Evolution is frequently considered as a directional process in which the organisms do not return, after evolving, to a pre-evolved situation. However, there are occassions in which evolution follows a sort of cycling process. Each time an organism is confronted with a given selective situation follows a similar evolution path. However, once the selection pressure is resumed, the organism is outcompeted by non-evolved partners and the evolved lineage disappears. This type of process has been dubbed as short sighted evolution (Levin and Bull, 1994) and is fundamental for understanding the in host adaptation processes of bacterial opportunistic pathogens.Opportunistic pathogens are a group of microorganisms that do not usually infect healthy hosts but produce infections in hospitals, to immunodepressed persons or those patients presenting underlying diseases as cystic fibrosis, which favours infection (Koch and Hoiby, 1993). Commensal bacteria are among the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens. However
Dogs have, in a few studies, been used as early biomarkers of risk for some human cancers. Indeed, they have a shorter lifespan and they demonstrate no addictive behaviour. In addition, as they are exposed through different routes to pollutants present in air, dust and soil, these pets can be proposed as sentinels for cancers of environmental origins and valuable alarm bells for human risk managers. France, with a population of 8 million dogs, seems adequate for epidemiological studies testing such a hypothesis.. ...
For several reasons, I disagree with Miller on one point: I believe that the downside of this rapid natural selection has not been a certain proportion of exclusively homosexual men but rather a larger proportion of weakly heterosexual men. First, as noted earlier, the genetic predisposition is not acting alone. It seems to be interacting with a more important cause of environmental origin. Second, I have trouble believing that a balanced polymorphism could maintain 3-5% of all men in a state of sexual indifference to women. (I incidentally feel the same way about the gay uncle theory, where the reproductive cost of indifference to women is balanced by care given to related children-the cost seems too high to offset the presumed benefit). Third, I have trouble believing that 3-5% of all men were sexually indifferent to women before the late 19th century. Male homosexuality is attested in earlier time periods but usually in a facultative form, i.e., older heterosexual men having sex with boys ...
Objective: In this review we describe the approach taken by the National Childrens Study (NCS), a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children, to understanding the role of environmental factors in the development of obesity. Data sources and extraction: We review the literature with regard to the two core hypotheses in the NCS that relate to environmental origins of obesity and describe strategies that will be used to test each hypothesis. Data synthesis: Although it is clear that obesity in an individual results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, control of the obesity epidemic will require understanding of factors in the modern built environment and chemical exposures that may have the capacity to disrupt the link between energy intake and expenditure. The NCS is the largest prospective birth cohort study ever undertaken in the United States that is explicitly designed to seek information on the environmental causes of pediatric disease. Conclusions: Through ...
Legionella, the cause of Legionnaires disease, was originally identified after an outbreak at an American Legion Convention in a Philadelphia hotel in 1976 that killed 34 and sickened 221. The bacterium lurks at low levels in natural fresh water sources (such as rivers, lakes and streams) in virtually every part the world, most often with little impact on humans. It becomes hazardous when it survives municipal water treatments and subsequently contaminates and grows in man-made building water systems such as hot tubs, decorative fountains, shower heads and cooling towers. Left undetected in these locations, it can multiply to high concentrations. People become sickened after inhaling contaminated aerosol droplets generated from these sources.. Unlike most other pneumonias caused by microorganisms, this disease is not transmitted person-to-person; it is purely of environmental origin.. The only way to determine whether a water source is a high-risk Legionella-contaminated system is to take ...
After qualifying in 1953, John Mew studied Maxilo-facial surgery, before moving to orthodontics in 1965. For many years he remained very much within the establishment becoming president of the Southern Counties Branch of the British Dental Association in 1971. He was honoured with life membership of the British Dental Association in 1999.. His surgical training at East Grinstead gave him the opportunity to study occlusal and TMD problems. He also observed the facial changes that followed the repositioning of its skeletal components; especially the Maxilla. Noticing that many facial problems appeared to have environmental origins, he became interested in early facial growth and the factors which might influence it.. In 1958 he put forward the Tropic Premise which suggested that malocclusion was a Postural Deformity and that irregular teeth were not necessarily inherited. He became concerned that the mechanics of orthodontic treatment could be harmful to facial growth, and over the subsequent ...
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The mission of MCS America (MCSA) is to propagate medical, legal, and social recognition for multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) as a disorder of organic biological origin induced by toxic environmental insults; to provide support and referral services to the individuals with all illnesses of environmental origin; and to ensure that environmental toxicants are identified, reduced, regulated, and enforced through lobbying for effective legislation. © MCS America. ...
The mission of MCS America (MCSA) is to propagate medical, legal, and social recognition for multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) as a disorder of organic biological origin induced by toxic environmental insults; to provide support and referral services to the individuals with all illnesses of environmental origin; and to ensure that environmental toxicants are identified, reduced, regulated, and enforced through lobbying for effective legislation. © MCS America. ...
