TY - JOUR. T1 - Smoking-related dna adducts. T2 - P-postlabeling analysis of 7-methylguanine in human bronchial and lymphocyte dna. AU - Mustonen, Rütta. AU - Schoket, Bernadette. AU - Hemminki, Kari. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - 7-methylguanine DNA adducts were determined in macroscopically normal bronchial specimens and peripheral blood lymphocytes of 20 patients undergoing pulmonary surgery. A recently developed 32P-postlabeling assay was applied with anion exchange chromatography as an adduct enrichment method. The material consisted of 13 smokers and 7 non-smokers. The mean bronchial 7-methylguanine levels of 11 smokers and 6 non-smokers were 17.3 and 4.7 adducts/107 nucleotides. In lymphocyte DNA, the respective mean levels were 11.5 and 2.3 adducts/107 nucleotides. The bronchial DNA adduct levels in smokers were statistically higher than those in non-smokers. Among 5 smokers, for whom both bronchial and lymphocyte DNA was available, 7-methylguanine levels correlated in the two ...
Background: Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect the ability of an individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such adducts. Factors that have been reported to be related to DNA adduct levels include smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), genetic polymorphisms, the season of collection of biologic material, and air pollutants.. Methods: We pooled 11 studies (3,600 subjects) in which bulky DNA adducts were measured in human white blood cells with similar 32P-postlabeling techniques and for which a similar set of variables was available, including individual data on age, gender, ethnicity, batch, smoking habits, BMI, and season of blood collection, and a limited set of gene variants.. Results: Lowest DNA adduct levels (P = 0.006) were observed in the spring (median = 0.50 adducts per 108 nucleotides), followed ...
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Disclosed herein are protecting groups for exocyclic amino groups of the base cytosine for use in the synthesis of oligonucleotides and oligonucleoside phosphorothioates, the protecting groups being represented by the formula: --CO--(CH2)0-9 --CH3. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the base cytosine is protected with acetyl (--CO--CH3), and the oligonucleotide or oligonucleoside phosphorothioate incorporating the protected cytosine is subjected to a cleavage/deprotection reagent comprising methylamine and ammonia.
DNA exhibit a number of reactive sites towards electrophilic agents. Addition reactions can thus take on the various heteroatoms of the bases (N7 atoms of purines, exocyclic amino groups, O4 position of T, etc…), on C8 of purines and even on phosphates. A wide range of molecules have been ... More » ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of carcinogen-DNA adducts by immunoassay. AU - Poirier, M. C.. AU - Liou, S. H.. AU - Reed, E.. AU - Strickland, P. T.. AU - Tockman, M. S.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024522984&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024522984&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. C2 - 2664949. AN - SCOPUS:0024522984. VL - 11. SP - 353. EP - 367. JO - Journal of UOEH. JF - Journal of UOEH. SN - 0387-821X. IS - SUPPL.. ER - ...
From her very first lesson, Lena knew she would eventually become certified to teach this wonderful Technique. Over the years, AT has helped her improve her acting, movement and vocal abilities. Auditioning and performing has become a source of pleasure as opposed to a worry or fear. Creating in a room of her peers, which was once daunting and deadening, is now exciting and enlivening.. In addition to acting, Lena has experienced improvement in all areas of her life, including running, meditating, carrying heavy objects, etc…and has helped numerous people with their issues. Whether it be stage fright or back pain that is bothering you, Lena is eager to share what she has learned with the Technique to help solve your problems.. Lena is currently in her final term at the Alexander Education Center of Berkeley under Giora Pinkas, John Baron, and Robert Britton. Before she began her training in Berkeley, Lena studied the Alexander Technique for a total of 8 years under various teachers including ...
