmel et al. (1999). © 1999 National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. The B copy (IR-B) of the inverted repeat is the copy that is missing in legume taxa in the IRLC.. ...
Arabis alpina subsp caucasica. The pretties of the garden, annuals and perennials provide a variety of colours and nectar. Perennials can also give striking winter structures if left uncut.
Although tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae) is considered monophyletic, relationships within the tribe are still poorly understood. The complexity of Stachydeae includes paraphyletic genera, considerable morphological plasticity, a range of ploidy levels, and presumably frequent natural hybridization. We performed parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nuclear (ribosomal ITS) and plastid (trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, rps16 intron) DNA sequence data from a taxonomically and geographically broad sampling of the tribe to identify major evolutionary lineages and to test taxonomic hypotheses within this largest of all lamioid tribes. We included 143 accessions corresponding to 121 species, representing both Old and New World species, and all 12 recognized genera of tribe Stachydeae. Both nuclear and plastid data corroborate monophyly of the tribe, with Melittis as sister to all remaining Stachydeae. For the latter well-supported clade, we suggest the phylogenetic name Eurystachys. Within ...
Species of Bryopsidales form ecologically important components of seaweed communities worldwide. These siphonous macroalgae are composed of a single giant tubular cell containing millions of nuclei and chloroplasts, and harbor diverse bacterial communities. Little is known about the diversity of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs) in this group, and about the possible consequences of intracellular bacteria on…
Numerous studies show ramifications of abscisic acid solution (ABA) about nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. It repressed transcription from the chloroplast phage-type T0070907 and bacteria-type RNA polymerases and reduced transcript degrees of most looked into chloroplast genes significantly. ABA didnt repress the transcription of and some other genes as well as increased mRNA amounts under certain circumstances. The ABA results on chloroplast transcription had been even more pronounced in basal vs. apical leaf sections and improved by light. Simultaneous software of cytokinin (22 μM 6-benzyladenine) reduced the ABA results on chloroplast gene manifestation. These data show that ABA impacts the manifestation of chloroplast genes differentially and factors to a job of ABA in the rules and coordination of the actions of nuclear and chloroplast genes coding for protein with features in photosynthesis. (L.) nucleus-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP) plastid-encoded plastid ...
Two cytoplasmic organelles responsible for the production of energy are the mitochondria (present in nearly all eukaryotic cells) and chloroplasts (present only in photosynthetic organisms). Both contain small, circular DNA molecules that constitute the nonnuclear portion of a eukaryotic genome. These organelles are descended from formerly free-living bacteria that took up residence in the first eukaryotes.. The human mitochondrial genome contains 16,569 base pairs specifying 13 protein products and 24 RNA products. In both lower eukaryotes and especially plants, larger mitochondrial genomes are present. In extreme cases, mitochondrial genomes may be several hundred thousand or millions of base pairs. Chloroplast genomes contain between 100 and 200 kilobases. It is thought that each was once larger, but over time their genes have been moved to the nucleus.. ...