Background. Growing evidence exists about the fetal and environmental origins of hypertension, but mainly limited to single-exposure studies. The exposome has been proposed as a more holistic approach by studying many exposures simultaneously. Objectives. This study aims to evaluate the association between a wide range of prenatal and postnatal exposures and blood pressure (BP) in children. Methods. Systolic and diastolic BP were measured among 1,277 children from the European HELIX (Human Early-Life Exposome) cohort aged 6 to 11 years. Prenatal (n = 89) and postnatal (n = 128) exposures include air pollution, built environment, meteorology, natural spaces, traffic, noise, chemicals, and lifestyles. Two methods adjusted for confounders were applied: an exposome-wide association study considering the exposures independently, and the deletion-substitution-addition algorithm considering all the exposures simultaneously. Results. Decreases in systolic BP were observed with facility density (β ...
The development of skin problems can have a genetic, microbial or environmental origin. Skin conditions may also result from an abnormal response to external irritants such as soaps or allergens.. It occurs due to an excessive reaction by the bodys immune system to specific stimuli (allergies, for example), if there is contact with toxins or irritating substances, and finally because of genetic inheritance from family members.. Other factors that encourage skin issues are lack of sleep, and occasional outbreaks from numbing creams and ointments used to relieve itching.. Its vital to take care of your skin by washing it daily with gentle soaps, moisturizing after you shower, and regularly using protective sunscreen on exposed areas when you go outside. It is also advisable to seek online doctor consultation if the condition worsens.. 5 Common Skin Problems And Their Treatments. Countless skin conditions affect us. Here are the five most common skin problems anyone might face.. ...
Herceg Z, Ghantous A, Wild CP, Sklias A, Casati L, Duthie SJ, Fry R, Issa JP, Kellermayer R, Koturbash I, Kondo Y, Lepeule J, Lima SC, Marsit CJ, Rakyan V, Saffery R, Taylor JA, Teschendorff AE, Ushijima T, Vineis P, Walker CL, Waterland RA, Wiemels J, Ambatipudi S, Degli Esposti D, Hernandez-Vargas H. Roadmap for investigating epigenome deregulation and environmental origins of cancer. International journal of cancer. 2018 Aug 24;142(5):874-82 ...
How To Avoid Skin Infections At The Gym.. Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA) utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc.) within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water). Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential ...
Aspergillus fumigatus is considered a common causative agent of human fungal infections. A restricted number of virulence factors have been described, and none of them lead to a differentiation in the virulence level among different strains. Variations in the virulence phenotype depending on the isolate origin, measured as survival percentage in animal infection models, have been previously reported. In this study, we analyzed the whole-genome sequence of A. fumigatus isolates from clinical and environmental origins to determine their virulence genetic content. The sample included four isolates sequenced at the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), three clinical (two of them isolated from the same patient) and the experimental strain B5233, and the draft genomes of one reference strain, two environmental and two clinical isolates obtained from a public database. The fungal genomes were screened for the presence of virulence-related genes (VRGs) using an in-house database of 244 genes related to
Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA) utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc.) within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water). Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella,
Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction by Ian Deary (Oxford University Press, 2001) The Genetic and Environmental Origins of Learning Abilities and Disabilities in the Early School Years by Yulia Kovas and others (Blackwell, 2007) The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability by Arthur Jensen (Praeger, 1998) Correcting Fallacies about Educational and Psychological Testing edited by Richard Phelps (American Psychological Association, 2009) Intelligence, vol 24(1) (special issue called Intelligence and Social Policy) Intelligence, vol 37(2) (special issue called Intelligence and the Brain) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol 86, p 96 (the Special Section on Cognitive Abilities). ...
Al harboured the same genotype of multi-triazole resistant A. fumigatus, isolated on two different occasions which raises concern on the exposure of hospitalized patients to this resistant genotype. In this context it is pertinent to mention that previously multi-triazole resistant TR34/L98H A. KS 176 biological activity fumigatus isolates have been reported from patients attending the outpatient departments of VPCI who were never exposed to azoles [22]. In addition multi-triazole resistant A. fumigatus has also been isolated from admitted patients of VPCI. The presence of A. fumigatus resistant to medical triazoles poses a threat to immunocompromised patients as alternative therapy is limited. Snelders et al. reported that TR34/L98H isolates from clinical and environmental origins were cross resistant to five triazole DMIs fungicides, propiconazole, bromuconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and difenoconazole and thus supporting the hypothesis that exposure of A. fumigatus to azole fungicides ...
A peek behind the paper: Digital droplet PCR and IDAA for the detection of CRISPR indel edits in the malaria species Anopheles stephensi