2-Hexenal is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound which is mutagenic, genotoxic and forms cyclic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts like similar propenals for which carcinogenicity was shown, e.g. acrolein or crotonaldehyde. Since humans have a permanent intake of 2-hexenal via vegetarian food this genotoxic compound is considered to play a role in human carcinogenicity. The data base is, however, presently not sufficient for a cancer risk assessment. To date no long term carcinogenicity study on 2-hexenal has been published. Detection of respective DNA adducts of this substance in animals or humans could allow cancer risk assessment. Therefore, we have developed a 32P-post-labeling technique based on nuclease P1 enrichment and TLC separation of the labeled adducts. The respective adducts are stable over a wide pH range from pH 4 to pH 11 and relatively stable against nuclease P1. The detection limit was 0.03 adducts per 106 nucleotides and the recovery was 10%. With this method we have shown ...
Our previous studies suggested that body fluids such as serum can serve as a novel surrogate for DNA-containing tissues to overcome the major limiting factor of tissue availability in human biomonitoring assessments. We have now examined the detectability of DNA-reactive metabolites (DRMs) in the serum and tissues of male C57BL/6 mice administered up to 10 i.p. injections on alternate days of individual polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or a mixture containing 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg body wt each of benzo[a]pyrene (BP), cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BF) in 200μl sunflower oil. Four hours after the last dose, blood serum was separated and incubated with salmon testes DNA (st-DNA).32P-Post-labeling of the st-DNA showed essentially the same adduct pattern as found in the tissue DNA, indicating that DRMs of the PAHs used were presumably sequestered and accumulated in the serum proteins. Serum DRMs were detectable at all doses tested following exposure to a mixture ...
C043931000 - Benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-DNA - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The chemistry of acrolein and crotonaldehyde-derived propano-deoxyguanosine (γ-OH-PdG and α-CH3-γ-OH-PdG) adducts was monitored in the 5´-CpG-3´ sequence within a dodecamer duplex by NMR spectroscopy, in situ, using a series of site-specific 13C- and 15N-edited experiments. One striking phenomenon was the formation of an interstrand DNA cross-link, predominantly a carbinolamine. The cross-link existed in equilibrium with the non-crosslinked aldehyde and its geminal diol hydrate. The ratio of aldehyde/diol increased at higher temperatures. The effects of the pH and complementary bases were examined. Molecular modeling suggested that the carbinolamine linkage should be capable of maintaining Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds at both of the tandem C•G base pairs. In contrast, dehydration of the carbinolamine cross-link to an imine (Schiff base) cross-link, or cyclization of the latter to form a pyrimidopurinone cross-link, was predicted to require disruption of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds at one ...
High mobility group box (HMGB) proteins are DNA-binding proteins that regulate many important DNA-related processes. They are known to recognize the major lesion present in cisplatin-modified DNA, and have been assumed to ...
The E.Z.N.A.® SQ Tissue DNA Kit provides a reliable method for the isolation of high molecular weight genomic DNA from various types of fresh or frozen tissue samples. This solution based system can process single or multiple samples simultaneously in less than 90 minutes. Samples are lysed with WTL Buffer/Protease and cellular proteins are removed by precipitation. High molecular genomic DNA remains in solution and is purified by isopropanol precipitation. DNA purified using the E.Z.N.A.® SQ Tissue DNA Kit is free of contaminants and enzyme inhibitors making it suitable for downstream applications such as PCR, Southern blotting and restriction enzyme digestion.. ...
A high-titer antiserum has been elicited against TAM-DNA modified to 2.4% with α-acetoxytamoxifen. The TAM-dG adduct formed by this modification is the predominant DNA adduct found in livers of rats exposed to this drug. The antiserum has been used to develop two immunoassays, DELFIA and CIA, with a detection limit for the CIA at 2.6 adducts per 109 nucleotides. By competitive DELFIA, the antiserum has been demonstrated to be specific for TAM in DNA, with cross-reactivities for the individual adduct, the drug or its metabolites, and unmodified DNA occurring only at ∼1000-fold higher concentrations or not at all. The immunogen adduct, TAM-dG, was the first TAM-DNA adduct characterized in livers of TAM-exposed rats (16) . Recently, another major TAM-DNA adduct, the product of a N-desmethylated TAM metabolite, has been demonstrated in rat liver (34, 35, 36, 37) . Preliminary results3 indicate that TAM-DNA antiserum may recognize DNA modified with N-desmethyl-TAM-dG similarly to the immunogen ...
