Evolution is frequently considered as a directional process in which the organisms do not return, after evolving, to a pre-evolved situation. However, there are occassions in which evolution follows a sort of cycling process. Each time an organism is confronted with a given selective situation follows a similar evolution path. However, once the selection pressure is resumed, the organism is outcompeted by non-evolved partners and the evolved lineage disappears. This type of process has been dubbed as short sighted evolution (Levin and Bull, 1994) and is fundamental for understanding the in host adaptation processes of bacterial opportunistic pathogens.Opportunistic pathogens are a group of microorganisms that do not usually infect healthy hosts but produce infections in hospitals, to immunodepressed persons or those patients presenting underlying diseases as cystic fibrosis, which favours infection (Koch and Hoiby, 1993). Commensal bacteria are among the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens. However
Dogs have, in a few studies, been used as early biomarkers of risk for some human cancers. Indeed, they have a shorter lifespan and they demonstrate no addictive behaviour. In addition, as they are exposed through different routes to pollutants present in air, dust and soil, these pets can be proposed as sentinels for cancers of environmental origins and valuable alarm bells for human risk managers. France, with a population of 8 million dogs, seems adequate for epidemiological studies testing such a hypothesis.. ...
For several reasons, I disagree with Miller on one point: I believe that the downside of this rapid natural selection has not been a certain proportion of exclusively homosexual men but rather a larger proportion of weakly heterosexual men. First, as noted earlier, the genetic predisposition is not acting alone. It seems to be interacting with a more important cause of environmental origin. Second, I have trouble believing that a balanced polymorphism could maintain 3-5% of all men in a state of sexual indifference to women. (I incidentally feel the same way about the gay uncle theory, where the reproductive cost of indifference to women is balanced by care given to related children-the cost seems too high to offset the presumed benefit). Third, I have trouble believing that 3-5% of all men were sexually indifferent to women before the late 19th century. Male homosexuality is attested in earlier time periods but usually in a facultative form, i.e., older heterosexual men having sex with boys ...
Objective: In this review we describe the approach taken by the National Childrens Study (NCS), a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children, to understanding the role of environmental factors in the development of obesity. Data sources and extraction: We review the literature with regard to the two core hypotheses in the NCS that relate to environmental origins of obesity and describe strategies that will be used to test each hypothesis. Data synthesis: Although it is clear that obesity in an individual results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, control of the obesity epidemic will require understanding of factors in the modern built environment and chemical exposures that may have the capacity to disrupt the link between energy intake and expenditure. The NCS is the largest prospective birth cohort study ever undertaken in the United States that is explicitly designed to seek information on the environmental causes of pediatric disease. Conclusions: Through ...
Legionella, the cause of Legionnaires disease, was originally identified after an outbreak at an American Legion Convention in a Philadelphia hotel in 1976 that killed 34 and sickened 221. The bacterium lurks at low levels in natural fresh water sources (such as rivers, lakes and streams) in virtually every part the world, most often with little impact on humans. It becomes hazardous when it survives municipal water treatments and subsequently contaminates and grows in man-made building water systems such as hot tubs, decorative fountains, shower heads and cooling towers. Left undetected in these locations, it can multiply to high concentrations. People become sickened after inhaling contaminated aerosol droplets generated from these sources.. Unlike most other pneumonias caused by microorganisms, this disease is not transmitted person-to-person; it is purely of environmental origin.. The only way to determine whether a water source is a high-risk Legionella-contaminated system is to take ...
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The mission of MCS America (MCSA) is to propagate medical, legal, and social recognition for multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) as a disorder of organic biological origin induced by toxic environmental insults; to provide support and referral services to the individuals with all illnesses of environmental origin; and to ensure that environmental toxicants are identified, reduced, regulated, and enforced through lobbying for effective legislation. © MCS America. ...
The mission of MCS America (MCSA) is to propagate medical, legal, and social recognition for multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) as a disorder of organic biological origin induced by toxic environmental insults; to provide support and referral services to the individuals with all illnesses of environmental origin; and to ensure that environmental toxicants are identified, reduced, regulated, and enforced through lobbying for effective legislation. © MCS America. ...
How To Avoid Skin Infections At The Gym.. Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA) utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc.) within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water). Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential ...
Herceg Z, Ghantous A, Wild CP, Sklias A, Casati L, Duthie SJ, Fry R, Issa JP, Kellermayer R, Koturbash I, Kondo Y, Lepeule J, Lima SC, Marsit CJ, Rakyan V, Saffery R, Taylor JA, Teschendorff AE, Ushijima T, Vineis P, Walker CL, Waterland RA, Wiemels J, Ambatipudi S, Degli Esposti D, Hernandez-Vargas H. Roadmap for investigating epigenome deregulation and environmental origins of cancer. International journal of cancer. 2018 Aug 24;142(5):874-82 ...
Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA) utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc.) within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water). Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella,
Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction by Ian Deary (Oxford University Press, 2001) The Genetic and Environmental Origins of Learning Abilities and Disabilities in the Early School Years by Yulia Kovas and others (Blackwell, 2007) The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability by Arthur Jensen (Praeger, 1998) Correcting Fallacies about Educational and Psychological Testing edited by Richard Phelps (American Psychological Association, 2009) Intelligence, vol 24(1) (special issue called Intelligence and Social Policy) Intelligence, vol 37(2) (special issue called Intelligence and the Brain) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol 86, p 96 (the Special Section on Cognitive Abilities). ...