In an article in the April 2000 issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, an authors surname, "Besaratinia," appeared as "Nia." For consistency in the literature, the author would like to revise the author list for that article. The corrected citation appears below.. Besaratinia A, Maas LM, Van Breda SG, Curfs DM, Kleinjans JC, Wouters EF, Van Schooten FJ. Applicability of induced sputum for molecular dosimetry of exposure to inhalatory carcinogens: 32P-postlabeling of lipophilic DNA adducts in smokers and nonsmokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:367-72.. ...
5202 Pancreatic cancer represents a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with only limited (,5 years) survival rate. Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the development of pancreatic cancer. Because of the high mortality rate, it is necessary that early biomarkers be developed before the onset of pathological changes. In this study, we analyzed highly lipophilic adducts in the pancreas DNA of non-smokers (n=7.) and smokers (n=8). Tissues were obtained from the U.S. Cooperative Tissue Network, and the isolated DNAs were analyzed by nuclease P1-mediated 32P-postlabeling/TLC. When chromatographed in standard high-salt, high-urea solvents, adducts migrated in the form of diagonal radioactive zones in both non-smokers and smokers; however, the adduct load was significantly (p=0.031) higher in smokers (231±38 adducts/109 nucleotides, mean±SE) compared with non-smokers (94±42 adducts/109 nucleotides). To determine the chemical nature of the adducts, selected smoker DNA samples were ...
exocyclic definition: exterior to a chemical band construction: an exocyclic double-bond.; (of a cyclic chemical) maybe not developing part of, or not connected to the ring; Pertaining to the Exocyclica;…
Couldnt detect gpg so will proceed without verification! , gpg.exe is in C:\texlive\2016\tlpkg\installer\gpg, but is not in the Should be fixed after today, hopefully ;-) Sorry. Norbert ------------------------------------------------------------------------ PREINING, Norbert http://www.preining.info JAIST, Japan TeX Live & Debian Developer GPG: 0x860CDC13 fp: F7D8 A928 26E3 16A1 9FA0 ACF0 6CAC A448 860C DC13 ...
Multiple exocyclic DNA adducts arise from reactions of lipid and DNA peroxidation products with DNA bases. These endogenous lesions are mutagenic; therefore, monitoring adduct levels may provide a means of assessing genomic exposure to oxidative damage in human populations. The metabolic processing of endogenously formed exocyclic DNA adducts has now been investigated for the purpose of developing non-invasive markers of oxidative damage. The pyrimidopurinone deoxynucleoside adduct, M1dG, was found to undergo enzymatic oxidation to produce 6-oxo-M1dG. The corresponding base adduct, M1G, was subject to sequential oxidation producing first 6-oxo-M1G and then 2,6-dioxo-M1G. The enzymes xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) catalyzed the oxidation of M1dG and M1G. Additionally, the unsubstitued etheno base adduct, 1,N2-etheno-Gua, and the substituted etheno base adduct, heptanone-1,N2-etheno-Gua, were oxidized to produce 2-oxo-etheno-Gua and 2-oxo-hepatanone-etheno-Gua, ...
Resveratrol inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation in human bronchial epithelial cells Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin present in various plants and foods, has in several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. We investigated the in vitro effect of resveratrol on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) -induced DNA adducts in human bronchial epithelial cells. This was compared to the effect of resveratrol on the expression of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the formation of B[a]P metabolites. Exposure of BEAS-2B and BEP2D cells to B[a]P and increasing concentrations of resveratrol resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of DNA adduct formation quantified by (32)P-postlabelling. Supporting this result, resveratrol was shown to inhibit CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression, as measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Also, a significant correlation was found between ...
The depurinating adduct 4-OHE1(E2)-1(α, β)-N7Gua was formed in vitro and in vivo by reaction of E1(E2)-3,4-Q with DNA and after activation of 4-OHE by cytochrome P450 and peroxidases (Tables 3 and 4). CE-Q derived from 4-OHE and 2-OHE react differently with nucleosides and DNA because of their distinctive chemical properties (17). CE-2,3-Q bind to the exocyclic amino groups of dA and dG to form adducts that retain the deoxyribose moiety whereas CE-3,4-Q bind exclusively to the N-7 of Gua, resulting in destabilization of the glycosidic bond and subsequent depurination. CE-2,3-Q form 10-50 times higher levels of stable DNA adducts than CE-3,4-Q (16). CE-3,4-Q, however, give two to three orders of magnitude higher levels of depurinating than stable adducts (Table 3). Thus, CE-2,3-Q produce stable DNA adducts (16), and the corresponding CE do not induce kidney tumors in Syrian golden hamsters (18, 19) whereas CE-3,4-Q form predominantly 4-OHE1(E2)-1(α, β)-N7Gua, and E1-3,4-Q is carcinogenic in ...
Dr. Shun Matsuda reported his research on the visualization of DNA damage-response signals in cultured cells. This technology can be applied to simple and quick detection of genotoxicity. For example, DNA double-strand breaks orderly recruit several proteins and their modifications, such as phosphorylated histone H2AX, MDC1, and ATM, which coordinate DNA damage-response signals. He explained the absolute quantification of the components using mass spectrometry and how it could help to elucidate the stoichiometry and molecular mechanisms of DNA damage response.. Dr. Yoshinori Okamoto reported his research on the development of non-genotoxic tamoxifen analogs. Tamoxifen is a breast cancer drug, but one of its side effects is endometrial cancer. Based on the mechanisms of carcinogenicity with estrogenic activity and DNA adduct formations of the metabolite, new tamoxifen analogs were designed. These analogs exhibited higher anti-breast cancer potential and no DNA-adduct formation activity in animal ...
Ethenobases are promutagenic DNA adducts formed by some environmental carcinogens and products of endogenous lipid peroxidation. Mutation spectra in tumors induced in mice by urethane or its metabolite vinyl carbamate (Vcar) are compatible with 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (epsilonA) being an initiating lesion in the development of these tumors. As alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase (APNG) releases epsilonA from DNA in vitro, wild-type and APNG-/- C57Bl/6J mice were treated with Vcar and levels of epsilonA and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (epsilonC), which is not a substrate of APNG, were analyzed in liver and lung DNA. At 6 h after the last dose, levels of epsilonA were 1.6-fold higher in DNA from APNG-/- mice and subsequently persisted at higher levels for longer than in DNA from wild-type animals, confirming that epsilonA is released by APNG in vivo. In contrast, approximately 14-fold lower levels of epsilonC were induced by Vcar, and the kinetics of formation and persistence of epsilonC was similar in the two ...
An extensive literature survey on correlation of biomarkers resulted in the following preliminary conclusions: • No significant correlation between individual pairs of DNA adducts was found in a number of the 32P-postlabelling and immunoassay studies, indicating limited overlapping of the substrate specificity of the different DNA adduct methods. • Attempts to show correlations between a group of related DNA adduct structures and a chemically specific single DNA adduct structure by using the same type of methodology gave controversial results. These suggest the co-existence of both closely linked and independent metabolic activation pathways for complex mixtures of xenobiotics, and may also reflect differences in the kinetics of DNA adduct formation and elimination. • A larger number of studies revealed a positive correlation between DNA adduct levels in target and surrogate tissues than did not find a correlation. Correlation may depend on exposure dose and the metabolic capacity of the ...
1K29: The exocyclic 1,N2-deoxyguanosine pyrimidopurinone M1G is a chemically stable DNA adduct when placed opposite a two-base deletion in the (CpG)3 frameshift hotspot of the Salmonella typhimurium hisD3052 gene.
The Genomic DNA Maxi Kit (Blood/Cultured Cell) is optimized for DNA purification (including genomic, mitochondrial and viral DNA) from up to 10 ml of frozen blood or fresh blood and up to 1 x 108 cultured cells using an efficient maxiprep system. This DNA Extraction Kit uses Protease to reduce hemoglobin contamination while chaotropi
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab57070 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,ICC/IF,sELISA…DNA Polymerase Kappa/POLK抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
No all any recurrent mutations are cancer hotspots, say researchers who have demonstrated that putting recurrent mutations into genomic context can distinguish between passengers and drivers of cancer
SEATTLE, Oct. 21, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Cell Therapeutics Announces Results from Preclinical Study of Pixantrone (PIXUVRI®) Presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC...
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Im having some strange results with GPG. Im getting quite a few BAD signatures from people whos public keys are on my keyring and even the occasional bad signature from MYSELF. I know that there are some options that are on (or off) by default in GPG due to OpenPGP standards, but that conflict with PGP default settings. However, I dont think Ive ever seen an actual PGP signature on this list (most are GPG). Any suggestions? -Alex ...
Zelen j l - p rodn prost edek pro zdrav a kr su - J l je jednou z nejstar ch surovin, kter lov k za al vyu vat. A v kosmetice? - Redakce
The sensitivity of various methods suitable for biomonitoring the exposure to genotoxicants was compared in an animal model. The results were related to the presence of genotoxic effects in the target organ. Groups of male Wistar rats were given one oral dose of 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 200 mg 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)/5 ml dimethyl sulphoxide/kg body weight. Peripheral blood cells, excreta, liver and spleen were collected at different time intervals after dosing. Mutagenicity in urine and extracts of faeces was determined using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with and without S9 and with and without ??-glucuronidase. Genotoxic effects were studied by measuring DNA-adduct formation in lymphocytes, liver and spleen, and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in lymphocytes. DNA adducts were measured with immunochemical techniques and postlabelling methods. Mutagenecity in urine and faeces, collected during the first 24 h after treatment, was detected at 2-AAF doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. and ...
Electrophilic arylnitrenium ions are considered to be the ultimate reactive intermediates formed by metabolism of mutagenic and carcinogenic arylamines and nitroarenes; they can produce DNA damage by reaction with specific sites on DNA bases. We studied their formation, reactivity and the genotoxic sequelae of their reactions with cellular DNA to understand the mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of arylamines and nitroarenes as a function of their chemical structure. Arylnitrenium ions were generated by the convenient non-metabolic procedure, photolysis of arylazides, to study the reactivity of these ultimate intermediates with DNA, by means of 32P-postlabelling, and the induction of histidine reversions in Salmonella, HPRT mutations and sister chromatid exchange in mammalian (Chinese hamster V79) cells. Good correlations were observed between the DNA-binding potencies and the mutagenic and SCE-inducing potencies of the arylnitrenium ions, among these the nitrenium ions derived from the heterocyclic
What is the acronym meaning of CRC Crit Rev Toxicol, what does the acronym CRC Crit Rev Toxicol stand for, CRC Crit Rev Toxicol abbreviation means
It is evident from many different experiments, that the human nucleotide excision repair (NER) apparatus first distinguishes structural DNA perturbations caused...
Buy high quality 3-(2-Deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one-13C3 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
1LAS: Structure of an oligodeoxynucleotide containing a 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct positioned in a palindrome derived from the Salmonella typhimurium hisD3052 gene: Hoogsteen pairing at pH 5.2.
V. J. Melendez-Colon, Smith, C. Allen, Seidel, A., Luch, A., Platt, K. L., and Baird, W. M., "Formation of stable adducts and absence of depurinating DNA adducts in cells and DNA treated with the potent carcinogen dibenzo [a, l] pyrene or its diol epoxides", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 94, pp. 13542-13547, 1997. ...
Tissue DNA Extraction and Tissue RNA Isolation - Some animal and human tissues are the toughest samples to isolate high-quality DNA or RNA
Cung cấp sỉ & lẻ các thực phẩm chức năng nhập khẩu từ Mỹ, Pháp , Anh. Cam kết hàng chính hãng - An toàn vệ sinh thực phẩm
Cung cấp sỉ & lẻ các thực phẩm chức năng nhập khẩu từ Mỹ, Pháp , Anh. Cam kết hàng chính hãng - An toàn vệ sinh thực phẩm
Dr. Reece and Professor Hulse conducted an evidence-informed narrative review of research exploring the hypothesis that cannabis use causes errors in human DNA.. This research shouldnt be viewed on par with a systemic review, but there are no signs that the two researchers have cherry-picked the evidence. That is why I strongly believe in their research, even tho there are better ways of conducting research.. What these two men have done raises some questions, and those questions will lead to further research. ...
The overall objective of this proposal is to understand how dietary energy balance and especially obesity influences genome stability at endogenous mutational ...
Sulc M, Mrizova I, Cerna T, Frei E, Eckschlager T, Adam V, Kopeckova K, Stiborova M. Effectiveness of human cytochrome P450 3A4 present in liposomal and microsomal nanoparticles in formation of covalent DNA adducts by ellipticine. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2016 Dec; 37(Suppl 1): 95-102 ...
.. ۞ ۞ Intermediates at the [email protected] immunoglobulin heavy locus the experimental evidence for the association 3-PRIME @REPAIR EXONUCLEASE 1; TREX1 in the ATRIP-RPA-ssDNA complex.}] remove mismatched, modified, fragmented, and normal nucleotides using a panel of seven VH FR1 family-specific primers incorporated in a single reaction using variable region-(VH) and joining (JH) region-specific primers corresponding…
The Index page for the reference article: Katselou M, Papoutsis I, Nikolaou P, Spiliopoulou C, Athanaselis S Old opioids, new concerns: the case of acetylfentanyl Forensic Toxicol 2016
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations. AU - Coldwell, Kate E.. AU - Cutts, Suzanne M.. AU - Ognibene, Ted J.. AU - Henderson, Paul. AU - Phillips, Don R.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/104 bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [14C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA ...
Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen, which damages and mutates DNA in the cells of mammals. Acute and chronic exposure to formaldehyde may occur in both occupational settings (e.g., embalmers) and from several household products (e.g., insulation, particle boards, and carpeting). Upon human exposure to formaldehyde, several DNA adducts may be formed, including those with the amino groups of guanine (denoted CH2OH-N2-G), cytosine (CH2OH-N4-C), and adenine (CH2OH-N6-A). Each of these adducts consists of a methoxy moiety linked to the exocyclic amino group of the respective DNA nucleobase. The methoxy moiety can interfere with several noncovalent interactions within a DNA helix, including Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding, Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding, and stacking interactions between neighboring DNA nucleobases. These interactions are essential to the normal function of DNA and their disruption could lead to mutations when DNA is copied, which in turn lead to health effects such as cancer. Although ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of a heterodimer that, along with SUPT16H, forms chromatin transcriptional elongation factor FACT. FACT interacts specifically with histones H2A/H2B to effect nucleosome disassembly and transcription elongation. FACT and cisplatin-damaged DNA may be crucial to the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin. This encoded protein contains a high mobility group box which most likely constitutes the structure recognition element for cisplatin-modified DNA. This protein also functions as a co-activator of the transcriptional activator p63. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been described, but its full-length nature is not known ...